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GREAT BRITAIN, with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Third Edition. 1894. 10 marks. 

LONDON and ITS ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 18 Plans. 

Ninth Edition. 1894. 6 marks 

THE UNITED STATES, with an Excursion into Mexico. 

With 17 Maps and 22 Plans. 1893. 12 marks. 

THE DOMINION OF CANADA, with Newfoundland and 

ALASKA. With 10 Maps and 7 Plans. 18„4. 5 marks. 

BELGIUM AND HOLLAND, with 13 Maps and 21 Plans. 


Eleventh Edition. 1894 


Maps and 


Eleventh 1 


30 Plans. 


oramas. ' 


Second Ec 




a Panoran 


Eleventh 1 


15 Plans, ana 'Z iranorainatj 

6 marks. 

Constance, with 39 

7 marks. 

aps and 56 Plans. 

8 marks. 

., with 15 Maps and 

8 marks. 

2 Plans, and 7 Pan- 

8 marks. 

Panorama of Athens. 

8 marks. 

rn, Florence, Ra- 

Sdition. 1895. 8 marks. 

Maps, 33 Plans, and 
893. 6 marks. 

i Maps and 1 6 Plans. 

6 marks. 

K, with 26 Maps, 

1892. 10 marks, 

riltu r.uiuuii, 

PARIS and its ENVIRONS, with Routes from London 

TOPARIS. With 12 Maps and33Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1894. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN FRANCE, with 9 Maps and 27 Plans. Second 

Edition. 1894. 7..'marks. 

SOUTHERN FRANCE, with 14 Maps and 19 Plans. 1891. 

9 marks . 

SWITZERLAND, with 39 Maps, 12 Plans, and 12 Panoramas. 

Fifteenth Edition. 1893. 8 marks. 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Peninsula of Sinai, with 14 

Maps, 32 Plans, and 7 Views. Third Edition. 1895. 12 marks. 

UPPER EGYPT, and Nubia as far as the Second Cata- 
ract. With 11 Maps and 2G Plans. 1892. 10 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 17 Maps, 44 Plans, and a 

Panorama of Jerusalem. Second Edition. 1894. 12 marks. 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four languages. Eng- 

lish, French, German, Italian. 3 marks. 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 


(Comp. p. xi.") 

Approximate Equivalents. 







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Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French metre system has been in use throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglio.) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly »/« ths, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds -the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. ' 


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With 26 Maps and 29 Plans 




All rights reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy piayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
"Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 


The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists of 
three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the trav- 
eller with some information regarding the culture and art of 
the people he is about to visit, as well as regarding the nat- 
ural features of the country, to render him as independent as 
possible of the services of guides and valets-de-place, to pro- 
tect him against extortion, and in every way to aid him in 
deriving enjoyment and instruction from his tour in one of 
the most fascinating countries in the world. The Handbook 
will also , it is hoped , be the means of saving the traveller 
many a trial of temper; for there are few countries where 
the patience is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is founded on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from correspondents , which he gratefully 
acknowledges , has in many cases proved most serviceable. 

The present volume, corresponding to the fourteenth Ger- 
man edition, has, like its predecessor, been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented. Its contents have been divided 
into groups of routes arranged historically and geographically 
(Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy , Venetia , The Emilia, and 
Tuscany), each group being provided with a prefatory outline 
of the history of the district. Each section is also prefaced 
with a list of the routes it contains, and may be removed 
from the volume and used separately if desired. 

The introductory article on Art, which has special re- 
ference to Northern Italy and Florence, and the art-historical 
notices prefixed to the descriptions of the larger towns and 
principal picture-galleries are due to the late Professor Anton 


Springer, of Leipzig. In the descriptions of individual pic- 
tures, the works oiMorelli, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and Burck- 
hardt have been laid extensively under contribution, and also 
occasionally those of Ruskin and others. 

The Maps and Plans , upon which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. =■ 0,3048 
metre) , and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii) . The 
Populations are given from the most recent official sources. 

Hotels (comp. p. xviii). Besides the modern palatial and 
expensive establishments, the Handbook also mentions a se- 
lection of modest, old-fashioned inns, which not unfrequently 
afford good accommodation at moderate charges. The asterisks 
indicate those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe 
from his own experience, as well as from information supplied 
by numerous travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reason- 
able. The value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, 
varies according to circumstances, those prefixed to town 
hotels and village inns signifying respectively that the 
establishments are good of their kind. At the same time the 
Editor does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasion- 
ally be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or 
even mentioned. The average charges are stated in accord- 
ance with the Editor's own experience, or from the bills 
furnished to him by travellers. Although changes frequently 
take place , and prices generally have an upward tendency, 
the approximate statement of these items which is thus 
supplied will at least enable the traveller to form. an estimate 
of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly ex- 
cluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for 
Baedeker's Handbooks. 


Introduction. „ 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xii 

III. Language xiv 

IV- Passports. Custom House. Luggage xiv 

V. Public Safety. Beggars xv 

VI. Gratuities. Guides xv 

VII. Railways. Steam Tramways xvi 

VIII. Hotels xviii 

LX. Restaurants, Cafe's, Osteiie xx 

X. Sights, Theatres, Shops, etc xxii 

XI. Post Office. TelegTaph xxiii 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health, 

by Br. Hermann Reimer xxiv 

History of Art, by Prof. A. Springer xxix 

Route L Routes to Italy. Page 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis 1 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola 3 

3. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como (Milan) . . 4 

4. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen 13 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 15 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 19 

II. Piedmont 23 

7. Turin 25 

8. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur. Excursion to the 

GTaian Alps 38 

9. The Alpine Valleys to the "West of Turin 48 

10. From Turin to Nice via the Col di Tenda 49 

11. From Turin to Genoa 53 

12. From Bellinzona to Genoa 57 

13. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria 59 

14. From Turin to Milan vii Novara 59 

III. Liguria 63 

15. Genoa 65 

16. From Genoa to Ventimiglia 80 

17. The French Coast from Ventimiglia to Cannes 88 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 104 

IV. Lombardy 113 

19. Milan 115 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco 140 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 145 

22. Lake of Como 147 


Route Page 

23. From Menaggio on the Lake of Oomo via, Lugano to Luino 

on the Lago Maggiore 155 

24. From Milan to Laveno and Arona 157 

25. Lago Maggiore 161 

26. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta 170 

27. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera 173 

28. From Milan to Mantua via. Cremona 176 

29. From Milan to Bergamo 179 

30. From Milan to Verona 183 

31. Brescia 185 

32. The Lago di Garda 191 

33. From Brescia to Edolo. Lago d'Iseo 196 

V. Venetia 199 

34. Verona 201 

35. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 213 

36. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 219 

37. Padua 224 

38. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 232 

39. Venice 234 

40. From Venice to Trieste 291 

VI. The Emilia 296 

41. From Milan to Bologna. Piacenza. Reggio 299 

42. Parma 304 

43. Modena 311 

44. From Padua to Bologna 314 

45. Ferrara 317 

46. Bologna 323 

47. From Bologna to Florence 341 

48. From Bologna to Ravenna 342 

49. From Ravenna (or Bologna) to Florence via Faenza . . . 353 

VII. Tuscany 355 

50. From (Genoa) Leghorn to Florence via Pisa and Empoli 358 

51. Pisa 361 

52. From Pisa to Florence via Lucca and Pistoja 373 

53. Florence 387 

54. Environs of Florence 470 

List of Artists 485 

Index 493 


1. General Map of North Italy (1 : 1,350,000), Western Half: 
before the title. 

2. General Map of North Italy, Eastern Half: after the Index 

3. The Environs of Lugano (1 : 150,000) : p. 10. 

MAPS. ix 

4. The Eastern Environs of Turin (1 : 66,200) : p. 27. 

5. The Qraian Alps (1 : 250,000) : p. 44. 

6. The Environs of Genoa (1 : 100,000) : p. 80. 

7-8. The Riviera di Ponente from Genoa to Mentone (1 : 500,000) : 

pp. 81, 85. 
9. The Environs of Mentone (1 : 114,000) : p. 93. 

10. The Environs of Nice (1 : 114,000) : p. 102. 

1 1. The Riviera di Levante from Genoa to Spezia (1 : 500,000) : p. 104. 

12. The Environs of Rapallo (Recco-Chiavari ; 1 : 100,000) : p. 106. 

13. The Environs of Spezia (1 : 100,000) : p. 108. 

14. The Environs of Pavia (1 : 86,400) : p. 140. 

15. Railway and Tramway Map of the Environs of Milan (1 : 500,000) : 
p. 141. 

16. The Environs of Como (1.: 28,000) : p. 142. 

17. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (1 : 250,000) : p. 146. 

18. Lago Maggiore and Lago d'Orta (1 : 250,000) : p. 166. 

19. The Environs of Pallama (1 : 65,000) : p. 166. 

20. The Environs of Stresa (1 : 65,000) : p. 167. 

21. Lago di Garda (1 : 500,000) : p. 191. 

22. The Environs of Bologna (1 : 86,400) : p. 342. 

23. The Environs of Ravenna (1 : 86,400) : p. 343. 

24. The Environs of Florence (1 : 55,000) : p. 470. 

25. Environs of Vallombrosa, Camaldoli, and La Verna, with the 
Casentino (1 : 280,000): p. 478. 

26. Key Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000) : at the end of the Handbook. 

Flans of Towns. 
1. Bergamo (1 : 25,000). — 2. Bologna (1 : 13,350). —3. Brescia 
(1 : 18,300). — 4. Cremona (1 : 15,000). — 5. Ferrara (1 : 20,000). 

— 6. Florence (1 : 10,000). — 7. Genoa (1 : 10,000). — 8. Leghorn 
(1 : 36,800). — 9. Lucca (1 : 27,000). — 10. Lugano (1 : 16,600). 

— 11. Mantua (1 : 18,000). — 12. Mentone (1:33,000). — IS. 
Milan (1 : 17,500). — 14. Modena (1 : 12,000). — 15. Nice 
(1 : 19,000). — 16. Novara (1 : 12,500). — 17. Padua{l : 16,700). 

— 18. Parma (1 • 13,000). — 19. Pavia (1 : 20,000). — 20. Pia- 
cenza{i: 20,000).— 21. Pisa(i : 8500). — 22. Pistoja (1 : 15,600). 

— 23. Ravenna (1 : 11,150). — 24. Reggio (1 : 14,000), with En- 
virons. — 25. San Remo (1 : 17,100). — 26. Turin (1 : 23,500). — 

27. Venice (1 : 12,500), with Environs. — 28. Verona (1 : 11,500). 

— 29. Vicenza (1:18,000). 

Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. — March 22. Charles Albert enter3 
Milan. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. Insurrection at 
Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('ReBomba'). — May 29. Radetzky's 
victory at Curtatone. — May 30. Radetzky defeated at Goito; capit- 


ulation of Peschiera. — July 25. Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

— Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. — Aug. 9. Armistice. — 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. — Nov. 25. Flight of the 
Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — Feb. 17. Republic pro- 
claimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. — March 16. Charles Albert 
terminates the armistice (ten days' campaign). — March 23. Radetzky's 
victory at Novara. — Mar. 24. Charles Albert abdicates ; accession of 
Victor Emmanuel II. — Mar. 26. Armistice ; Alessandria occupied 
by the Austrians. — Mar. 31. Haynau conquers Brescia. — April 5. 
Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. — Apr. 11. Reaction 
at Florence. — Apr. 30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 

— May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. — July 4. Rome capitulates. — 
Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. — Aug. 22. 
Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. — 
June 24. Battle of Solferino. — July 11. Meeting of the emperors 
at Villafranca. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Romagna). — 
Mar. 22. Annexation of Tuscany. — Mar. 24. Cession of Savoy and 
Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. — May 27. Taking of 
Palermo. — July 20. Battle of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters 
Naples. — Sept. 18. Battle of Castelfidardo. — Sept. 29. Ancona ca- 
pitulates. — Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite 
at Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, and 
the two Sicilies. 

1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. — March 17. 
Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of king of Italy. — June 6. 
Death of Cavour. 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. — July 20. 
Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana.* 

1870. Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops. — Oct. 9. Rome 

declared the capital of Italy. 
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession of Humbert I. — 

Feb. 7. Death uf Pius IX. — Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII. 


M. = Engl. mile. 

hr. = hour. 

min. = minute. 

Alb. = Albergo (hotel). 

Omn. = omnibus. 

N. = north, northwards, northern. 

S. = south, etc. 

E. = east, etc. 

W. = west, etc. 

R. = room. 

B. = breakfast. 

D. = dinner. 

A. = attendance. 

L. = light. 

dej. = dejeuner 'a la fourchette'. 

pens. = pension. 

Distances. The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway 
or high-road Indicates its distance in English miles from the starting- 
point of the route or sub-route. The number of feet given after the name 
of a place shows its height above the sea-level. The letter d, with a date 
after the name of a person, indicates the year of his death. ' 

Astekisks. Objects of special interest, and hotels which are believed 
worthy of special commendation , are denoted by asterisks. 


' Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.* 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits, hut, as a rule, it need not exceed 
that incurred in other much-frequented parts of the continent. The 
average expenditure of a single traveller, when in Italy, may be 
estimated at 25-30 francs per day, or at 12-15 francs when a pro- 
longed stay is made at one place ; but persons acquainted with the 
language and habits of the country may easily restrict their ex- 
penses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as members of a 
party effect a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, 
carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark (comp. p. ii). In copper (bronzo 
or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi, while a piece 
of 20 c. in nickel was introduced in 1894. In silver there are pieces 
of 72) 1) % an ^ 5 fr., and in gold pieces of 10 and 20 fr. In con- 
sequence of the present financial stringency, however, the gold coins 
have disappeared almost entirely, and the silver coins largely, from 
circulation. Gold coins should be changed for notes at a money- 
changer's, as the premium (ca. 16 per cent) is lost in hotels and 
shops. A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo, or sou, and as the lower 
classes often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller will find it 
useful to accustom himself to this mode of reckoning. The gold 
and silver coins of France, Switzerland, Greece, and Belgium are 
accepted in Italy at their full value , buf Italian silver coins do not 
circulate outside of Italy. The traveller should be on his guard 
against base coin, worn pieces, Swiss silver coins with the seated 
figure of Helvetia, coins from the papal mint, and South American 
and Roumanian coins, which cannot be parted with except at a loss, 
and he should also refuse Greek copper coins and torn notes. Even 
Italian gold coins issued before 1863 ('Re eletto') are not current. 
The recognized paper currency in Italy consists of the Biglietti di 
Stato (treasury notes) for 1, 2, 5, and 10 fr., and the banknotes of 

xii SEASON. 

the Banco, d'ltalia, the Banco di Napoli, and the Banco di Sicilia. 
Other notes, including those of the Banca Nazionale and the Banco, 
di Toscana (now being -withdrawn from circulation), should be 

Best Monet fok the Tode. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, ob- 
tainable at the principal English or American banks, form the proper 
medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the most favourable 
exchange. English and German banknotes also realise their nominal 
value. Sovereigns are received at the full value (about 28-29 fr. in 1894) 
by the principal hotel-keepers, but not in out of-the-way places. It may 
prove convenient to procure a small supply of Italian paper-money before 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in the 
larger towns , either at one of the English bankers or at a respectable 
money-changer's ^cambiaval-uta"). As a rule, those money-changers are 
the most satisfactory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of 
exchange. The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of small notes, at it is often difficult to change those of large 
amount. Besides the small notes, I-IV2 fr. in copper should also be carried 
in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10!., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : up to 21., 6d. ; 
51., Is.; 71., Is. Gd. ; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The identity of 
the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed by two well-known residents, 
or by a Libretto di Ricognizione Postale (1 fr. ; with 10 coupons), obtained 
at any head post-office , but an exhibition of the passport often suffices. 
The charge for money-orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 
40c. per ll. sterling. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 

Season. As a general rule the spring and autumn months are 
the best season for a tour in N. Italy , especially April and May or 
September and October. Winter in Lombardy and Piedmont is 
generally a much colder season than it is in England, but Nice and 
the whole of the Riviera, Pisa, and Venice afford pleasant and 
sheltered quarters. The height of summer can hardly be recom- 
mended for travelling. The scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, 
and the long days are hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising 
traveller ; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to im- 
pair the physical and mental energies. 

Plan. The following short itinerary , beginning and ending at 
Milan, though very far from exhausting the beauties of N. Italy 
includes most of the places usually visited , with the time required 
for a glimpse at each. 


Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, R. 27) 2'/j 
To the Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, and Logo Maggiore (BR. 22 

23, 25) and on to Turin ' 2V2 

Turin (R. 7) '.'.'.'. 1 

From Turin to Genoa (R. 11) 1/2 

Genoa (R. 15), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 81) 2 

Via Spezia to Pisa, see R. 18 ; Pisa (R. 51) ' \iu 

Via Lucca and Pistoja to Florence, see R. 52 . . . . ^ 

Florence (R. 53) 6 

From Florence to Fcmnza and Ravenna (R. 49) , iu 

Ravenna (R. 48) ] \ 



From Eavenna to Bologna (R. 48) 1/2 

Bologna (R. 46) l'/s 

From Bologna via Ferrara (R. 44) to Padua, see B.. 44 .... 1 

[Or to Modena (B. 43) and Parma (R. 42), see R. 41 1' ,'j 

From Modena via Mantua to Verona (see R. 35) and via Vicenza 

to Padua (see R. 36)] I'/j] 

Padua (R. 37), and thence to Venice .1 

Venice (R. 39) 4 

From Venice (via Vicenza) to Fer-ona (R. 34), see R. 36 .... 2 
[Excursion to Mantua (p. 214), when the way from Modena to Verona 

via Mantua is not adopted V2] 

Lago di Garda (R. 32) l'/i 

From Desenzano via. Brescia (R. 31) and Bergamo toMilan (RR. 30, 29) 1 
To those who wish to -visit only a part of North Italy (whether 
the eastern or western), the following itineraries may be recom- 
mended : — 

a. Eastern Part, starting from the Brenner Railway. Days 

From Trent or Mori to Riva (p. 194), Lago di Garda (R. 32) . . . IV2 

Verona (R. 34) 1 

Excursion to Mantua (p. 214) V2 

From Verona via. Vicenza (p. 218) to Padua 1 

Padua (R. 37), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 39) 4 

From Venice via. Ferrara (R. 45) to Bologna 1 

Bologna (R. 46) l»/ 2 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 48) 1 

From Bologna to Modena (R. 43) and Parma (R. 42), see R. 41 . . l'/s 

From Parma via Piacenza (p. 300) to Milan >/ 2 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Gertosa, R. 27.) . . . 2>/2 
£ogro Maggiore, Lago di Lugano, Lago di Como (RR. 25, 23, 25), and 

from Lecco via, Bergamo and Brescia (R. 31) to Verona . . . 3'/a 

b. Western Part, starting from the St. Gotthard, Splugen, or Simplon. 

Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 23, 25) . 2 

Milan (R. 19) 2 

From Milan to Turin (R. 14) 1 

Turin (R. 7), and thence to Genoa (R. 11) 1 

Genoa (R. 15), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 81) . 1 

Excursion to Nice (BR. 16, 17) 3 

From Genoa via. Novi, Voghera, and Pavia (Cerlosa, R. 27) to Milan IV2 

The traveller entering Italy for the first time should do so, if 
the season he favourable, not by rail, but by one of the Alpine passes 
(Spliigen, Simplon, etc.), as only thus will he obtain an adequate 
idea of the full ethnographical significance of the Alps, whioh 
conceal so new and so strange a world from northern Europe. The 
luxurious character of the Italian climate, vegetation, and scenery, 
the soft richness of the language, and the courtly manners of the 
upper classes all present a striking contrast to the harsher and 
rougher characteristics of German Switzerland or the Tyrol. On no 
account, however, should he traverse these passes at night, and he 
should always inform himself beforehand of the condition of the 
diligence, and raise an energetic protest against broken windows 
and similar inconveniences. In spring it is advisable to wear co- 


loured spectacles as a precaution against the dazzling reflection 
from the extensive snow-fields (p. xxvii). 

III. Language. 

It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian and 
French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such tra- 
vellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, and who dislike being im- 
posed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country 
is indispensable. Those who know a little Italian , and who take 
the usual precaution of ascertaining charges beforehand {con- 
trattare , bargain) in the smaller hotels , in dealings with drivers, 
gondoliers, guides, etc., and in shops, will rarely meet with attempts 
at extortion in North Italy. + 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The count- 
enance and help of the English and American consuls can, of course, 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained through C. Smith & Son, 
63 Charing Cross, Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand, E. Stanford, 26 Cock- 
spur Street, Charing Cross, or W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street (charge 2s. ; 
agent's fee It. Gd.). 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
frontier railway-stations is generally lenient, but complaints are 
sometimes made as to a deficiency of official courtesy at diligence- 
stations. Tobacco and cigars (only six pass free) are the articles 
chiefly sought for. The custom-house receipts should be preser- 
ved, as travellers are sometimes challenged by the excise officials 
in the interior. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax 
(dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles , but travellers' luggage is 

3 + A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons un- 
acquainted with the language. C before e and t is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and jrA, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
H is silent. The vowels «, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi). 'Voi 1 is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., Hu' 
by those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode 
of address among the Neapolitans, but elsewhere is generally regarded as 
inelegant or discourteous. 


passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on a simple declaration that 
it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible , luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods-train , as it is liable to damage , pilferage , and undue 
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in 
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end 
less expensive , never to part from one's luggage , and to super- 
intend the custom-house examination in person (comp. p xvii). 

Y. Public Safety. Beggars. 

Public Safety in North Italy is on as stable a footing as to the 
N. of the Alps. Travellers will naturally avoid lonely quarters 
after night-fall. The policeman in the town is called Quardia; 
the gend'arme in the country , Carabiniere (black coat with red 
facings and cocked hats). No one may carry weapons without a 
licence. Concealed weapons (sword-sticks ; even knives with spring- 
blades, etc.) are absolutely prohibited. 

Begging still continues to be one of those national nuisances 
to which the traveller must accustom himself. It is most prevalent 
at church-doors , but has also begun to increase again on roads and 
streets. If a donation be bestowed, it should consist of the smallest 
possible copper coin (2 c. or at most 5 a). 

VI. Gratuities. Guides. 

Gratuities. — The traveller should always be abundantly 
supplied with copper coin in a country where trilling donations 
are in constant demand. Drivers, guides, and other persons of the 
same class invariably expect, and often demand as their right, a 
gratuity (buona memo , mancia, da bere , sigaro) in addition to the 
hire agreed on , varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous 
to a franc or more. The traveller need have no scruple in 
limiting his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
frequently becomes a source of annoyance and embarassment. 
Thus , if half-a-franc is bestowed where two sous would have 
sufficed, the fact speedily becomes known, and the donor is sure 
to be besieged by numerous other applicants whose demands it 
is impossible to satisfy. The following hints will be found useful 
by the average tourist. In private collections a single visitor should 
bestow a gratuity of i/ 2 fr., 2-3 pers. 3/ 4 , 4 pers. 1 fr. For repeated 
visits half as much. For opening a church-door, etc., 10-20 c. 
is enough, but if extra services are rendered (e.g. uncovering an 
altar-piece, lighting candles, etc.) from 1 / i to 1 fr. may be given. 
The Custodi of all public collections where an admission-fee is 
chaTged are forbidden to accept gratuities. 

In hotels and restaurants about 5-10 per cent of the reckoning 


should be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for. When 
'service' and 'couvert' appear on the hill, no fees should be given. 

Valets de Place (Guide, sing, la Ouida) may be hired at 5-7 fr. 
per day. The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief 
hotels. In some towns the better guides have formed societies as 
'Guide patentate'. Their services may generally well be dispensed 
with by those who are not pressed for time. Purchases should never 
be made , nor contracts with vetturini or other persons drawn up, 
in presence or with the aid of a commissionnaire, as any such inter- 
vention tends considerably to increase the prices. 

In Venice, etc., parties are frequently formed by the guides , who 
undertake to conduct them to all the sights at a charge of 4 fr. each per- 
son, which includes gondola-fares and fees, but, as the number is un- 
limited, the members of the party lose their independence. A party of 
2-6 persons will And it far preferable to have a guide at their own dis- 
posal (fee about 20 fr. per day, including everything). 

VII. Railways and Steam Tramways. 

Railways. — Northern Italy is now overspread with so com- 
plete a network of railways that the traveller will seldom use any 
other conveyance , except on the Alpine routes and on the lakes. 
The rate of travelling is very moderate , rarely reaching 30 M. per 
hour. The first-class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second 
are inferior to those of the German railways, and resemble the 
English and French , while the third class is chiefly frequented by 
the lower orders. Separate first and second-class compartments are 
reserved for ladies. Sleeping-carriages (coupe a letti) are provided on 
all the main lines at a small extra charge. Eailway time is that 
of Central Europe. 

Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller will soon 
become familiar are — '■pronW (ready), '■partenza' (departure), 'si cambia 
treni' (change carriages), 'essere in coineidenzcC (to make connection), and 
i uicita' (egress). The station-master is called k capostazione'. Smoking 
compartments are labelled 'pei fumatori\ tho«e for non-smokers '£ vietato 
di fumare'. The fastest mail trains are called Trent Direttissimi (1st and 
2nd class only) and the ordinary expresses Trent Diretli. The Treni Accele- 
rati are somewhat faster than the Treni Omnibus. The Treni Misti are 
composed partly of passenger carriages and partly of goods-waggons. The 
fares are about 4 /s d. per mile for third class, l^iod. for second class 
and i 3 /$d. for first class. ' 

When about to start from a crowded station , the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets. 'Mistakes' are far from uncommon on the 
paTt of the ticket-clerks. In addition to the fare , a tax of 5 c. is 
payable on each ticket, and the express fares are 10 per cent higher 
than the ordinary. It is also very important to be at the station 
early. The ticket-office at large stations is open 1 hr. at small 
stations V4 _1 /2 nr - before the departure of the train. Holders of 
tickets alone have the right of admission to the waiting-rooms. At 
the end of the journey tickets are given up at the usctta. 


Passengers by night-trains from the larger stations may hire pillows 
(cuscino, guanciale ; 1 fr.). These must not be removed from the compartment. 
The traveller should, if possible, know the weight of his lug- 
gage approximately , in older to guard against imposition (1 kilo- 
gramme = about 2 l / 5 lbs.). No luggage is allowed free, except 
small articles taken by the passenger into his carriage ; the rate of 
charge is 4y 2 c. for 100 kilogrammes per kilometre. The luggage- 
ticket is called lo scontrino. Porters who convey luggage to and 
from the carriages aTe sufficiently paid with a few sous , where 
there is no fixed tariff; and their impudent attempts at extortion 
should be firmly resisted. Travellers who can confine their imp d- 
imenta to articles which they can carry themselves and take into 
the carriages with them will be spared muih expense and annoyance. 
Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, especially 
when the town or village lies at a considerable distance from the 
railway, had better leave their heavier luggage at the station till 
their return (dare in deposito , or depositare ; 5 e. per day for each 
piece, minimum 10 c). Luggage, however , may be sent on to the 
final destination , though the traveller himself break the journey. 
On alighting at small stations , the traveller should at once look 
after his luggage in person. 

During the last few years an extraordinary number of robberies of pass- 
engers' luggage have been perpetrated in Italy without detection, and ar- 
ticles of great value should not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of any 
trunk or portmanteau, however strong and secure it may seem (comp. p. xv). 
The enormous weight of the large trunks used by some travellers not 
infrequently causes serious injury to the porters who have to handle them. 
Heavy articles should therefore always be placed in the smaller packages. 
The best collections of time-tables are the 'Indicatore 
delle Strade Ferrate', etc. (published monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo 
at Turin ; price 1 fr.) and the Orario del Movimento Trent e Piro- 
scafl (published by Arnaboldi at Florence; 1 fr.). Smaller editions, 
serving for ordinary purposes, are issued at 50 c. and 20 c, while the 
traveller in N. Italy may content himself with the Orario Ufftciale 
il Sempione rer It Ferrovie, Navigazione e Tramway dell 1 Italia set- 
tentrionale (10 c). 

Through Tickets to various parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal stations of the southern railways; by Messrs. Cook 
& Son, Ludgate Circus ; etc.), in Paris, and at the chief towns of 
Germany and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. 

Those with whom economy is an object may save a good deal by tak- 
ing return -tickets to the Swiss frontier, travelling third-class through 
Switzerland, and then taking circular tour tickets in Italy. 

Cieculab Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy, the Italian lakes, etc., available for 15-60 days, may be 
purchased in London , in France , and in Germany, as well as in 
Italy, at a reduction of 45 per cent (but without a free allowance of 
luggage). The circular tours for Northern Italy are described in 
detail in the railway guides mentioned above. These tickets require 
Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. b 

xviii HOTELS. 

to be stamped at each fresh starting-point -with the name of the 
next station at which the traveller intends to halt. If, therefore, 
the traveller leaves the train before the station for which his ticket 
has been stamped he must at once apply to the capostazione for re- 
cognition of the break in the journey ('accertare il cambiamento di 
destinazione , ). When the traveller quits the prescribed route, in- 
tending to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure 
an l annotazione : at the station where he alights, enabling him to 
resume his circular tour after his digression ( 'vale per riprendere 
alia stazione . . . U viaggio interrotto a . . . , ). If this ceremony be 
neglected the holder of the ticket is required to pay treble fare for 
the omitted portion of the route for which the ticket is issued. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andata e ritorno) may often be 
advantageously used for short excursions. They are generally avail- 
able for one day only, but those issued on Saturdays and the eves 
of festivals are available for three, those issued on Sundays and fes- 
tivals for two days. It should also be observed that if the traveller 
alights at a station short of his destination he forfeits the part of 
the ticket between this point and the station to which the ticket is 
issued (in both directions). 

Within the last few years a system of Steam Tramways (Tramvia a 
Vapore) has been developed in North Italy, which entirely throws into the 
shade anything of the kind hitherto attempted in Great Britain or America. 
The principal centres of this system are Milan and Turin (see pp. 117, 25). 
These tramways are on the whole of little importance for the tourist, hut 
facilitate a visit to several interesting little towns at some distance from 
the great railway-routes. The rate of speed attained on them is about half 
that of the ordinary railways. Comp. II Sempione (see p. xvii). 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
all the principal resorts of travellers in Northern Italy, most of them 
having fixed charges: room 2y 2 -5fr., bougie 75c. to 1 1/2^-1 attend- 
ance (exclusive of the 'facchino' and portier) 1 fr., table d'h6te 
4-6 fr. The charge for dinner does not include wine, which is 
usually dear and often poor. For a prolonged stay an agreement may 
generally be made with the landlord for pension at a more moder- 
ate rate. Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'h6te ; other- 
wise the charge for rooms is apt to be raised. The charges for meals 
furnished in private rooms or at unusual times are much higher. The 
cuisine is a mixture of French and Italian. The charge for the use of 
the hotel-omnibus from the station to the hotel is so high (l-li/ 2 fr.), 
that it is often cheaper to take a cab. It is also easier for those who 
use a cab to proceed to another hotel, should they not like the rooms 
offered them. Rooms on the groundfloor should be avoided. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements, and are rarely very clean or comfortable. The charges 
aTe little more than one-half of the above: room 1-3, attendance 
1/2, omnibus V2-I fr - Tnev ^ aYe no tatle d'hote, but there is gen- 

HOTELS. xix 

erally a trattoria connected with the house, where refreshments a la 
carte, or a dinner a prezzo fisso, may be procured at any hour. Fair 
native wines, usually on draught, are furnished in these houses at 
moderate prices. Morning coffee, especially in the smaller towns, 
is usually taken at a cafe" and not at the inn. It is everywhere 
customary to make enquiries beforehand as to the charges for 
rooms, not forgetting the servizio e candela; and the price of the 
dinner (if not a la carte) should also be agreed upon (2-4 fr., with 
wine 21/2-4V2 &•)• These inns will often be found convenient and 
economical by the voyageur en garcon, and the better houses of 
this class may even be visited by ladies, when at home in Italian ; 
the new-comer should frequent hotels of the first class only. — As 
matches are rarely found in these hotels, the guest should provide 
himself with a supply of the wax-matches (cerinl) sold in the streets 
(1-2 boxes 5 c). Soap is also an 'extra', for which a high price is 

The Pbnsions of Venice and Florence also receive passing trav- 
ellers, but as the price of dejeuner is usually (though not uni- 
versally") included in the fixed daily charge, the traveller has either 
to sacrifice some of the best hours for visiting the galleries or to 
pay for a meal he does not consume. 

Hotels Gabnis are to be found in most of the larger towns, 
with charges for rooms similar to those in the second-class hotels. 

Pmvate Apartments are recommended for a prolonged stay. 
A distinct agreement as to rent should be made beforehand. When 
a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on stamped 
paper should be drawn up with the aid of someone acquainted 
with the language and customs of the place {e.g. a banker) , in 
order that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. For single tra- 
vellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, stoves 
and carpets in winter , a receptacle for coal , and other details will 
generally suffice. Comp. p. xxviii. 

Money and other valuables should either be carried on the per- 
son or entrusted to the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt being 
perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the brilliancy of 
their climate. The traveller in N. Italy will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming even in hotels of the second class; bat those who quit the beaten 
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be 
selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect- 
powder (polvere insetticlda or contro gli insetti) or camphor somewhat repels 
their advances. The zanzdre, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, 
and often of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows should al- 
ways be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light 
muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and 
gloves are employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious in- 
truders. The burning of insect powder over a spirit lamp is also recom- 
mended, and pastilles (fidibus contro le zanzare) may be purchased at the 
principal chemists' for the same purpose (see p. '235). A weak solution 
of carbolic acid in water is efficacious in allaying the discomforts oc- 
casioned by the bites. 



A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman : Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camieia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, 
iJ solino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino; drawers, le mutande; woollen under- 
shirt, una flanella or giubba di flanella; petticoat, la sottana; stocking, 
la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), ilfazoletlo (di seta). To give 
out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucato, newly washed) ; washing list, la nota ; 
washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja; buttons, i bottom. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants of the first class (Bistoranti) in the larger towns 
resemble those of France or Germany, and have similarly high 
charges. — The more strictly national Trattorie are chiefly fre- 
quented by Italians and gentlemen travelling alone , but those of 
the better class may be visited by ladies also. They are frequented 
chiefly between 5 and 8. Breakfast or a light luncheon before 
1 o'clock may be more conveniently obtained at a cafe 1 (p. xxi). 
Dinner may be obtained alia carta for l l /^-B fr. , and sometimes 
a prezzo fisso for 2-5 fr. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. 
The diner who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable 
limits should refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill 
of fare. The waiter is called cameriere (or bottegd), but the approved 
way of attracting his attention is by knocking on the table. If too 
importunate in his recommendations or suggestions he may be 
checked with the word 'basta'. The diner calls for his bill (which 
should be carefully scrutinized) with the words HI conto'. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants. 

Antipasti, Principii, relishes taken as ' 
whets (such as sardines, olives, or 

Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 

Brodo or Consume, broth or bouil- 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 
vegetables and bread. 

Gnocchi, small puddings. 

Minestra di riso con piselli, rice-soup 

with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al tugo e 

al burro, with sauce and butter; 

al pomidoro, with tomatoes. 
Salami, sausage (usually with garlic, 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
Potaggio di polio, chicken-fricassee. 
Anilra, duck. 
GalUnaccio, turkey. 
Stufatino, Cibreo, ragout. 
Croehetti, croquettes. 
Pasticcio, pat^, patty. 
Erbe, vegetables. 
Contorno , Guarnizione , garnishing. 

vegetables, usually not charged for. 

Asparagi, asparagus. 

Spinaci, spinach. 

Came lessa, bollita, boiled meat; in 

umido, alia genovese, with sauce; 

ben cotto , well-done -, al sang we, 

air inglese, underdone; ai ferri, 

cooked on the gridiron. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritto, una Friltura, fried meat. 
Fritlo misto, a mixture of fried liver, 

brains, artichokes, etc. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

roast- veal. 
Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Majale, pork. 
Montone, mutton. 
Agnello, lamb. 
Capretto, kid. 
Coscietto, loin. 
Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Figato di vitello, calf s liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Rognoni, kidneys. 
Costoletta alia minuta, veal -cutlet 

with calves' ears and truffles ; alia 

Milanese, baked in dough. 



Msgaloppe , veal-cutlet with bread- 

Patate, potatoes. 

Quaglia, quail. 

Tordo, field-fare. 

Lodola, lark. 

Peice, fish. 

S/oglia, a kind of sole. 

Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 

Presciutto, ham. 

Uova, eggs; da here, soft-boilei; dure, 
hard-boiled ;' al piatto, poached. 

Polenta, boiled maize. 

Insalata, salad. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Zenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Oobbi, Cardi, artichoke stalks (with 

Zucchino, marrow, squash. 

Fare, beans. 

Fagiolini, Comelti, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Afottarda inglese or 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Sale, salt. 

Pepe, pepper. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Dolce, sweet dish. 

Zuppa inglese, a favourite sweet dish. 
Budino (in Florence), pudding. 
Frutta, Qiardinetto, fruit-desert. 
Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta s/oglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Pomi, Mele, apples. 
Pirsici, Pesche, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Fiehi, figs. 
Noei, nuts. 
Limone, lemon. 

Araneio or portogallo, orange. 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, cheese (Oorgonzola, 


The Wine Shops (Osterie) are almost exclusively frequented 
by the lower ranks, except in Tuscany. Bread, cheese, and eggs 
are usually the only viands provided. 

Wine (vino da pasto, table-wine; nero, red; bianco, white; dolce, 
pastoso, sweet; asciutto, dry; del paese, nostramo, wine of the country) is 
usually supplied in bottles one-half, one-fourth, or one-fifth of a litre (un 
mezzo litro; un quarto; un quinto or bicchiere). The prices are often in- 
scribed on the outside of the shop ('6', '7', '8', meaning that half-a-litre 
costs 6, 7, or 8 soldi). Wines of a better quality are sold in ordinary 
quarts and pints. 

In the North of Italy the following are the best wines: the care- 
fully manufactured Piedmontese brands, Barolo, Nebiolo, Grignolino, Bar- 
bera, and the sparkling Asti spumante; Valtellin'j, known also in E. Switzer- 
land; the Vineentine Marzemino and Breganze (a white sweet wine); the 
Faduan Bagnoli; the Veronese Valpolicella ; in the province of Treviso, 
Conegliano, Rdboso di Piave, Prosecco, and Terdiso; in Udine , Re/osco; 
the wine of Bologna, partly from French vineyards; Lambrusco, etc. 

In Tuscany the best wines (almost all red) are : Chianti (best Broglio), 
Rufina (best Pomino), Nipozzano, Altomena, and Carmignano, and Aleatico 
(sweet). Orvieto and Montepulciano are produced farther to the south. — 
In Tuscany a 'fiasco' 1 , or straw-covered flask holding three ordinary bottles, 
is generally brought, but only the quantity consumed is paid for. Smaller 
bottles may be obtained: mezzo fiasco (V2), quarto fiasco Q/i), ottavino (}/»). 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon, and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices, coffee, vermouth (usually 
with Seltzer water), etc. The tobacco smoke is often very dense. 

Gaffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (15-25 c. per 
cup). Caffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before served (30-50 c); or 
caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred. Choco- 
late (cioccolata) costs 30-50 c. Eoll (pane) 5, with butter (pane al burro) 
20 c. Cakes or biscuits (paste) 5-15 c. — The usual viands for lunch are 
ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and eggs. 

Ices (gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the cafe's at 


30-90 c. per portion; or half a portion (mezio) may be ordered. Sorbetto, 
or half-frozen ice, is much in vogue in the forenoon. Oranita is water- 
ice {limonata, lemon ; aranciata, orange ; di caffi, coffee). Qassosa, aerated 
lemonade, is also frequently ordered. The waiters, who expect a sou or 
more, according to the amount of the payment, are apt to be inaccurate 
in changing money. 

The principal Parisian and Viennese newspapers (giornali) are to be 
found at all the larger cafes , English less often. Italian papers (usually 
5 c.) are everywhere offered by newsvendors. 

Cigars (Sigari) in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. 
The prices of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani, Virginias, Ve- 
vays, Pressati, Cavours, Napoletani, Toscani, Minghetti, etc. ) vary from 
71/2 to 18 c. Good imported cigars may be bought at the best shops 
in the large towns for 25-60 c. each, and also foreign cigarettes. 
— Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burn- 
ing in every tobacconist's, without making any purchase. 

X. Sights, Theatres, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12. 30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p.m., while the most important are often open 
the whole day. Visitors may inspect the works of art even during 
divine service , provided they move about noiselessly , and keep 
aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the occasion 
of festivals and for a week or two before Easter the works of art 
are often entirely concealed by the temporary decorations. Those 
which are always kept covered are shown by the verger (sagrestano 
or nonzolo), who expects a fee of 30-50 c. from a single traveller, 
more from a party. 

Museums , picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 9 or 10 to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong 
to government are open on week-days at a charge of 1 fr., and on 
Sundays gratis. Artists are admitted without charge. Gratuities 
are forbidden. 

The collections are closed on the following public holidays : New 
Year's Day, Epiphany (Gth Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during the 
Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Fete 
de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statuto (first Sunday in June), 
Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug.), Nativity of the Virgin (8th Sept.), 
Festival of the Annunciation (25th Mar.), All Saints' Day (1st Nov.), and 
on Christmas Day. A good many other days are also sometimes observed 
as holidays, such as the Thursday before the Carnival (Giovedi grasso), 
the day sacred 1o the local patron-saint, and the birthdays of the king 
(14th Mar.) and queen (20th Nov.). — For Florence, comp. p. 393. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8 8.30 or9 
and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being exclu- 
sively performed. The first act of an opera is usually succeeded 
by a ballet of three acts or more. The pit (platea), to which the 
'biglietto d'ingresso' 1 gives access, is the usual resort of the men 
while the boxes and sometimes the stalls (scanni chiusi, sedie chime 
poltrone, or posti distintij are frequented by ladies. A box (palco) 
must always be secured in advance. — The theatre is the usual 


evening-resort of the Italians, who seldom observe strict silence 
during the performance of the orchestra. The instrumental music 
is seldom good. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. It is generally enough to offer 
two-thirds or three-fourths of the price demanded Qcontrattare ', to 
bargain). 'Non volete?' (then you will not) is a remark which usually 
has the effect of bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Pur- 
chases should never be made in presence of a valet-de-place. These 
individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the 
purchase-money, which of course comes out of the purchaser's pocket. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

In the larger towns the Post Office is open daily from 8a.m. to 
8 or 8.30 p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays) ; in smaller places 
it is generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante', Italian 'ferma in posta , or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting-card instead of giving his name 
orally. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. The mail-boxes (buca or cassetta) are 
labelled 'per le lettere' ', for letters, and 'per le stampe', for printed 

Letters of 15 grammes O/2 oz., about the weight of three sous) by 
town-post 5 c, to the rest of Italy 20 c, abroad (per Vestero) to any of 
the states included in the postal union (now comprising the whole of 
Europe as well as the United States, Canada, etc.) 25c. The penalty 
(segnatatta) for insufficiently prepaid letters is considerable. — Post- 
cards (cartolina postale) for both Italy and abroad (per l'estero) 10 c, 
reply-cards (con ritposta paffala), inland 15 c, abroad 20 c. — Letter-cards 
(biglietto postale) for the city 5 c, for Italy 20 c, for foreign countries 
25 c. — Book -packets (stampe sotto fascia), 2 c. per 50 grammes, for 
abroad 5 c. — Registration-fee (raccomandazione) for letters for the 
same town and printed matter 10 c, otherwise 25 c. The packet or letter 
must be inscribed 'raccomandata\ and the stamps must be affixed in front 
at the different corners. — Post Office Orders, see p. xii. 

A Parcel Post exists between Italy and Great Britain, the rates and 
conditions of which may be ascertained at any post-office. Articles, such 
as flowers, etc., not liable to duty are best sent as samples of no value 
(campione senza valore) in Italy 2 c. per 50 gr., abroad 10 c. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 26, France 14, Germany 14, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 
6-14 , Belgium 19, Holland 23, Denmark 23, Russia 42, Sweden 
26, Norway 34 c. To America from 3 3 /^ fr. per word upwards, ac- 
cording to the state. Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 
1 fr. , each additional word 5 c. Telegrams with special haste ( tele- 
grammi urgenti), which take precedence of all others, may be sent 
at thrice the above rates. 

xxiv CLIMATE. 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Kesorts. Health. 

By Dr. Hermann Reimer. 
It is a common error on the part of those who visit Italy for the 
first time to believe that beyond the Alps the skies are always blue 
and the breezes always balmy. It is true that the traveller who 
has crossed the Splugen, the Brenner, or the St. Gotthard in winter, 
and finds himself in the district of the N. Italian lakes, cannot fail 
to remark what an admirable barrier against the wind is afforded 
by the central chain of the Alps. The average winter-temperature 
here is 37-40° Fahr. as compared with 28-32° on the N. side of the 
mountains. Places nestling close to the S. base of the Alps, such 
as Arco, Qardone-Riviera, Lugano, and Pallanza, thus form an ex- 
cellent intermediate stage between the bleak winter of N. Europe and 
the semi-tropical climate of the Riviera or S. Italy. A peculiarity of 
the climate here is afforded by the torrents of rain which may be 
expected about the equinoctial period. The masses of warm and 
moisture -laden clouds driven northwards by the S. wind break 
against the Alpine chain , and discharge themselves in heavy 
showers, which fill the rivers and occasion the inundations from 
which Lombardy not unfrequently suffers. If, however, the trav- 
eller continues his journey towards the S. through the plain of Lom- 
bardy he again enters a colder and windy region. The whole plain 
of the Po, enclosed by snow-capped mountains, exhibits a climate 
of a thoroughly continental character ; the summer is as hot as that 
of Sicily, while the winter is extremely cold, the mean temperature 
being below 35° Fahr. or about equal to that of the lower Rhine. 
Changes of weather, dependent upon the direction of the wind, are 
frequent ; and the humidity of the atmosphere, occasioned in part 
by the numerous canals and rice-marshes, is also very considerable. 
A prolonged residence in Turin or Milan should therefore be avoided 
by invalids, while even robust travellers should be on their guard 
against the trying climate. As we approach the Adriatic Sea the 
climate of the Lombard plain loses its continental character and 
approximates more closely to that of the rest of the peninsula. The 
climatic peculiarities of Venice are described at p. 238. 

As soon as we cross the mountains which bound the S. margin 
of the Lombard plain and reach the Mediterranean coast, we find a 
remarkable change in the climatic conditions. Here an almost un- 
interrupted series of winter-resorts extends along the coast from 
Hyeres to Genoa and thence to Leghorn, and these are rapidly in- 
creasing both in number and popularity. The cause of the mild 
and pleasant climate at these places is not far to seek. The Maritime 
Alps and the Ligurian Apennines form such an admirable screen 
on the N., that the cold N. winds which pass these mountains do 
not touch the district immediately at their feet, but are first per- 
ceptible on the sea 6-10 M. from the coast. It is of no unfrequent 


occurrence in the Riviera that the harbours are perfectly smooth 
while the open sea is agitated by a brisk tempest. Most of the towns 
and villages on the coast lie in crescent - shaped bays , opening 
towards the S., while on the landward side they are protected by 
an amphitheatre of hills. These hills are exposed to the full force 
of the sun's rays, and the limestone of which they are composed 
absorbs an immense amount of heat. It is therefore not to be 
wondered at that these hothouses of the Riviera show a higher tem- 
perature in winter than many places much farther to the S. Thus, 
while the mean temperature of Rome in the three coldest months is 
46° Fahr., that of the Riviera is 48-50°. 

It would , however, be a mistake to suppose that this strip of 
coast is entirely free from wind. The rapid heating and cooling of 
the strand produces numerous light breezes, while the rarefaction 
of the masses of air by the strength of the sun gives rise to strong 
currents rushing in from the E. and W. to supply the vacuum. 
The most notorious of these coast-winds is the Mistral, which is 
at its worst at Avignon and other places in the Rh6ne Valley, 
where it may be said without exaggeration to blow on one of every 
two days. As a rule this wind lasts for a period of 3-17 days at a 
time, rising at about 10 a.m. and subsiding at sunset; and each 
such period is generally followed by an interval of calm and fine 
weather. As the Mistral sweeps the coast from W. to E. it gradu- 
ally loses its strength, so that at San Remo, for instance, it is much 
less violent than at Cannes or Hyeres. The N.E. wind on the con- 
trary is much stronger in Alassio and San Remo than on the coast 
of Provence. The Sciroeco as known on the Ligurian coast is by no 
means the dry and parching wind experienced in Sicily and even 
at Rome ; passing as it does over immense tracts of sea it is gener- 
ally charged with moisture and is often followed by rain. 

The prevalent belief that the Riviera has a moist climate, on 
account of its proximity to the sea, is natural but erroneous. The 
atmosphere, on the contrary, is rather dry, especially in the W. 
half of it, while the humidity rapidly increases as we approach 
the Riviera di Levante. The same holds good of the rainfall. 
While Nice has 36 rainy days between November and April, Men- 
tone has 44, Nervi 54, and Pisa 63. The average number of rainy 
days during the three winter months in the Riviera is 16. Snow 
is rarely seen ; it falls perhaps once or twice in the course of the 
winter, but generally lies only for a few hours , while many years 
pass without the appearance of a single snow-flake. Fogs are very 
rare on the Ligurian coast ; but a heavy dew-fall in the evening is 
the rule. In comparison with the Cisalpine districts, the Riviera 
enjoys a very high proportion of bright, sunny weather. 

The mildness of the climate of the Riviera requires, perhaps, no 
better proof than its rich southern vegetation. The Olive, which is 
already found in the neighbourhood of the N. Italian lakes, here 

xxvi CLIMATE. 

attains great luxuriance , while the Eucalyptus globulus (which 
grows rapidly and to an astonishing height), the Orange, the 
Lemon, and several varieties of Palms also flourish. 

The geological character of the Riviera is also of sanitary signi- 
ficance. The prevailing formation is limestone, which absorbs the 
sun's rays with remarkable rapidity and radiates it with equal speed, 
thus forming an important factor in making the most of the winter- 
sunshine. On account of its softness it is also extensively used 
for road-making, and causes the notorious dust of the Riviera, which 
forms the chief objection to a region frequented by so many per- 
sons with weak lungs. The authorities of the various health-resorts, 
however, take great pains to mitigate this evil as far as practicable. 
After heavy rain the roads are apt to be veTy muddy. 

The advantages that a winter-residence in the Riviera, in contra- 
distinction to the climate of northern Europe, offers to invalids and 
delicate persons, are a considerably warmer and generally dry at- 
mosphere, seldom disturbed by storms, yet fresh and pure, a more 
cheerful sky, and comparative immunity from rain. The 'invalid's 
day', or the time during which invalids may remain in the open 
air with impunity, lasts here from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The general 
effect of a prolonged course of open-air life in the Riviera may be 
described as a gentle stimulation of the entire physical organism. 
It is found particularly beneficial for convalescents, the debilitated, 
and the aged ; for children of scrofulous tendency ; and for the mar- 
tyrs of gout and rheumatism. The climatic cure of the Riviera is 
also often prescribed to patients with weak chests, to assist in the 
removal of the after-effects of inflammation of the lungs or pleurisy, 
or to obviate the danger of the formation of a chronic pulmonary 
discharge. The dry and frequently-agitated air of the Riviera is, 
however, by no means suitable for every patient of this kind, and 
the immediate vicinity of the sea is particularly unfavourable to 
cases of a feverish or nervous character. The stimulating effects of 
the climate are then often too powerful, producing sleeplessness 
and unwholesome irritation. The dry air of the Riviera di Ponente 
is also prejudicial to many forms of inflammation of the wind-pipe 
and bronchial tubes, which derive benefit from the air of Nervi, 
Pisa, or Ajaccio. Cases of protracted nephritis or diabetes, on the 
contrary, often obtain considerable relief from a residence here. 

The season on the Ligurian coast lasts from about the begin- 
ning of October to the middle of May. In September it is still too 
hot, and in March it is so windy that many patients are obliged to 
retire farther inland, e.g. from Nice to Cimiez. Many invalids make 
the mistake of leaving the Riviera too soon, and thus lose all the 
progress they have made during the winter, through reaching home 
in the unfavourable transition period between winter and spring. 
It is better to spend April and May at some intermediate station 
such as Pallanza or Lugano. 

HEALTH. xxvii 

The average temperature of the three winter-months (Decem- 
ber, January, and February) at the following winter-resorts is as 
here given: Lugano 36.5° Fahr., Pallanza 38.5°, Venice 38.75°, 
Arco 38.75®, Gardone-Riviera 40°, Pisa 42°, Nervi 48°, Nice 49°, 
Cannes 49.5°, Mentone (E. bay) 49.75°, SanRemo51°, Ajaccio52°. 

The above considerations will show that it is often necessary to 
discount the unpropitious opinions of those who happen to have 
visited the Riviera under peculiarly unfavourable climatic con- 
ditions. Not only do the ordinary four seasons differ from each other 
on the Riviera, but the different parts of winter are also sharply 
discriminated. An uninterrupted series of warm and sunshiny days 
may be counted on with almost complete certainty in October and 
the first half of November. Then follows a rainy season, lasting till 
the end of the year, which restricts, but by no means abolishes, 
open-air exercise. January and February are generally fine and 
cloudless, but invalids have often to be on their guard against 
wind. March here, as elsewhere in the south, is the windiest month 
of all, but is much less boisterous in the E. part of the Riviera 
(from Mentone to Nervi) than at Myites, Cannes, and Nice. April 
and May are delightful months for those who require out-door life 
in a warm climate. Places such as Nice, Cannes, Mentone, San Remo, 
and Nervi naturally offer many comforts and resources in unfavour- 
able weather which are lacking at smaller and newer health-resorts. 

Good opportunities for sea-bathing are offered at many points 
on the Mediterranean coast of N. Italy, such as Cannes, Nice, Alas- 
sio, Savona, Pegli, Spezia, Viareggio, Leghorn, and Venice. The Medi- 
terranean is almost tideless ; it contains about 41 per cent of com- 
mon salt , a considerably higher proportion than the Atlantic ; its 
average temperature during the bathing-season is 71° Fahr. The 
bathing-season on the Ligurian coast begins in April, or at latest in 
May, and lasts till November, being thus much longer than the season 
at any English seaside-resort. 

Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode of living 
whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adopting the Italian style. 
Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusually 
susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be well 
supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Woollen underclothing 
is especially to be recommended. A plaid should be carried to neu- 
tralise the often considerable difference of temperature between the 
sunshine and the shade. In visiting picture-galleries or churches on 
warm days it is advisable to drive thither and walk back , as other- 
wise the visitor enters the cool building in a heated state and has 
afterwards no opportunity of regaining the desirable temperature 
through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should be avoided 
as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and for- 
eigners (Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to pro- 

xxviii HEALTH. 

tect the whole eye are best), may be used with advantage. Blue veils 
are recommended to ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is ad- 
visable, and a moderate siesta is often refreshing. 

Great care should also be taken in the selection of an apartment. 
Carpets and stoves are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect in 
winter is an absolute essential for delicate persons, and highly desir- 
able for the robust. The visitor should see that all the doors and 
windows close satisfactorily. Windows should be closed at night. 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met with 
in the larger cities, and in most of the wintering-stations of the Ri- 
viera. English and. German chemists, where available, are recom- 
mended in preference to the Italian, whose drugs are at once dearer 
and of poorer quality. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea in 
Italy , which is generally occasioned by the unwonted heat. The 
homoeopathic tincture of camphor may be mentioned as a remedy, 
but regulated diet and thorough repose are the chief desiderata. A 
small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and stocked with 
tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, § Co., Holborn Via- 
duct, London, will often be found usefu'. 

Italian Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Professor A. Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. 
Even those whose usual avocations are of the most prosaic d^ory 
nature unconsciously become admirers of poetry and art in 
Italy. The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of 
everyday life, that he encounters their influence at every step, and 
involuntarily becomes susceptible to their power. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one justly to appreciate the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of 
Italian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly at- 
tractive; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be 
found materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches 
of even the most unpretending lover of art. Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of Classic Antiquity, and of the c tASSICAND 
16th century, the culminating period of the so-called Renais- renais- 
sance. The intervening space of more than a thousand years sance 
is usually, with much unfairness, almost entirely ignored ; EBIODS - 
for this interval not only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first 
epoch, but gradually paves the way for the second. It is a common 
error to suppose that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can 
be thoroughly appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no 
precise distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when 
the connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted 
with more numerous Greek originals, and have acquired a 


deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art , an indis- 
criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 

Geebk and apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest per- 
Roman fection of ancient architecture is realised in the Hellenic 

Sttles dis- temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is 

tingdished. ex p resse a ^ y maS sive proportions and symmetrical decoration, 
and the Ionic structure , with its lighter and more graceful char- 
acter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again, the most valuable 
collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of affording so 
admirable an insight into the development of Greek art as the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon and other fragments of Greek temple - archi- 
tecture preserved in the British Museum. But, while instruction is 
afforded more abundantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art 
is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy alone , where works of art 
encounter the eye with more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, 
scenery, and people materially contribute to intensify their impres- 
siveness. As long as a visit to Greece and Asia Minor is within the 
reach of comparatively few travellers, a sojourn in Italy may be recom- 
mended as best calculated to afford instruction with respect to the 
growth of ancient art. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by 
the circumstance , that in accordance with an admirable custom of 
classic antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not 
again arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually 
reproduced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient 
Greek original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies ; 
and even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative 
talent is still reflected. 

This supremacy of Greek intellect in Italy was established in a 
Greece twofold manner. In the first place Greek colonists intro- 

supbeme in duced their ancient native style into their new homes. This 
Aet. j s p r0V ed by the existence of several Doric temples in Si- 
cily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all dating from the same 
period), and the ruined temples at Syracuse, Oirgenti, and Segesta. 
On the mainland the so-called Temple of Neptune at Paestum, 
as well as the ruins at Metapontum, are striking examples of the 
fully developed elegance and grandeur of the Doric order. But, in 
the second place, the art of the Greeks did not attain its universal 
supremacy in Italy till a later period, when Hellas, nationally ruined, 
had learned to obey the dictates of her mighty conqueror and the 
Romans had begun to combine with their political superiority the re- 
finements of more advanced culture. The ancient scenes of artistic 
activity in Greece (Athens for example) became re-peopled at 
the cost of Rome ; Greek works of art and Greek artists were in- 
troduced into Italy ; and ostentatious pride in the magnificence of 
booty acquired by victory led by an easy transition to a taste for 
such objects. To surround themselves with artistic decoration thus 


gradually became the universal custom of the Romans , and the 
foundation of public monuments came to be regarded as an in- 
dispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their r man 
authors never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely re- Abchitec- 
nounce independent effort. This remark applies especially to tcre. 
their Architecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancientltalian 
nations, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. "With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms , the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors , and several stories in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture , and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders, and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance ; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 
ter ; but the aggregate effect is always imposing, the skill in blend- 
ing contrasts, and the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity 
of the Doric Style t must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric 

t Those unacquainted with architecture will easily learn to distinguish 
the different Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the columns 
(without bases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the Ionic 
they are separated from it by bases. The flutings of the Doric column 
immediately adjoin each other, being separated by a sharp ridge, while 
those of the Ionic are disposed in pairs , separated by broad unfluted 
intervening spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, 
somewhat resembles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned 
with painted representations of wreaths; the Ionic capital is distinguished 
by the volutes (or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be re- 
garded rather as an appropriate covering of the capital than as the cap- 
ital itself. The entablature over the columns begins in the Doric style 
with the simple, in the Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which 
in the Doric order are the metopes (originally openings, subsequently 
receding panels) and triglyphs (tablets with two angular grooves in front, 
and a half groove at each end, resembling extremities of beams), and in 
the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured enrichments. In the temples of 
both orders the front culminates in a pediment. The so-called Tuscan, 
or early Italian column , appro aching most nearly to the Doric , exhibits 
no decided distinctive marks; the Corinthian, with the rich capital 
formed of acanthus-leaves, is essentially of a decorative character only. 
The following technical terms should also be observed. Temples in 
which the columns are on both sides enclosed by the projecting walls 
are termed 'in antis 1 (antse = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns, prostyle; those with an additional 
pediment at the back, supported by columns, amphiprostyle; those entirely 
surrounded by columns, peripteral. In some temples it was imperative 


column in the hands of Roman architects lost the finest features 
of its original character, and was at length entirely disused. The 
Ionic column also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded 
with less favour than those of the Corinthian order, the sumptuous- 
ness of which was more congenial to the artistic taste of the 
Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, but formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was of a purely ornamental 
character , the most ornate forms were the most sought after. The 
graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly drooping 
acanthus-leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently enriched, 
and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (first used 
in the arch of Titus) , a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. An 
impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot, however, 
be formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, 
nor is the highest rank in importance to be assigned to the Roman 
temples, which, owing to the different (projecting) construction of 
their roofs, are excluded from comparison with the Greek. Atten- 
tion must be directed to the several - storied structures , in which 
the tasteful ascending gradation of the component parts , from 
the more massive (Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian), chiefly 
arrests the eye ; and the vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as 
well as the structures of a merely decorative description , must 
also be examined , in order that the chief merits of Roman art 
may be understood. In the use of columns in front of closed 
walls (e.g. as members of a facade) , in the construction of domes 
above circular interiors, and of cylindrical and groined vaulting 
over oblong spaces , the Roman edifices have served as models to 
posterity, and the imitations have often fallen short of the originals. 
It is true that in the districts to which this volume of the Hand- 
book is devoted, the splendour and beauty of ancient art is not so 
prominently illustrated as in Rome or S. Italy. Nevertheless N. 
Italy also contains many interesting relics of Roman architecture 
(such as the Amphitheatre at Verona, the Triumphal Arches at Aosta 
and Susa, etc.), and though the smaller local collections of Lom- 
bardy and Tuscany may not detain the traveller long, he will un- 
doubtedly find ample food for his admiration in the magnificent 
antique sculptures at Florence (the Niobe Group, the Apollino, the 
formerly over-rated Medicean Venus, etc.). — Upper Italy and Tus- 

that the image of the god erected in the cella should be exposed to the 
rays of the sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and 
roof, and such temples were termed hypsethral. Temples are also named 
tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle, etc., according to the number of columns 
at each end. — A most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings 
and enrichments, and of those constituent members which respectively in- 
dicate superincumbent weight, or a free and independent existence. 
Research in these matters will enable the traveller more fully to appreciate 
the strict harmony of ancient architecture. 

ITALIAN ART, xxxiii 

cany stand, on the other hand, in the very forefront of the artistic 
life of the middle ages and early Renaissance , and Venice may 
proudly boast of having brilliantly unfolded the glories of Italian 
painting at a time when that art had sunk at Rome to the lowest 
depths. In order, however, to place the reader at a proper point 
of view for appreciating the development of art in N. Italy, it is 
necessary to give a short sketch of the progress of Italian art in 
general from the early part of the middle ages onwards. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been in 
a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a christian 
new period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously re- Period 
garded as the result of a forcible rupture from ancient op Art - 
Roman art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. 
But the eye and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than 
the mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of 
the Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines were 
permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in 
the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the trans- 
ition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and 
that in point of form early Christian art continued to follow up the 
lessons of the ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings of the Roman Catacombs. These were by no means ori- 
ginally the secret, anxiously-concealed places of refuge of the prim- 
itive Christians, but constituted their legally-recognised, publicly- 
accessible burial-places. Reared in the midst of the customs of 
heathen Rome, the Christian community perceived no necessity to 
deviate from the artistic principles of antiquity. In the embellish- 
ment of the catacombs they adhered to the decorative forms handed 
down by their ancestors; and in design, choice of colour, grouping 
of figures, and treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by 
the customary rules. Even the sarcophagus-sculptures of the 4th 
and 5th centuries differ in purport only, and not in technical treat- 
ment, from the type exhibited in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. 
Five centuries elapsed before a new artistic style sprang up in the 
pictorial , and the greatly neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile archi- 
tecture had developed itself commensurately with the requirements 
of Christian worship, and, in connection with the new modes of 
building, painting acquired a different character. 

The term Basilica Style is often employed to designate early 
Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name church 
is of great antiquity, but it is a mistake to suppose that the Architec- 
early Christian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere ture. 
name in common with those of the Roman fora. The latter struo- 

Baedkker. Italy I. 10th Edit. c 


tures, which are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the 
Roman empire, and served as courts of judicature and public as- 
sembly-halls , differ essentially in their origin and form from the 
churches of the Christians. The forensic basilicas were neither fit- 
ted up for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they, or the 
heathen temples, serve as models for the construction of Christian 
churches. The latter are rather to be regarded as extensions of the 
private dwelling-houses of the Romans, where the first assemblies 
of the community were held , and the component parts of which 
were reproduced in ecclesiastical edifices. The church, however, 
was by no means a servile imitation of the house, but a free devel- 
opment from it, of which the following became the established 
type. In front is a quadrangular fore-court (atrium), of the same 
width as the basilica itself, surrounded with an open colonnade 
and provided with a fountain (cantharus) for the ablutions of the 
devout. This forms the approach to the interior of the church, 
which usually consisted of a nave and two aisles, the latter lower 
than the former, and separated from it by two rows of columns, the 
whole terminating in a semicircle (apsis). In front of the apse there 
was sometimes a transverse space (transept) ; the altar, surmounted 
by a columnar structure, occupied a detached position in the apse ; 
the space in front of it, bounded by cancelli or railings, was 
destined for the choir of officiating priests, and contained the two 
pulpits (ambones) where the gospel and epistles were read. Un- 
like the ancient temples , the early Christian basilicas exhibit a 
neglect of external architecture, the chief importance being at- 
tached to the interior, the decorations of which, however, especially 
in early mediaeval times, were often procured by plundering the 
ancient Roman edifices, and transferring the spoil to the churches 
with little regard to harmony of style and material. The most ap- 
propriate ornaments of the churches were the metallic objects, such 
as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry bestowed on them by papal 
piety ; while the chief decoration of the walls consisted of mosaics, 
especially those covering the background of the apse and the 
'triumphal' arch which separates the apse from the nave. The 
mosaics , as far at least as the material was concerned , were of a 
sterling monumental character , and contributed to give rise to a 
new style of pictorial art; in them ancient tradition was for the 
first time abandoned, and the harsh and austere style erroneously 
termed Byzantine gradually introduced. 

Christian art originated at Rome, but its development was 
actively promoted in other Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 

where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493-552), as well 
B STTLB. Nli as UTlder the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture 

was zealously cultivated. The basilica-type was there more 
highly matured, the external architecture enlivened by low arches 
and projecting buttresses, and the capitals of the columns in the 


interior appropriately moulded with reference to tlie superincum- 
bent arches. There , too , the art of mosaic painting was sedu- 
lously cultivated, exhibiting in its earlier specimens (in the Bap- 
tistery of the Orthodox and Tomb of Galla Placidia) greater technical 
excellence and better drawing than the contemporaneous Roman 
works. At Ravenna the Western style also appears in combination 
with the Eastern, and the church of S. Vitale (dating from 547) 
may be regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. 

The term 'Byzaktine' is often misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages, everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the "Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 
and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style , as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character, is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long - extended hall, over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural Testing-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles , which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave, degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 
significant passages ; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave , being separated from it ; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space, bounded 
by four massive pillars which support the dome. These are the 
essential characteristics of the Byzantine style , which culminates 
in the magnificent church of S. Sophia, and prevails throughout 
Oriental Christendom, but in the West, including Italy, only 
occurs sporadically. With the exception of the churches of S. Vi- 
tale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the edifices of Lower 
Italy alone show a frequent application of this style. 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 
greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian growth 
art than on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art op Akx in 
was carried on by Venice, Amalfi , and other Italian towns, Italt. 
with the Levant ; the position of Constantinople resembled that of 
the modern Lyons; silk wares, tapestry, and jewellery were most 
highly valued when imported from the Eastern metropolis. By- 
zantine artists were always welcome visitors to Italy , Italian con- 
noisseurs ordered works to be executed at Constantinople, chiefly 
those in metal , and the superiority of Byzantine workmanship 
was universally acknowledged. All this, however, does not justify 
the inference that Italian art was quite subordinate to Byzantine. 


On the contrary , notwithstanding various external influences, it 
underwent an independent and unbiassed development, and never 
entirely abandoned its ancient principles. A considerable interval 
indeed elapsed before the fusion of the original inhabitants with 
the early medieval immigrants was complete, before the aggregate 
of different tribes , languages , customs, and ideas became blended 
into a single nationality, and before the people attained sufficient 
concentration and independence of spirit to devote themselves 
successfully to the cultivation of art. Unproductive in the pro- 
vince of art as this early period is , yet an entire departure from 
native tradition, or a serious conflict of the latter with extraneous 
innovation never took place. It may be admitted , that in the 
massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the churches of Upper 
Italy , and in the art of vaulting which was developed here at an 
early period , symptoms of the Germanic character of the inhabit- 
ants are manifested, and that in the Lower Italian and especially 
Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and Norman influence are 
unmistakable. In the essentials, however, the foreigners continue 
to be the recipients ; the might of ancient tradition, and the national 
idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. 

About the middle of the 11th century a zealous and promis- 
Roman- i n 8 artistic movement took place in Italy, and the seeds 
esquk were sown which three or four centuries later yielded so 
Sttie. luxuriant a growth. As yet nothing was matured, nothing 
completed, the aim was obscure, the resources insufficient; mean- 
while architecture alone satisfied artistic requirements , the at- 
tempts at painting and sculpture being barbarous in the ex- 
treme; these, however, were the germs of the subsequent devel- 
opment of art observable as early as the 11th and 12th centuries. 
This has been aptly designated the Romanesque period (11th- 
13th cent.), and the then prevalent forms of art the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages , notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their filial rela- 
tion to the language of the Romans , so Romanesque art , in 
spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party- 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enlight- 
ened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
aesthetic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 

ITALIAN ART. xxxvii 

are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 
parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object ; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 11th century, or the church 
of S. Miniato near Florence, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example of this. The interior with its rows of columns, the 
mouldings throughout, and the flat ceiling recall the basilica-type ; 
while the exterior, especially the facade destitute of tower, with 
the small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours 
of the courses of stone , presents a fine decorative effect. At the 
same time the construction and decoration of the walls already 
evince a taste for the elegant proportions which we admire in later 
Italian structures ; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. Giovanni) a definite 
Roman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object; 
the ideal which they have in view, although perhaps instinctive- 
ly only, lies in the past; to conjure up this, and bring about 
a Renaissance of the antique , appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of details. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction is 
compensated for by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the develop- 
ment of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of pleasing works. 
There is hardly a district in Italy which does not boast of 
interesting examples of Romanesque architecture. At Verona we 
may mention the famous church of St. Zeno with its sculp- r man- 
tured portals. In the same style are the cathedrals of Fer- esque 
rara, Modena, Parma, and Piacenza, the church of S. Am- Chukches 
brogio at Milan, with its characteristic fore-court and facade, and 
that of S. Michele at Pavia, erroneously attributed to the Lombardi. 
Tuscany abounds with Romanesque edifices. Among these the palm 
is due to the cathedral of Pisa, a church of spacious dimensions in 
the interior, superbly embellished with its marble of two colours 
and the rows of columns on its facade. To the same period also 
belong the neighbouring Leaning Tower and the Baptistery. The 

xixviii ITALIAN ART. 

churches of Lucca are copies of those at Pisa. Those of Florence, 
however, such as the octagonal, dome-covered baptistery and the 
church of S. Miniato al Monte, exhibit an independent style. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely 
g°™° ignore its influence, although incapable of according an un- 
conditional reception to this, the highest development of 
vault-architecture. Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature 
and perfected condition. It did not of necessity, as in France, 
develop itself from the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress 
cannot be traced step by step ; it was imported by foreign archi- 
tects (practised at Assisi by the German master Jacob) , and 
adopted as being in consonance with the tendency of the age ; it 
found numerous admirers among the mendicant orders of monks 
and the humbler classes of citizens, but could never quite dis- 
engage itself from Italianising influences. It was so far transformed 
that the constructive constituents of Gothic are degraded to a de- 
corative office, and the national taste thus became reconciled to it. 
The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded as a fair specimen of 
Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be sought for in the 
mediaeval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, in the church of 
S. Petronio at Bologna, and in numerous secular edifices, such as 
the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, the communal palaces of med- 
iaeval Italian towns, and the palaces of Venice. An acquaintance 
with true Gothic construction, so contracted notwithstanding all its 
apparent richness, so exclusively adapted to practical requirements, 
can certainly not be acquired from these cathedrals. The spacious 
interior, inviting, as it were, to calm enjoyment, while the cathe- 
drals of the north seem to produce a sense of oppression, the pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, the playful application of pointed 
arches and gables , of finials and canopies , prove that an organic 
coherence of the different architectural distinguishing members was 
here but little considered. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, 
the towers immediately connected with the facade, and the promi- 
nent flying buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edi- 
fices, — whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not 
so much the sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the 
spectator to pronounce a lenient judgment, as a feeling that Italian 
architects pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could 
be reconciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and nat- 
ural features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character 
in Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised , especially as at the same 
period the other branches of art also aimed at a greater degree of 
nationality, and entered into a new combination with the funda- 
mental trait of the Italian character, that of retrospective adherence 
to the antique. 


The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient 
ideals in the 13th century is one of the most interesting phenomena 
in -the history of art. The Italians themselves could only eevival 
account for this by attributing it to chance. The popular or Ancient 
story was that the sculptor NiccolS Pisano was induced by Abt Jdeals. 
an inspection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the prevailing style 
for the ancient, and indeed in one case we can trace back a work of 
his to its antique prototype. We refer to a relief on the pulpit in 
the Baptistery at Pisa, several figures in which are borrowed from 
a Bacchus vase still preserved in the Campo Santo of that city 
(pp. 366, 368). Whether Niccolo Pisano was a member of a local 
school or was trained under foreign influences we are as yet unable 
to determine. His sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery of 
Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once into a new 
world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the works 
of antiquity that arrests the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened 
by their peculiarly fresh and lifelike tone, indicating the enthu- 
siastic concentration with which the master devoted himself to his 
task. By his son, Giovanni Pisano, and his followers of the Pisan 
School, ancient characteristics were placed in the background, and 
importance was attached solely to life and expression (e.g. reliefs 
on the facade of the Cathedral at Orvieto). Artists now began to 
impart to their compositions the impress of their own peculiar 
views, and the public taste for poetry, which had already strongly 
manifested itself, was now succeeded by a love of art also. 

From this period (14th century) therefore the Italians date the 
origin of their modern art. Contemporaneous writers who ob- RlSE OF 
served the change of views, the revolution in sense of form, Modekn 
and the superiority of the more recent works in life and ex- Aet - 
pression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously proclaimed 
how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding genera- 
tions began to lose sight of this connection between ancient and 
modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to connect 
Giotto di Bondone (1276-1336), the father of modern Italian art, 
with Giovanni Cimabub (d. after 1302), the most celebrated re- 
presentative of the earlier style. (Cimabue is said to have watched 
Giotto , when, as a shepherd-boy, relieving the monotony of his 
office by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence.) But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Rome and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren , and 
that the composition of mosaics, as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sieuese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 


ful and the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant easel-pictures only, often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master, and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes , clumsy features , and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style, will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art , and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second in popularity to that of Raphael. The fact is that 
Giotto's Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of 
Influence, art. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the 
enthusiasm which he kindled in every direction, and the develop- 
ment for which he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, 
in order that his place in history may be understood. Even when, 
in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, he shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking , lifelike scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 
his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors , enabling him to impart the proper expression to 
his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, and almost ev- 
ery town in Central Italy in the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
are preserved in the churches of S. Croce (especially the choir- 
chapels) and £. Maria Novella at Florence. Beyond the precincts of 
the Tuscan capital the finest works of Giotto arc to be found at Assist 


and in the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, where in 1306 he exe- 
cuted a representation of scenes from the lives of the Virgin and 
the Saviour. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords specimens of the 
handiwork of his pupils and contemporaries. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail to 
be struck by their finely-conceived, poetical character (e.g. the 
Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of Job), 
or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Kainerus, and of 
the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmo- f LO kenuk 
sphere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence a Cradle 
and refinement. The fact, however, is, that Florence did 0F Art< 
not itself produce a greater number of eminent artists than other 
places. During a long period Siena successfully vied with her in 
artistic fertility, and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to 
the two painters d'Avanzo and Altichibri (paintings in the Chapel 
of S. Giorgio in Padua), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On 
the other hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions 
and public life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagina- 
tion, or promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, or 
combined ease and dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What 
therefore was but obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy, and 
manifested at irregular intervals only, was generally first realised 
here with tangible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace 
of the revolution in art effected by Giotto , and Florence was the 
home of the art of the Renaissance, which began to prevail soon 
after the beginning of the 15th century and superseded the style 
of Giotto. 

The word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a 
revival of the antique ; but while ancient art now began to r E nais- 
influence artistic taste more powerfully, and its study to be sahcb 
more zealously prosecuted , the essential character of the Cdlickb. 
Renaissance consists by no means exclusively, or even principally, 
in the imitation of the antique ; nor must the term be confined 
merely to art , as it truly embraces the whole progress of civili- 
sation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. How the 
Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the different 
phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world , cannot 
here be discussed. It may, however, be observed that the Re- 
naissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'humanists', 
who preferred general culture to great professional attainments, 
who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the golden 
age of great men , and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 


the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the work of 
the author than was ever before the case ; his creations are pre-emi- 
nently the reflection of his intellect; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emi- 
nent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmith), the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, and they aim at mastering the principles of each different 
branch. They work simultaneously as painters and sculptors , and 
when they devote themselves to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. 
This they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired 
to it is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leon Battista 
Alberti, who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the Renaissance 
artists necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 
with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the whole of this period. She not only 
afforded an unbounded field to the scientific, but artists also strove 
to approach her at first by a careful study of her various pheno- 
mena. Anatomy , geometry , perspective , and the study 
oftiieRe- of dra P er y an<i colour are zealously pursued and practically 
naissance applied. External truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct 
Aktists to rendering of real life in its minutest details are among the 
^atdee. necessar y qualities in a perfect work. The realism of the re- 
presentation is, however, only the basis for the expression of life- 
like character and present enjoyment. The earlier artists of the 
Renaissance rarely exhibit partiality for pathetic scenes, or events 
which awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions, and when 
such incidents are represented, they are apt to be somewhat exagger- 
ated. The preference of these masters obviously inclines to cheerful 
and joyous subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faith- 
fulness, in an objective sense, must not be looked for. "Whether the 
topic be derived from the Old or the New Testament, from history or 
fable, it is always transplanted to the immediate present, and adorn- 
ed with the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine 
national type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting 
Klizabeth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears a 


striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men , beautiful women , and pleasing children , occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground , prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently aimed at. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispo- 
sition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling ; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided , while in the art of the North physiognomic 
fidelity is usually accompanied by extreme rigidity. A taste for 
symmetry does not prevail in the formation of the individual figure 
only ; obedience to rhythmical precepts is perceptible in the dispo- 
sition of the groups also, and in the composition of the entire work. 
The intimate connection between Italian painting (fresco) and 
architecture naturally leads to the transference of architectural rules 
to the province of pictorial art , whereby not only the invasion of a 
mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was 
afforded to the artist for the execution of his task. For, to discover 
the most effective proportions , to inspire life into a scene by the 
very rhythm of the lineaments , are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid ; precise measurement and calcu- 
lation are here of no avail; a discriminating eye, refined taste, 
and a creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appro- 
priate forms for its design , can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious thirst for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 16th 
centuries to look back to classical antiquity as the era of illus- Studi 
trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, of the 
however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appro- Antique. 
priate resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 


course to be inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; belief in the Olympian gods was ex- 
tinct; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being wholly due to the 
perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this account 
pre-eminently to recommend themselves to Renaissance artists. 
These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
CHAEACTEit-idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who ex- 

istics of amine the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century 
s E ance snou l , i refrain from marring their enjoyment by the not al- 
Archi- together justifiable reflection, that in the Renaissance style 

tectuke. no new system was invented, as the architects merely em- 
ployed the ancient elements, and adhered principally to tradition 
in their constructive principles and selection of component parts. 
Notwithstanding the apparent want of organisation, however, great 
beauty of form, the outcome of the most exuberant imagination, 
will be observed in all these structures. 

Throughout the diversified stages of development of the suc- 
ceeding styles of Renaissance architecture, felicity of proportion is 
invariably the aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their 
success in this aim should also be regarded as the principal task of 
the spectator, who with this object in view will do well to compare 
a Gothic with a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove 
to him that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 
fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Pitti Palace at Florence , which , undecorated and 
unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a rude 
pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere descrip- 
tion. The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the mass, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the stories , and the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the aesthetic effect 
of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of construc- 
tion adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces , in 
which the roughly hewn blocks '(rustica) in the successive stories 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear reference to the 
highest story, or to the entire facade. The same bias manifests 
itself in Bramante's imagination. The Cancelleria is justly 


considered a beautifully organised structure ; and when, after the 
example of Palladio in church-facades, a single series of columns 
was substituted for those resting above one another, symmetry of 
proportion was also the object in view. 

From the works of Brunelleschi (p. xlvi), the greatest master of 
the Early Renaissance, down to those of Andrea Palladio of Vi- 
cenza(p.xlvii), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the works 
of all the architects of that period will be found to possess many 
features in common. The style of the 15th century may, however, 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Flor- Early Re 
entine Pitti, Riccardi, and Strozzi palaces are still based on naissanck. 
the type of the mediaeval castle , but other contemporary creations 
show a closer affinity to the forms and articulation of antique art. 
A taste for beauty of detail , coeval with the realistic tendency of 
painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th century an exten- 
sive application of graceful and attractive ornaments, which entirely 
cover the surfaces, and throw the real organisation of the edifice into 
the background. For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears 
to have been departed from ; anxious care is devoted to detail instead 
of to general effect; the re- application of columns did not at first 
admit of spacious structures; the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard of 
effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a re- 
straining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. 

There is no doubt that the Renaissance palaces (among which 
that of Urbino, mentioned in vol. ii. of this Handbook, has always 
been regarded as pre-eminently typical) are more attractive than the 
churches. These last, however , though destitute of the venerable 
associations connected with the mediaeval cathedrals , bear ample 
testimony to the ability of their builders. The churches of Northern 
Italy in particular are worthy of examination. The first early Re- 
naissance work constructed in this part of the country was the facade 
of the Certosa ofPavia, a superb example of decorative architecture. 
Besides the marble edifices of this period we also observe structures 
in brick, in which the vaulting and pillars form prominent features. 
The favourite form was either circular or that of the Greek cross 
(with equal arms), the edifice being usually crowned with a dome, 
and displaying in its interior an exuberant taste for lavish enrich- 
ment. Of this type are the church of the Madonna delta Croce near 
Crema and several others at Piacenza and Parma (Madonna della 
Steccata). It was in this region thatBRAMANTE prosecuted the studies 
of which Rome afterwards reaped the benefit. Among the secular 
buildings of N. Italy we may mention the Ospedale Maggiore at 
Milan, which shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The 
best survey of the palatial edifices built of brick will be obtained 
by walking through the streets of Bologna (p. 322). 


The visitor to Venice will have an opportunity of tracing within 
a very limited space the progress of Renaissance architecture. The 
church of S. Zaccaria is an example of early Renaissance still in 
conflict with Gothic, while the richly coloured church of S. Maria 
dei Miracoli and the Scuola di S. Marco exhibit the style in its 
perfection. Foremost among the architects of Venice must he 
mentioned the Lombardi, to whom most of the Venetian buildings 
of the 15th cent, are attributed ; but we shall afterwards advert to 
the farther progress of Venetian architecture (p. xlvii). One of the 
most famous architects of N. Italy was Fra Giocondo of Verona, a 
monk, philologist (the discoverer of the letters of the younger Pliny), 
a botanist, an engineer, and a thoroughly well trained architect, who 
at a very advanced age, after the death of Bramante, was summoned 
to Rome to superintend the building of St. Peter's. 

Examples of early Renaissance architecture abound in the towns 
of Tuscany. At Florence, the scene of Filippo Brunelleschi's 
labours (1379-1446), the attention is chiefly arrested by the church 
of S. Lorenzo (1425), with its two sacristies (the earlier by Brunel- 
leschi , the later by Michael Angelo , which it is interesting to 
compare), while the small Cappella dei Pazzi near S. Croce is also 
noticeable. The Palazzo Rucellai is also important as showing the 
combination of pilasters with 'rustica', the greatest advance achieved 
by the early Renaissance. Siena, with its numerous palaces, Pienza, 
the model of a Renaissance town, and Vrbino also afford excellent 
examples of the art of the Quattrocentists, but are beyond the limits 
of the present volume. "While all these different edifices possess 
many features in common , they may be classed in a number of 
groups, differing in material and various other characteristics, and 
entirely relieving them from any reproach of monotony. 

The early Renaissance is succeeded byBRAMANTE's epoch (1444- 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical construc- 
Zenith ti 011 - With a wise economy the mere decorative portions 
of the Re- were circumscribed , while greater significance and more 
naissance. mar ked expression were imparted to the true constituents 
of the structure, the real exponents of the architectural design. 
The works of the Bramantine era are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well defined, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
church-architecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (and vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form of a Greek cross with 
rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, possesses concentrated 


unity, and that the pillar-construction relieved by niches presents 
a most majestic appearance; nor can it be disputed that in the 
churches of the Renaissance the same artistic principles are applied 
as in the universally admired palaces and secular edifices. If the 
former therefore excite less interest, this is not due to the in- 
feriority of the architects, but to causes beyond their control. The 
great masters of this culminating period of the Renaissance were 
Raphael, Baldassare Peruzzi, the younger Antonio da Sangallo 
of Rome, Michele Sammicheli of Verona (p. 202), Jacopo Sanso- 
vino of Venice, and lastly Michael Angelo. The succeeding gener- 
ation of the 16th century did not adhere to the style introduced by 
Bramante, though not reduced by him to a finished system. They 
aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony among the 
individual members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest 
the eye by boldness of construction and striking contrasts ; or they 
borrow new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of 
which had hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. 

The traveller will become acquainted with the works of Bramante 
and his contemporaries at Rome (see vol. ii. of this Hand- FAMOCg n, F . 
book), but there are other places also which possess important naissance 
examples of the 'High Renaissance' style. At Florence, for Bdildings. 
example, are the Palazzo Pandolfini and the Palazzo Vguccioni, 
both of which are said to have been designed by Raphael ; the 
Court of the Pitti Palace by Bart. Ammanati; the Palazzo Serristori 
and the Palazzo Bartolini by Baccio d'Agnolo. We must also 
mention Mantua as the scene of the architectural labours of Gruxio 
Romano (p. 214) , Verona with its numerous buildings by Sam- 
micheli (e.g. the Palazzo Bevilacqua), and Padua, where Gio- 
vanni Maria Falconetto (1458-1534) and Andrea Riccio , or 
properly Briosco (S. Giustina) flourished. At Venice the Renais- 
sance culminated in the first half of the 16th cent, in the works of 
the Florentine Jacopo Sansovino (properly Tatti, 1477-1570), 
and at Genoa in those of Galeazzo Alessi (1500-72) of Perugia 
(e.g. S. Maria in Oarignano). 

In the middle and latter half of the 16th cent, Venice, Genoa, 
and Vicenza were zealous patrons of art. To this period akchi- 
belongs Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80 ; p. 220), tecture at 
the last of the great Renaissance architects, whose Venetian Venice. 
churches (S. Giorgio Maggiore and Redentore) and Vicentine palaces 
are equally celebrated. The fundamental type of domestic archi- 
tecture at Venice recurs with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 
convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 

xlviii ITALIAN ART. 

Biblioteca of Sansovino (in the Piazzetta ; p. 248) over the new 
Procurazie of Scamozzi (p. 244), although the two edifices exactly 
correspond in many respects, have made great progress towards an 
accurate insight into the architecture of the Renaissance. 

Much, however, would be lost hy the traveller who devoted his 
Minok attention exclusively to the master-works which have heen 

Works op extolled from time immemorial, or solely to the great mon- 
Art - umental structures. As even the insignificant vases (ma- 

jolicas , manufactured at Pesaro , Urhino , Gubbio , and Castel- 
Durante) testify to the taste of the Italians, their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, 
whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood (intarsia), 
often verge on the sphere of architecture in their designs, drawing, 
and style of enrichment. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 

Scdlptdke manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot 

of the Re- fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. 

naissance. "With the sculpture of the same period, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries 
still possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the 
present day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest con- 
summation at the same period; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 
compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art, far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar- 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of the 
latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously less im- 
portant than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture 
of the Renaissance, the enquirer at once encounters serious de- 
viations from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of aesthetic 
rules. The execution of reliefs constitutes by far the widest sphere 
of action of the Italian sculptors of the 15th century. These 


however, contrary to immemorial usage, are executed in a pictorial 
style. Lokenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), for example , in his cel- 
ebrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of Florence , is not satis- 
fled with grouping the figures as in a painting , and placing them 
in a rich landscape copied from nature. He treats the background 
in accordance with the rules of perspective ; the figures at a dis- 
tance are smaller and less raised than those in the foreground. 
He oversteps the limits of the plastic art, and above all violates 
the laws of the relief-style, according to which the figures are 
always represented in an imaginary space , and the usual system 
of a mere design in profile seldom departed from. In like manner 
the painted reliefs in terracotta by Luca della Robbia (1400-82) 
are somewhat inconsistent with purity of plastic form. But if 
it be borne in mind that the sculptors of the Renaissance did not 
derive their ideas from a previously defined system, or adhere to 
abstract rules , the fresh and lifelike vigour of their works (espe- 
cially those of the 15th century) will not be disputed, and pre- 
judice will be dispelled by the great attractions of the reliefs 
themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance adheres as strictly 
as the other arts to the fundamental principle of representation; 
scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and attractive ren- 
dering of the individual objects ; the taste is gratified by expres- 
sive heads , graceful female figures , and joyous children ; the 
sculptors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude, 
and the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drapery. In 
their anxiety for fidelity of representation , however , they do not 
shrink from harshness of expression or rigidity of form. Their 
predilection for bronze-casting , an art which was less in vogue in 
the 16th cent. , accords with their love of individualising their 
characters. In this material , decision and pregnancy of form are 
expressed without restraint, and almost, as it were, spontaneously. 
Works in marble also occur, but these generally trench on the pro- 
vince of decoration , and seldom display the bold and unfettered 
aspirations which are apparent in the works in bronze. 

The churches have always afforded the most important field for 
the labours of the Italian sculptors, some of them, such as S. Croce 
at Florence, the Frari and SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice, and the 
•Santo at Padua, forming very museums of Renaissance sculpture. 
At the same time many of the wealthier families (the Medici and 
others) embellished their mansions with statuary , and the art of 
the sculptor was frequently invoked with a view to erect a fitting 
tribute to the memory of some public benefactor (such as the 
equestrian statues at Venice and Padua). 

At Florence , the cradle of Renaissance sculpture , we become 
acquainted with Ghiberti and Delia Robbia, who have been sculptors 
already mentioned , and with the famous Dostatello (pto- op the Ke- 
perly Donato di NiccolS di Betti Babdi, 1386-1466), who NAISSANCE ' 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. cl 


introduced a naturalistic style, which, though often harsh, is full 
of life and character. The Judith Group in the Loggia de' Lanzi 
is an exaggerated and unpleasing example of this style, the master 
having aimed at the utmost possible expressiveness, while the lines 
and contours are entirely destitute of ease. Among Donatello's 
most successful works on the other hand are his statue of St. Oeorge 
and his Victorious David in bronze in the MuseoNazionale (p. 430), 
a collection invaluable to the student of the early Renaissance. The 
reliefs on the two pulpits in S. Lorenzo and the sculptures in the 
sacristy of that church (p. 448) should also be inspected. Dona- 
ello's finest works out of Florence are his numerous sculptures in 
S. Antonio at Padua. 

The next sculptor of note was Andrea Veeeocchio (1435-88). 
Most of the other masters of this period (Antonio Rossellino, 
Mino da Fiesole, Desidebio da Settignano) were chiefly oc- 
cupied in the execution of tombstones , and do not occupy a 
position of much importance; but the life and sense of beauty which 
characterise the early Renaissance are admirably exemplified in the 
works of the comparatively unknown Matteo Ciyitali of Lucca 
(1435-1501; Altar of St. Regulus in the Cathedral, p. 375). 
Important Florentine masters of the first half of the 16th cent, 
were Giov. Feanc. Rustici (1474-1554), who was perhaps inspir- 
ed by Leonardo, and particularly Andeea Sansoyino (1460-1529), 
the author of the exquisite group of Christ and the Baptist in the 
Baptistery at Florence, of superb monuments at Borne (in the choir 
of S. Maria del Popolo), and of part of the sculptures which adorn 
the Santa Casa at Loreto. Northern Italy also contributed largely 
to the development of the plastic art. The Certosa at Pavia , for 
example, afforded occupation during several decades to numerous 
artists, among whom the most eminent were Giovanni Antonio 
Amadbo (sculptor of the huge monuments in the Cappella Colleoni 
at Bergamo), and, at a later period, Ceistofoeo Solaei, surnamed 

II Gobbo ; Venice gave birth to the famous sculptor Alessandeo 
Leopaedi (d. 1521); Riccio or Beiosco wrought at Padua; Agos- 
tino Btjsti, il Bambaja (p. 120), and the above-mentioned Ceisto. 
foeo Solaei, were actively engaged at Milan; and Modena 
afforded employment to Mazzoni and Bbgaeelli (p. 311), artists 
in terracotta, the latter of whom is sometimes compared with 

Of the various works executed by these masters , Monumental 
Tombs largely predominate. While these monuments are often of 
a somewhat bombastic character , they afford an excellent illus- 
tration of the high value attached to individuality and personal 
culture during the Renaissance period. We may perhaps also fre- 
quently take exception to the monotony of their style which 
remained almost unaltered for a whole century, but we cannot fail 
to derive genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible freshness of 


imagination and richness of detail displayed within so narrow 

As museums cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century , so the picture galleries will not afford an 
accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculp- p AINTING 
tures are frequently removed from their original position, of the Cm- 
many of those belonging to the Florentine churches, for qdecento. 
example , having been of late transferred to museums ; but mural 
paintings are of course generally inseparable from the walls which 
they adorn. Of the frescoes of the 15th century of which a record has 
been preserved, perhaps one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, 
but those still extant are the most instructive and attractive ex- 
amples of the art of this period. The mural paintings in the church 
del Carmine (Cappella Brancacci) at Florence are usually spoken of 
as the earliest specimens of the painting of the Renaissance. This 
is a chronological mistake , as some of these frescoes were not com- 
pleted before the second half of the 15th century; but on material 
grounds the classification is justifiable, as this cycle of pictures may 
be regarded as a programme of the earlier art of the Renaissance, 
the importance of which it served to maintain, even during the age 
of Raphael. Here the beauty of the nude was first revealed, and 
here a calm dignity was for the first time imparted to the individual 
figures, as well as to the general arrangement ; and the transform- 
ation of a group of indifferent spectators in the composition into a 
sympathising choir, forming as it were a frame to the principal act- 
ors in the scene , was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, 
natural that these frescoes should still be regarded as models for 
imitation, and that, when the attention of connoisseurs was again 
directed during the last century to the beauties of the pre-Raphaelite 
period, the works of Masaccio (1401-1428) and Filippino Lippi 
(1457-1504) should have been eagerly rescued from oblivion (comp. 
p. 398). 

A visit to the churches of Florence is well calculated to convey 
an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of painting. 
The most important and extensive works are those of Do- 
menico Ghibxandajo (1449-94) : viz. frescoes in S. Trinita, ^okenceJ 
and those in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which in spright- 
liness of conception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the 
same period. (The traveller will find it very instructive to compare 
the former of these works with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. 
Croce, which also represent the legend of St. Francis, and to draw 
a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco and Ognissanti, and the work of Leonardo.) In the 
Dominican monastery of S. Marco reigns the pious and peaceful 
genius of Fka Giovanni Angblico da Fibsole (1387-1455), who, 
though inferior to his contemporaries in dramatic power, vies with 
the best of them in his depth of sentiment and his sense of beauty, 



as expressed more particularly by his heads, and who in his old 
age displayed his well-matured art in the frescoes of the chapel of 
St. Nicholas in the Vatican. 

Although the Tuscan painters exhibit their art to its fullest 
extent in their mural paintings, their easel-pictures are also well 
worthy of most careful examination; for it was chiefly through 
these that they gradually attained to perfection in imparting beauty 
and dignity to the human form. Besides the two great Florentine 
galleries (Ufflzi and Pitti), the collection of the Academy (p. 441) 
is also well calculated to afford a survey of the progress of Floren- 
tine painting. 

Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's charming 
scenes from the Old Testament on the northern wall of the Campo 
Painting in Santo of Pisa (p. 367), truly forming biblical genre-pictures, 
other Parts and his scenes from the life of St. Augustine in S. Gimi- 
or Tuscany. gnan0 ^ Fixippo Lippi's frescoes at Prato (p. 385), Pieeo 
della Feancesca's Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, 
and lastly Ltjca Signoeelli's representation of the Last Day in 
the Cathedral at Orvieto, afford a most admirable review of the 
character and development of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. 
Arezzo and Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only 
because the works they contain of Piero della Francesca and Luca 
Signorelli show how nearly the art even of the 15th century ap- 
proaches perfection, but because both of these towns afford an im- 
mediate and attractive insight into the artistic taste of the mediaeval 
towns of Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial 
towns will find several of the principal masters of the 15th century 
united in the mural paintings of the Sistine Chapel at Rome, where 
Sandeo Botticelli (see p. 398), a pupil of the elder Lippi, Cosimo 
Rosselli (p. 398), Dom. Ghirlandajo, Signorelli, and Perugino have 
executed a number of rich compositions from the life of Moses and 
that of Christ. 

But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never 
suffice to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general 
Other progress of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly 
Schools, touched vibrate powerfully in Upper Italy. The works of 
Andeea Mantegna (1431-1506; at Padua and Mantua) derive 
much interest from having exercised a marked influence on the 
German masters Holbein and Diirer, and surpass all the other works 
of his time in fidelity to nature and excellence of perspective 
(p. 215). — The earlier masters of the Venetian School (Vivaeini, 
Ceivelli) were to some extent adherents of the Paduan school, to 
which Mantegna belonged, but the peculiar Venetian style, mainly 
founded on local characteristics, and admirably successful in its rich 
portraiture of noble and dignified personages, was soon afterwards 
elaborated by Gentile Bellini (1421-1507) and his brother Gio- 
vanni (1426-1516), sons of Giacomo (comp. p. 241). — The Urn- 


brian School also, which originated at Gubbio, and is admirably re- 
presented early in the 15th century by Ottaviano Nelli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano, and culminating 
in its last masters Pietro Vannucci, surnamed Pertjgino (1446- 
1524), and Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pinturicchio (1454- 
1513), merits attention, not only because Raphael was one of its 
adherents during his first period , but because it supplements the 
broader Florentine style, and notwithstanding its peculiar and limit- 
ed bias is impressive in its character of lyric sentiment and reli- 
gious devotion (e. g. Madonnas). 

The fact that the various points of excellence were distributed 
among different local schools showed the necessity of a loftier union. 
Transcendent talent was requisite in order harmoniously to union of 
combine what could hitherto be viewed separately only, different 
The 15th century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, Schools. 
shows that the climax, of art was still unattained. The forms em- 
ployed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty and 
pure enough to be regarded as embodiments of the highest and 
noblest conceptions. The figures still present a local colouring, 
having been selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather 
than as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 
great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Anqelo Buonar- 
roti, and Raphael Santi, by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452-1519) remarkable character can only be thor- 
oughly understood after prolonged study. His comprehensive 
genius was only partly devoted to art; he also directed Leonardo 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely DA Vinci. 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were , his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind ; the vigour of 
his imagination served also to stimulate the exercise of his intellect ; 
and his minute observation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist , especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 
obliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 


have been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period , when he wrought under 
Andrea Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lo- 
renzo di Credi, is the Annunciation in the Ufflzi (p. 409) , if it 
be a genuine work. Several oil-paintings, portraits (e. g. the two 
fine works in the Ambrosiana at Milan, p. 130), Madonnas, and 
imaginative works are attributed to his Milan period, although 
careful research inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. Un- 
adulterated pleasure may, however, be taken in his drawings in 
the Ambrosiana and the Venice Academy (p. 261). The unfinished 
Adoration of the Magi in the Ufflzi (p. 409) bears ample testimony 
to the fertility of his imagination, while the St. Jerome in the Vati- 
can, though also unfinished, affords an insight into his technique. 
The best idea of his reforms in the art of colouring is obtained by 
an attentive examination of the works of the Milan school (Luini, 
Salaino; p. 119), as these are far better preserved than the only 
undoubted work of Leonardo's Milan period in Italy: the Last 
Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie (p. 131). Although now a total 
wreck , it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo. The spectator should first examine the delicate 
equilibrium of the composition , and observe how the individual 
groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously point to 
a common centre and impart a monumental character to the work ; 
then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which pervades every 
detail, the psychological distinctness of character, and the dramatic 
life , together with the calmness of the entire bearing of the 
picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo a new era 
in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the development of art 
had attained its perfection. 

The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be doubted by the 
amateur when he turns from Leonardo to Michael Angelo (1475- 
Michael 1564). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo extolled 
Angelo. as the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, while 
on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art , and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significative, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, we shall find that it is only by studying the master's bio- 
graphy that we can obtain an explanation of these anomalies , and 
reach a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's artistic greatness. 
Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to the nude and 
treats the drapery in many respects differently from his professional 
brethren. But, like them, his aim is to inspire his figures with life 
and he seeks to attain it by imparting to them an imposing and im- 
pressive character. At the same time he occupies an isolated position 


at variance with many of the tendencies of his age. Naturally pre- 
disposed to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate 
temperament beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was con- 
firmed in his peculiarities by the political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances of his time, and wrapped himself up within the depths of 
his own absorbing thoughts. His sculpture most clearly manifests 
that profound sentiment to which, however, he often sacrificed sym- 
metry of form. His figures are therefore anomalous , exhibiting a 
grand conception, 'but no distinct or tangible thoughts, and least of 
all the traditional ideas. It is difficult now to fathom the hidden 
sentiments which the master intended to embody in his statues and 
pictures ; his imitators seem to have seen in them nothing but massive 
and clumsy forms, and soon degenerated into meaningless mannerism. 
The deceptive effect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best ex- 
emplified by some of his later works. His Moses in S. Pietro in Vincoli 
is of impossible proportions ; such a man can never have existed ; the 
small head, the huge arms, and the gigantic torso are utterly dis- 
proportionate ; the robe which falls over the celebrated knee could 
not be folded as it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly 
impressive ; and so also are the Monuments of the Medici in S. 
Lorenzo at Florence , in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary 
moulding of some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices 
accuracy of detail in order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had 
so great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional mannerism 
would have been the result. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, in 
their anxiety to follow the example of his Last Judgment in the Sis- 
tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unnat- 
urally foreshortened nude figures, while Baccio Bandinelli, think- 
ing even to surpass Michael Angelo , produced in his group of 
Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence) a 
mere caricature of his model. 

Michael Angelo lived and worked at Florence and Rome alter- 
nately. We find him already in Rome at the age of 21 years (1496), 
as Florence, after the banishment of the Medici, offered no favour- 
able field for the practice of art. Here he chiselled the Pieta and 
the Bacchus. In the beginning of the 16th cent, he returned to his 
home, where he produced his David and worked on the Battle Car- 
toon (Florentines surprised while bathing by the Pisans), which has 
since disappeared. In 1505 the Pope recalled him to Rome, but 
the work entrusted to him there , the Tomb of Julius II. , was at 
this time little more than begun. The Ceiling Paintings in the 
Sistine Chapel absorbed his whole attention from 1508 to 1512. 
After the death of Julius , his monument was resumed on a more 
extensive scale. The commands of the new pope, however, who 
wished to employ the artist for the glorification of his own family, 


soon brought the ambitiously designed memorial once more to a 
standstill. From 1516 onwards Michael Angelo dwelt at Carrara 
and Florence, occupied at first with the construction and embellish- 
ment of the Facade of 8. Lorenzo, which was never completed, and 
then with the Tombs of the Medici. This work also advanced very 
slowly towards maturity, and at last the artist, disgusted with the 
tyranny of the Medici, set up in their places those of the statues which 
were finished, and migrated to Rome (1539). His first work here 
was the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, his next the erection 
of the scanty fragments of the tomb of Pope Julius. His last years 
were mainly devoted to architecture (St. Peter's). 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of the Pieta 
in St. Peter's occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare ; the finest , whether conceived 
in the midst of his youthful studies, ot in his maturer years, is un- 
questionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling, and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation , which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Lastly, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius, pervaded by his profound and sombre senti- 
ments, and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness and beauty. 
The decorative figures also which he designed to give life to his 
architectural framework are wonderfully beautiful and spirited. 
The Last Judgment, which was executed nearly thirty years later 
(in 1541 according to Vasari), is not nearly so striking as the 
ceiling-paintings, owing in a great measure to its damaged condi- 
tion. — Among Michael Angelo's pupils were Sebastian del 
Piombo (the Venetian), Mabcello Venusti , and Danible da 


Whether the palm be due to Michael Angelo or to Baphael (1483- 
1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which formerly gave 
rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, by no means Kaphael 
be precluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 


each master in his peculiar province , than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
ohstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted , was entirely exempt from his influence ; 
but the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account, not by- him, but by Raphael, whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enabled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 
he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, but rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them , and to reproduce them with the utmost 
fidelity. In the case of Raphael , therefore, a knowledge of his 
works and the enjoyment of them are almost inseparable, and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna , and the myth of Cupid and Psyche ; in 
great cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere 
of portrait-painting ; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style , architectural arrangement, sym- 
metry of groups, etc. ; at other times one is tempted to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects, 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course , both 
in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form , as if he had 
never followed any other. 

Little is known of Raphael's private life , nor is it known by 
what master he was trained after his father's death (1494). In 
1500 he entered the studio of Perugino (p. liii), and probably soon 
assisted in the execution of some of the works of his prolific master. 
Of Raphael's eariy, or Vmbrian period there are examples in the 
Vatican Gallery (Coronation of Mary) and the Brera at Milan 
(Sposalizio of the Madonna, 1504). On settling at Florence (1504) 
Raphael did not at first abandon the style he had learned at 
Perugia , and which he had carried to greater perfection than any 
of the other Umbrian masters. Many of the pictures he painted 
there show that he still followed the precepts of his first master ; 
but he soon yielded to the influence of his Florentine training. 
After the stoTm raised by Savonarola had passed over, glorious days 
were in store for Florence. Leonardo, after his return from Milan, 
and Michael Angelo were engaged here on their cartoons for the 
decoration of the great hall in the Palazzo "Vecchio ; and it was their 
example, and more particularly the stimulating influence of Leo- 


nardo, that awakened the genius and called forth the highest 
energies of all their younger contemporaries. 

The fame of the Florentine school was at this period chiefly 
Raphael's maintained by Fra Bartolommeo (1475-1517) and Andrea 
Florentine »el Saeto (1487-1531). The only works of Bartolommeo 
Oontempo- which we know are somewhat spiritless altar-pieces, but they 
rakies. ^11,14 i n a high degree the dignity of character, the tran- 
quillity of expression, and the architectural symmetry of grouping 
in which he excelled. His finest pictures are the Christ with the four 
Saints, the Descent from the Cross (or Pieta), the St. Mark in the Pitti 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the cathedral at Lucca. The traveller 
would not do justice to Andrea del Sarto, a master of rich colouring, 
were he to confine his attention to that artist's works in the two 
great Florentine galleries. Sarto's Frescoes in the Annunziata 
(court and cloisters) and in the Scalzo (History of John the Baptist, 
p. 445) are among the finest creations of the cinquecento. Such, 
too, was the stimulus given to the artists of this period by their 
great contemporaries at Florence that even those of subordinate 
merit have occasionally produced works of the highest excellence, 
as, for instance, the Salutation of Albeetinelli and the Zenobius 
pictures of Ridoleo Ghirlandajo in the Uffizi. The last masters of 
the local Florentine school were Pontoemo and Angblo Bronzino. 
Raphael's style was more particularly influenced by his relations 
to Fra Bartolommeo, and the traveller will find it most interesting 
to compare their works and to determine to what extent each derived 
suggestions from the other. The best authenticated works in 
Italy of Raphael's Florentine period are the Madonna del Granduca 
(Pitti), the Madonna del Cardinello (Uffizi), the Entombment (Gal. 
Borghese in Rome) , the Predelle in the Vatican , the portraits of 
Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti) , and the Portrait of Himself 
(Uffizi). The Portrait of a Lady in the Pitti gallery is of doubtful 
origin , and the Madonna del Baldacchino in the same gallery was 
only begun by Raphael. 

When Raphael went to Rome in 1508 he found a large circle 
Raphael's °t notable artists already congregated there. Some of these 
Roman were deprived of their employment by his arrival, including 
Iekiod. Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma, whose 
frescoes in the Farnesina (unfortunately not now accessible) vie 
with Raphael's works in tenderness and grace. A still more 
numerous circle of pupils, however, soon assembled around Ra- 
phael himself, such as Giulio Romano, Peeino del Vaga An- 
drea da Salerno, Polidoro da Caravaggio , Timoteo della 
Vite, Garofalo, Franc. Penni, and Giovanni da Udine. Attend- 
ed by this distinguished retinue, Raphael enjoyed all the honours 
of a prince, although, in the Roman art world, Bramante (p. xlvi) 
and Michael Angelo occupied an equally high rank. The latter did 
not, however, trench on Raphael's province as a painter so much as 


was formerly supposed, and the jealousy of each other which they 
are said to have entertained was probably chiefly confined to their re- 
spective followers. Raphael had doubtless examined the ceiling of 
the Sistine with the utmost care, and was indebted to Michael Angelo 
for much instruction ; but it is very important to note that he neither 
followed in the footsteps, nor suffered his native genius to be biassed 
in the slightest degree by the example of his great rival. A signal 
proof of this independence is afforded by the Sibyls which he painted 
in the church of 8. Maria della Pace in 1514, and which, though 
conceived in a very different spirit from the imposing figures in the 
Sistine, are not the less admirable. In order duly to appreciate the 
works produced by Raphael during his Roman period, the traveller 
should chiefly direct his attention to the master's frescoes. The 
Stanze in the Vatican, the programme for which was obviously 
changed Tepeatedly during the progress of the work , the Tapestry, 
the Logge, the finest work of decorative art in existence, the Dome 
Mosaics in S. Maria del Popolo (Capp. Chigi), and the Oalatea and 
Myth of Psyche in the Farnesina together constitute the treasure be- 
queathed to Rome by the genius of the prince of painters. (Farther 
particulars as to these works will be found in the second vol. of 
this Handbook.) 

Many, and some of the best, of Raphael's easel-pictures of his 
Roman period are now beyond the Alps. Italy, however, still pos- 
sesses the Madonna della Sedia, the most mundane, but most 
charming of his Madonnas (Pitti), the Madonna dell' Impannata 
(Pitti), the Madonna col Divino Amore (Naples), the Madonna di 
Foligno and the Transfiguration (in the Vatican), St. Cecilia (Bo- 
logna), and the Young St. John (Uffizi). The finest of his portraits 
are those of Pope Julius II. (Uffizi ; a replica in the Pitti) and 
Leo X. with two Cardinals (Pitti). Besides these works we must 
also mention his Cardinal Bibbiena (Pitti), the so-called Fornarina, 
Raphael's mistress (in the Pal. Barberini at Rome), and the Por- 
trait of a Lady (Pitti, No. 245), which may represent the same 
original and also recalls the Sistine Madonna. 

After Raphael's death the progress of art did not merely come 
to a standstill, but a period of rapid Decline set in. The conquest 
and plundering of Rome in 1527 entirely paralysed all artistic effort 
for a time. At first this misfortune proved a boon to other parts of 
Italy. Raphael's pupils migrated from Rome to various pro- 
vincial towns. Giulio Romano , for example, entered the Decline.* 
service of the Duke of Mantua, embellished his palace with 
paintings, and designed the Palazzo del T6 (p. 217), while Peeino 
del Vaga settled at Genoa (Pal. Doria). These offshoots of Raphael's 
school, however, soon languished, and ere long ceased to exist. 

The Northern Schools of Italy , on the other hand , retained 
their vitality and independence for a somewhat longer period. At 
Bologna the local style, modified by the influence of Raphael, 


was successfully practised by Bart. Ramenghi , surnamed 

Sihools of Bagnacayall0 (1484-1542). Ferrara boasted of Dosso 

a. halt. Doggi (1479-1542) andBENVENUTO Tisi, surnamed Garo- 

palo (1481-1559). At Verona the reputation of the school was 

maintained by Gianpranc. Caroto. 

The most important works produced in Northern Italy were those 
of Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (14947-1534), and of 
c reggio the Venetian masters. Those who visit Parma after Rome 
orregg o. ^^^ Florence will certainly be disappointed with the pic- 
tures of Correggio. They will discover a realistic tendency in his 
works, and they will observe, not only that his treatment of space 
(as in the perspective painting of domes) is unrefined, but that 
his individual figures possess little attraction beyond mere natural 
charms, and that their want of repose is apt to displease and fatigue 
the eye. The fact is , that Correggio was not a painter of allem- 
bracing genius and far-reaching culture , but merely an adept in 
chiaroscuro, who left all the other resources of his art undeveloped. 
In examining the principal works of the Venetian School, how- 
ever, the traveller will experience no such dissatisfaction. From the 
school of Giovanni Bellini (p. lii) emanated the greatest re- 
Sc^ool 11 P r esentatives of Venetian painting — Giorgione , properly 
Barbarelli (1477-1511), whose works have unfortunately 
not yet been sufficiently well identified , the elder Palma (1480- 
1528), and Tiziano Vecellio (1477-1576), who for nearly three 
quarters of a century maintained his native style at its culminating 
point. These masters are far from being mere colorists; nor do they 
owe their peculiar attraction to local inspiration alone. The enjoy- 
ment of life and pleasure which they so happily pourtray is a theme 
dictated by the culture of the Renaissance (a culture possessed in 
an eminent degree by Titian, as indicated by his intimacy with the 
'divine' Aretino). Their serene and joyous characters often recall 
some of the ancient gods , showing the manner in which the artists 
of the Renaissance had profited by the revived study of the antique. 
Properly to appreciate Titian it is of importance to remember how 
much of his activity was displayed in the service of the different 
courts. His connection with the family of Este began at an early 
period ; he carried on an active intercourse with the Gonzagas at 
Mantua, and executed numerous pictures for them. Later he basked 
in the favour of Charles V- and Philip II. of Spain. The natural 
result of this was that the painting of portraits and of a somewhat 
limited cycle of mythological subjects engrossed the greater part of 
his time and talents. That Titian's genius, however, was by no 
means alien to religion and deep feeling in art, and that his imagin- 
ation was as rich and powerful in this field as in pourtraying 
realistic and sensually attractive forms of existence, is proved by 
his numerous ecclesiastical paintings , of which the finest are the 
Pesaro Madonna (p. 282), the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (p 272) 


the Presentation in the Temple (p. 259), and the Assumption 
(p. 261) at Venice. The St. Peter Martyr, another masterpiece, 
unfortunately fell a prey to the flames. 

Owing to the soundness of the principles on which the Venetian 
school was based, there is no wide gulf between its masters of the 
highest and those of secondary rank , as is so often the case in the 
other Italian schools ; and we accordingly find that works by Lo- 
renzo Lotto, Sebastian del Piombo, the Bonifazios, Pordenone, 
Paris Bordone , and Jacopo Tintoretto frequently vie in beauty 
with those of the more renowned chiefs of their school. Even 
Paolo Caliari, surnamed Veronese (1528-88), the last great 
master of his school, shows as yet no trace of the approaching 
period of decline , but continues to delight the beholder with his 
delicate silvery tints and the spirit and richness of his compositions 
(comp. p. 242). 

Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently taken as models by the Italian painters of the 17th century, 
and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite decline* 
period were not usually overlooked. Those, however, who 
make the great cinquecentists their principal study will doubtless 
be loth to examine the works of their successors. Magnificent de- 
corative works are occasionally encountered, but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial man- 
nerism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism, exemplified in the works of Zuccaro, d'Arpino, 
Tempesta, and others, are encountered at Rome and Florence 
(cupola of the cathedral). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , as it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness which is attributed to these artists. 

The condition of Italian art, that of painting at least, improved 
to some extent towards the close of the 16th century, when there 
was a kind of second efflorescence, known in the schools as 
the 'revival of good taste', which is said to have chiefly k E y°y A > L . E 
manifested itself in two directions , the eclectic and the na- 
turalistic. But these are terms of little or no moment in the study 


of art, and the amateur had better disregard them. This period of art 
also should be studied historically. The principal architectural mon- 
uments of the 17th century are the churches of the Jesuits, which 
unquestionably produce a most imposing effect; but the historical 
enquirer will not easily be dazzled by their meretricious magni- 
ficence. He will perceive the absence of organic forms and the 
impropriety of combining totally different styles, and he will steel 
himself against the gorgeous, but monotonous attractions of the 
paintings and other works of the same period. The bright Renais- 
sance is extinct , simple pleasure in the natural and human is ob- 
literated. A gradual change in the views of the Italian public and 
in the position of the church did not fail to influence the tendencies 
of art, and in the 17th century artists again devoted their energies 
more immediately to the service of the church. Devotional pictures 
now became more frequent, but at the same time a sensual, natural- 
istic element gained ground. At one time it veils itself in beauty 
of form, at another it is manifested in the representation of volup- 
tuous and passionate emotions ; classic dignity and noble symmetry 
are never attained. Cbist. Allobi's Judith (p. 464) should be 
compared with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes of Annibale 
Cabbacci in the Palazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings in 
the Farnesina, in order that the difference between the 16th and 
17th centuries may be clearly understood ; and the enquirer will be 
still farther aided by consulting the coeval Italian poetry , and ob- 
serving the development of the lyric drama or opera. The poetry of 
the period thus furnishes a key to the mythological representations 
of the School of the Carracci. Gems of art, however, were not un- 
frequently produced during the 17th century, and many of the frescoes 
of this period are admirable, such as those by Guido Rbni and 
Dombnichino at Rome. Beautiful oil-paintings by various masters 
are also preserved in the Italian galleries. Besides the public col- 
lections of Bologna , Naples , and the Vatican and Capitol , the 
private galleries of Rome are of great importance. The so-called 
gallery-pieces, figures and scenes designated by imposing titles, and 
painted in the prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily re- 
ceived, and indeed most appropriately placed in the palaces of the 
Roman nobles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that 
age. This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may be regarded as a symptom of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from public life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an isolated 
position, unchecked by public opinion, exposed to the caprices of 
amateurs, and themselves inclined to an arbitrary deportment. 
Several qualities, however , still exist of which Italian artists are 
never entirely divested; they retain a certain address in the 
arrangement of figures, they preserve their reputation as ingenious 
decorators, and understand the art of occasionally imparting an 
ideal impress to their pictures; even down to a late period in the 


18th century they excel in effects of colour, and by devoting 
attention to the province of genre and landscape-painting they may 
boast of having extended the sphere of their native art. At the 
same time they cannot conceal the fact that they have lost all 
faith in the ancient ideals , that they are incapable of new and 
earnest tasks. They breathe a close, academic atmosphere, they 
no longer labour like their predecessors in an independent and 
healthy sphere, and their productions are therefore devoid of ab- 
sorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch, which, be 
it again observed, is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

Contents of Article on Italian Art : 


Art of Antiquity : the Greeks and Romans xxix 

The Middle Ages : Early Christian Art xxxiii 

Byzantine style xxxiv 

Romanesque style xxxvi 

Gothic style xxxviii 

NiccolS Pisano, Giotto xxxix 

The Renaissance xli 

Architecture xliv 

Early Renaissance xlv 

High Renaissance xlvi 

Sculpture xlviii 

Painting : 

{Tuscan Schools li 

Upper Italian Schools. The Venetians . Hi 

Umbrian School liii 

[Leonardo da Yinci .... . . liii 

I Michael Angelo and his pupils ... liv 

XVI. Cent. / Raphael, his contemporaries, and pupils lvi 

I Correggio lx 

(, Venetian masters lx 

End of the XVI., and XVII. Cent. : Mannerists, Naturalists, 

Eclectics , , lxi 


Among the best works on Italian art are Morelli's Italian Paint- 
ers; Crowe $ Cavalcaselle' s History of Painting in Italy and History 
of Painting in North Italy; Kugler's Handbook of Painting (new 
edit, by Sir H. LayarcT); Mrs. Jameson's Lives of the Italian Paint- 
ers; the various writings of Dr. Jean Paul Richter; and the works 
of Mr. C. C. Perkins on Italian Sculpture. A convenient and trust- 
worthy manual for the traveller in Italy is Burckhardt's Cicerone 
(translated by Mrs. A. H. Clough). 

I. Routes to Italy.* 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis .... 1 

From Geneva to Culoz 1 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola .... 3 

3. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como (Milan). 

St. Gotthard Railway 4 

4. From Ooire to Colico over the Spliigen 13 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 15 

From Trent to Bassano by the Val Sugana 18 

From Mori to Riva 18 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 19 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

498 M. Railway in 22-301/2 hrs. (fares 98 fr. 80, 73 fr. 55, 53 fr. 30c). 

From Paris to (348 M.) Culoz (774 ft. ; Hotel Folliet; *Rail. 
Restaurant), the junction of the Geneva line, see Baedeker's North- 
em France and Baedeker's Southern France. 

Feom Geneva to Cdloz, 4iy 2 M., railway in l 3 /4-2'/3 hrs. (fares 8fr. 10, 
6fr., 4fr. 45c). The line follows the right bank of the Rhone, on the 
slopes of the Jura Mts. Beyond (14 M.) Collonges, the Rhone flows through 
a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Mont Vouache, 
and commanded by the Fort de VEcluse , which rises far above on the 
right. The line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Credo (2'/3 M.), 
crosses the grand Valserine Viaduct (275 yds. long and 170 ft. high), and 
reaches (2072 M.) Bellegarde (Poste), at the influx of the Valserine into the 
Rhone (French custom-house examination). — 4IV2 M. Culoz. 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at stat. Chindrieux reaches the 
N. end of the Lac du Bourget (745 ft,), 10 M. in length, 3 M. in 
breadth, the E. bank of which it follows. On the opposite bank is 
the Cistercian monastery of Hautecombe. 

363 M. Aix-Ies- Bains (850 ft.; Grand Hotel d'Aix; Hotel 
Venat ; Grand Hotel de V Europe ; Grand Hotel du Nord ; Hotel Guil- 
land et de la Poste, less expensive ; and many others), the Aquae 
Allobrogum or Aquae Gratianae of the Romans, is a celebrated 
watering-place with 6300 inhab., possessing sulphur-springs (113° 
Fahr.). In the place in front of the Etablissement Thermal rises the 
Arch of Campanus, a Roman tomb of the 3rd or 4th cent. , built in 
the shape of a triumphal arch. 

370 M. Chambery (880 ft.; Hotel de France; Hotel du Commerce; 
Hotel des Princes'), beautifully situated on the Leisse, with 20,900 
inhab., is the capita] of the Department of Savoy, and an archi- 
episcopal see. 

377 M. Chignin-les- Marches. — 380 M. Monimelian (921 ft, ; 
Buffet). The ancient castle was long the bulwark of Savoy against 
France until its destruction in 1705 by Louis XIV. The train con- 

t Approaches to Italy through France, see Baedeker's Southern France. 
Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. \ 

2 Route 1. MONT CKNIS. 

tinues to ascend the valley of the Isere. 382'/2 M - Cruet. — 385 M. 
.$/. Pierre d'Albigny (Buffet), the junction of the branch-line to 
Albertville and (32 M.) Moutiers-en-Turentaise (p. 43) ; the town 
lies opposite on the right hank, commanded by the ruins of a castle. 
— Near (388 M.) Chamousset the line turns to the right, and 
traverses the valley of the Arc (Vallee de Maurienne), which here 
joins the Isere. 393 M. Aiguebelle; 413 M. St. Jean de Maurienne ; 
421 M. St. Michel (2330 ft.). The train crosses the Arc several 
times. Numerous tunnels. — 427 M. La Praz (3135 ft.). 

431 M. Modane (3495 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant, dej. with wine 
4 fr. ; Hotel International) is the seat of the French and Italian 
custom-house authorities (change carriages). 

The train (view to the right) describes a wide curve round the 
village, and passing through two short tunnels, enters the great 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, by which the Col de Frejus (8470 ft.) is pene- 
trated in a S.E. direction, though the name is derived from the old 
Mont Cenis road, which crosses the Mont Cenis Pass, 17 M. to theE. 

The tunnel (7 3 /4 M. in length; N. entrance 3800 ft., S. entrance 4160 ft. 
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4090 ft.) was completed in 1861-1870 under the 
superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, and Grattoni at a 
total cost of 75,000,000 fr. The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high, and has 
two lines of rails. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 
metres, and the distances are given in kilometres. The transit occupies 
25-30 minutes. Travellers are warned not to protrude their beads or arms 
from the carriage-windows during the transit, and are also recommended 
to keep the windows shut. 

At the S. end of the tunnel, 5 M. from the frontier, is (445 M.) 
Bardonnecchia (4125 ft.), the first Italian station. The best views 
are now to the left. Two tunnels. Stat. Beaulard. Near stat. Oulx 
(3500 ft.), the Roman Villa Martis, the line enters the picturesque 
valley of the Dora Riparia. Beyond a bridge and two tunnels is 
(446 M.) Salbertrand (3303 ft.). The river is again crossed. Be- 
fore the next station, nine tunnels are traversed. To the left, be- 
tween the second and third, a glimpse is obtained of the small 
town of Exilles, with the frontier fortress of that name ; farther on, 
a fine waterfall. — 461i/ 2 M. Chiomonte, or Chaumont (2525 ft.). 
Then several tunnels and aqueducts. The valley contracts and 
forms a wild gorge (Le Gorgie), of which beautiful views are 
obtained , with the Mont Cenis road winding up the hill on the 
farther side, and the Roche Melon (11,604 ft.), the Roche Michel, 
and other peaks towering above it. When the valley expands, Susa, 
with its Roman triumphal arch, comes in sight on the left (see 
p. 4«). — 466i/ 2 M. Meana (1950 ft.), 1 M. from Susa, lies 325 ft. 
higher than the latter. Three tunnels. The train then descends 

through beautiful chestnut woods, and crosses the Dora. 471 M. 

Bussoleno (1425 ft.), the junction of the branch-line to Susa de- 
scribed at p. 48. 

At (470 M.) Borgone the Dora is crossed. 479 M. 5. Antonino ■ 

SIMPLON.- 2. Route. 3 

481 M. Condove. — • 483 M. S. Ambrogio (1160 ft.), high above 
which, on a rocky eminence to the right, rises the abbey of La 
Sagra di S. Michele (3110 ft.), remarkable for its tombs which con- 
vert dead bodies into natural mummies. At (486 M.) Avigliana, 
with a large dynamite factory, the valley expands into a broad plain. 
487 M. Rosta; 490 M. Alpignano; 492i/ 2 M. Collegno. — 498 M. 
Turin, see p. 25. 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola. 

41 M. Diligence from Brig over the Simplon to Domodossola twice 
daily in summer in 8 3 /4 hrs. (in the reverse direction 9'/2 hrs. ; fare 16 fr. 5, 
coupe 19 fr. 40 c). Luggage for the morning diligence must be delivered 
the night before. Extra Post with two horses 88 fr. 40 c. Private car- 
riage hired at the Brig hotels, with one horse 45, Iwo horses 80-90 fr. 

Brig, French Brigue (2245 ft. ; Hotel des Couronnes et Poste ; 
Angleterre, and others; Railway Restaurant), a well-built little 
town, with a turreted chateau , is the terminus of the railway (see 
Baedeker's Switzerland'), and the beginning of the Simplon Route, 
constructed by order of Napoleon in 1800-1806, which here quits 
the valley of the Rhone, and ascends in numerous windings. 

9 M. Berisal (5005 ft.), the Third Refuge (Hotel de la Poste). 
Above the Fourth Refuge (5645 ft.) a retrospect is obtained in 
clear weather of the Bernese Alps to the N., from which the Aletsch 
Glacier descends. The part of the road between the Fifth Refuge 
(6345 ft.) and the culminating point is protected from avalanches 
by several galleries. From the Sixth Refuge (6540 ft.) a splendid 
final view is enjoyed of the Rhone Valley. 

Beyond the summit of the Simplon Pass (6590 ft.) is the Hos- 
pice (accommodation), a spacious building 6^/4 M. from Berisal. 
A broad valley, bounded by snow-capped heights and glaciers, forms 
the highest portion of the pass. The Raut Glacier is conspicuous 
on the mountains to the S. ; to the E. rises the Monte Leone 
(11,660 ft.). 

21 M. Simplon, Ger. Simpeln, Ital. Sempione (4855 ft.; Poste, 
R., L., & A. 3^2 fr- ; Hotel Fletschhom). The road now describes a 
long curve to the S., which pedestrians may cut off by a rough path. 
At the Algaby Gallery begins the wild and grand *Ravine of Gondo. 
At the end of the last and longest of the cuttings by which the road 
penetrates the rocks the Fressinone (or Alpienbach) forms a fine 
waterfall, which is crossed by a slender bridge ; on both sides the 
rocks tower to a dizzy height, presenting a most imposing picture. 
Gondo (2815 ft.) is the last Swiss village ; ^2 M. beyond it is the 
Italian boundary-column, and Y4 M. farther is S. Marco, the first 
Italian village. 

30 M. Iselle (2155 ft. ; Posta) is the seat of the Italian custom- 
house. The valley , although now less wild , continues to be ex- 
tremely picturesque. It unites with the broad and fertile valley of 

^ * 

4 Route 3. LUCERNE. 

the Tosa(ValAntigorio) at the bridge of Crevola, 100 ft. in height, 
below which it is called the Vol d'Ossola. The scenery now assumes 
a distinctly Italian character. 

41 M. Domodossola (905 ft. ; E6tel de la Ville et Poste, R., L., 
& A. 4-41/2, D- 4-5 fr.; Hotel d'Espagne, well spoken of; Albergo 
Nazionale'; Corona Grossa; Peace, unpretending), the ancient Os- 
cela, a small town with 2200 inhab. , beautifully situated. The 
Palazzo Silva (16th cent.J contains a small museum. The Calvary 
Hill, Y2 hr. to the S., commands a superb view. 

About 41/2 M. to the W. lies Bognanco (2083 ft.), the chief place of the 
valley of that name, with mineral springs and a hydropathic establishment. 

Railway from Domodossola to Gravellona (for Pallanza and 
Stresa) and to Novara, see R. 26. 

3. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como 
(Milan). St. Gotthard Railway. 

Railway to (144 M.) Chiasso in 6-9V4 hrs. (fares 32 fr., 22 fr. 40 c, 
16 fr. ; through-fares to Milan , 177 M. , 35 fr. 70, 25 fr. 65, 17 fr. 65 c. ; 
sleeping compartment 11 fr. 80 c. extra). — A table-d'hote dinner (3 1 /* fr. 
includ. wine) for passengers by the day-express is provided at Goeschenen, 
where the traveller should be careful to avoid an involuntary change of 
carriages, or even of trains. Finest views from Lucerne to Fliielen to 
the right, from Fliielen to Goeschenen to the left, and from Airolo to 
Bellinzona to the right. 

The *St. Gotthard Railway, constructed in 1872-82, at a total cost of 
238 million francs, is one of the most stupendous engineering enterprises 
of modern times. The highest point of the railway is in the middle of 
the great tunnel and is 3787 ft. above the level of the sea. The maximum 
gradient is 1 : 4, the shortest curve-radius 330 yds. The inclines have partly 
been surmounted by large spiral tunnels, of which there are three on the 
N. side of the St. Gotthard and four on the S. In all the railway has 56 
tunnels (with an aggregate length of 25 M.), 32 large bridges, 24 minor 
bridges, and 10 viaducts. The great tunnel alone cost nearly 57 million 
francs. Louis Favre, the engineer, died of apoplexy in the tunnel on July 
19th, 1879. 

The "Steamboat Voyage on the Lake of Lucerne from Lucerne to 
Fliielen is much pleasanter than the railway journey, and is recommended 
to those who are not pressed for time. Comp. Baedeker's Switzerland. 

Lucerne. — Schweizerhof& LdzernerHof; Hotel National; Beau- 
rivage; Europe; Angletekke; Cygne; Hotel do Rigi; all on the lake; 
the first-named are on a large scale. Hotel du Lac and St. Gotthard, both 
near the station. Balances, on the Reuss. — Engel, Adler, Rcessli, 
Poste, Mohk, all unpretending. 

Lucerne (1437 ft.) , the capital of the canton of that name , is 
beautifully situated at the efflux of the Reuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. The celebrated Lion of Lucerne, designed by Thorvald- 
sen, lies 1/4 M. to the N. of the Schweizerhof-Quai. The best view 
is obtained from the Giitsch (1722 ft.), at the N.W. end of the 
town, 3/4 M. from the station (wire-rope railway in 3 min.). 

The railway leads via. (11 M.) Rothkreuz, junction of the line to 
Zurich, skirts the Lake of Zug, and beyond (25 M.) Brunnen reaches 
the *Urner See or E. arm of the Lake of Lucerne, along the banks of 
which it runs through a succession of tunnels, some of great length. 


Beyond (36 M.) Fliielen (1435 ft. ; Kreuz, Adler, etc. J the train as- 
cends the broad valley of the Reuss, via (38 M.) Altdorf&nA (411/2 M.) 
Erstfeld, where a heavier locomotive is attached to the train. 

The most interesting part of the railway begins at (45 M.) Am- 
steg (1760 ft). Immediately beyond the station the train pierces a 
projecting rock by means of the Windgelle Tunnel, crosses the Ker- 
stelenbach by an imposing bridge , and is then carried through the 
slope of the Bristenstock by means of two tunnels, and across the 
Reuss by an iron bridge 256 ft. high. We now follow the left bank 
of the picturesque Reuss valley, traversing the Inschi Tunnel and 
crossing the Inschialpbach, cross the Zraggenthal by means of a 
viaduct, and skirt the mountain through three tunnels and a long 
cutting and over a viaduct. 

Beyond (50 M.) Qurinellen (2300 ft.) the train crosses the Oor- 
neren-Bach and the Haegrigen-Bach and enters the Pfaffensprung 
Loop Tunnel (1635 yds.). On emerging from the upper end of the 
tunnel, which is 115 ft. above the lower, the train proceeds through 
three shorter tunnels and over several bridges , and beyond the 
Wattinger Loop Tunnel (1199 yds. long; 76 ft. of ascent) again 
crosses the Reuss and penetrates another tunnel to — 

55 M. "Wasen (3055 ft.), a considerable village with a loftily 
situated church, commanding an admirable survey of the bold struc- 
ture of the Tailway. The imposing Middle Meienreuss Bridge 
(260 ft. high), a short tunnel, and the Leggistein Loop Tunnel 
(1204 yds. long, 82 ft. of ascent) now carry us to the third or Upper 
Meienreuss Bridge (148 ft. high) , grandly situated. We then 
pass through the short Meienkreuz Tunnel and obtain a view of the 
windings just traversed. Opposite rises the Rienzer Stock (9785 ft.). 
We next cross two fine bridges, penetrate the Naxberg Tunnel (1 M. 
long ; ascent of 118 ft.), and span the deep gorge of the Ooeschenen- 
Reuss by a bridge 161 ft. high (view of the Goeschenen-Thal to the 
right, with the beautiful Dammafirn in the background). 

60 M. Goeschenen (3640 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, comp. p. 4). 

Immediately beyond the station the train crosses the Ootthard 
Reuss and enters the great *St. Gotthard Tunnel, which, runs nearly 
due S., 5-6000 ft. below the highest point of the mountain. The 
tunnel is 16,309 yds. or about 9*/4 M. in length, 28 ft. wide, and 
21 ft. high. It is laid with a double line of rails, and is lined with 
masonry throughout. Express trains take 16 min. to pass through 
the tunnel, slow trains 25 min. ; lanterns are placed on each side 
of the tunnel at intervals of 1000 metres, numbered i to xv, the 
even numbers being on the right side and the uneven on the left. — 
At the S. end of the tunnel, to the right, are some new fortifications. 

70 M. Airolo (3755 ft.), in the upper Ticino Valley (Valle Le- 
ventina). The scenery here still retains quite an Alpine character. 

Beyond Airolo the train crosses the Ticino, which descends from 
the Val Bedretto opening to the right, passes through the Stalvedro 

6 Route 3. FAIDO. From Lucerne 

Tunnel (a"bout 3 / 4 M. long), and enters the Stretto di Stalvedro. 
On the left bank of the Ticino the. high-road runs through four 
rock-cuttings. The valley expands near (73 M.) Ambri-Piotta. To 
the left lies Quinto. Beyond (76 M.) Bodi-Fiesso (3100 ft.) the 
Monte Piottino projects into the valley on the N. The Ticino has 
worn a course for itself through the mountain, and descends the 
gloomy gorge in a series of waterfalls. The railway crosses the Ti- 
cino, passes through two short tunnels, and enters the Freggio Loop 
Tunnel(l M. in length), from which we emerge, 118 ft. lower, in 
the Piottino Gorge. We again cross the Ticino in the midst of the 
grandest scenery, and then thread two short tunnels, tihePratoLoop 
Tunnel (1 M. long; 111 ft. of descent), and another short tunnel, 
beyond which we enjoy a view of the beautiful valley of Faido. 
Crossing the Ticino and going through another tunnel, we reach ■ — 

82M. Faido (2485 ft.), the capital of the Leventina, thoroughly 
Italian in character. On the right the Piumogna descends in a 
fine waterfall. 

The train now follows the left bank of the Ticino , traversing 
a beautiful district, richly wooded with walnut and chestnut trees. 
To the right lies Chiggiogna, with an old church. Near (86 M.) 
Lavorgo the Cribiasca forms a fine waterfall on the right. Farther 
on, the Ticino forces its way through the picturesque'Btasc/ima Ra- 
vine to a lower region of the valley. The railway descends about 
300 ft. on the left bank by means of two loop-tunnels , one below 
the other in corkscrew fashion : viz. the Pianotondo Loop Tunnel 
(nearly 1 M. long; 115 ft. of descent), beyond a short tunnel and 
a viaduct, and the Travi Loop Tunnel (nearly 1 M. long ; 118 ft. of 
descent), beyond another short tunnel and viaduct. The train has 
now reached the lower zone of the Valle Leventina, and crosses and 
recrosses the Ticino on either side of (90 M.) Oiornico (1480 ft.). 
On the right is the pretty fall of the Cramosina. 94 M. Bodio 
(1090 ft.). Beyond Polleqgio, the Brenno descends from the Val 
Blenio on the left, and is crossed by a double bridge. The valley 
of the Ticino now expands and takes the name of Riviera. Luxuriant 
vines, chestnuts, walnuts, mulberries, and fig-trees remind the 
traveller of his proximity to 'the garden of the earth, fair Italy'. 

97 M. Biasca (970 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), with an old Romanesque 
church on a hill. From the station a series of oratories ascends to the 
Petronilla Chapel, near which is the pretty Froda or St. PetronillaFall. 

The train proceeds in the valley of the Ticino, here divided 
into many arms. It passes through two tunnels. 101 M Osoana 

(87 ° ft dLT m M - Clar ° ( 830 ft )' at the f00t of the Pmodi 
Claro (8920 ft.), with the monastery of S. Maria on the hillside. 
Beyond (107 Al.) Castione the train passes the mouth of the Val 
Mcsocco and crosses the Moesa. The train then passes through a 
tunnel, beyond which we obtain a magnificent view of liellinzona 
109 M. Bellinzona (700 ft. ; Railway Restaurant; Hot -Pens 


J Sol dm o^, 


H. flej^rvue 'asaivs tore 'Cajx^Xlfcutum.M. 

(^oerapli. A*-«+^"h — 

"Wagner &. Debes , leipzig" 

to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 7 

Suisse et de la Poste; Ceroo; Albergo-Kistorante Ferrari), the cap- 
ital of the canton of Ticino, with 3300 inhab., is the junction for 
Locarno (p. 161) and Luino (p. 163). Above it rise three pictur- 
esque castles : the Castello Grande, on an isolated hill to the W., 
the Castello di Mezzo, and the Castello Corbario to the E. 

The railway to Lugano and Milan passes through a tunnel 
(300 yds.) below the Castello di Mezzo. At (111 M.) Giubiasco 
the railways to the Lago Maggiore (see pp. 57, 161) diverge to 
the right. Our line approaches the foot of the mountains near Camo- 
rino , and ascends the slopes of Monte Cenere through walnut and 
chestnut trees. S. Antonio lies below on the right ; then Cadenazzo 
(p. 57). Two tunnels. *View of the Ticino Valley and the influx 
of the Ticino into the Lago Maggiore, improving as we ascend. The 
train then penetrates the Monte Cenere by means of a curved 
tunnel (1 M. long), 1435 ft. above the sea-level and about 370 ft. 
below the summit of the pass. At the S. end of the tunnel, in a 
sequestered valley, lies (U8V2 M -) Rivera-Bironico (1420 ft.). The 
train then skirts the Leguana, which soon unites with the Vedeggio, 
a stream descending from Mte. Camoghe (p. 11), to form the Agno. 
Beyond a short tunnel is (124 M.) Taverne (1130 ft.). At La- 
mone (1033 ft.) the train quits the Agno and beyond a final tunnel 
it reaches — 

128 M. Lugano. — The Railway Station (1110 ft.; PI. C, 2; "Restau- 
rant) lies on the hill above the town, of which as well as of the lake it 
commands a fine view. Besides the road there are a shorter footpath and 
a Cable Tramway {Funicolare; comp. PI. C, 2, 3), to the right of the exit 
from the station (fares up 40 or 20 c, down 20 or 10 c.) ; but travellers 
with heavy luggage will find a cab or a hotel omnibus more convenient. — 
The Steamboats (to Porlezza and Ponte Tresa, see p. 155; to Capolago, 
on the Generoso Railway, see p. 12) have three piers 1 Lugano-Citta, at 
the Piazza Giardino (PI. D, 3), Lugano-Parco, near the Hotel du Pare (PI. 
C, 4), and Lugano-Paradiso (PI. B, 6), for Paradiso and the Mte. 8. Salvatore. 

Hotels (the chief of which send omnibuses to meet the trains and 
steamers). On the lake: "Hotel du Paec (PL a; B, C, 4), in an old mon- 
astery, with shady garden (band twice a day) and the dependances of Bel- 
vedere, Villa Ceresio, and Beau-S&jour (PL b, B 4; the last, with fine 
garden, alone open in winter), R., L., & A. 4-6, B. I1/2 , dej. 3, D. 5, 
omn. I1/2, pens. 8-11 fr.; "Grand-Hotel Splendide (PI. C; B, 5), farther to 
the S.. R. from 3, L. 1, A. 1, B. l'fo dej. 31/2, D. 5, omn. O/2, pens. 9-12 fr.; 
Hot -Pens. Lugano (PI. e; C, 3), with a small garden; Hot.-RestaU- 
eant Americano (PL f; D, 3), Piazza Giardino, with a good restaurant, 
dej. 21/2, with wine 3, D. 3-3'/*, with wine 4, pens. 6 fr. . - In the town: 
H^telIrestadrant Suisse (PLg;D, 3), near the Piazza Giardino, R., L 
& A 2V,-i B I1/4 dei. 2'/ 2 , D. 31/2 fr.; Pension Zweifel, 4-5 fr. — Near 
the Station- 'Hot -Pens. Beauregard (PL i; B, 3), to the S. of the station, 
on the hm R L & A. 2i/ 2 -4, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D.31/2, pens. 71/2-10 fr.; 
'Hotel St Got'thard (PL k; C 3), R. 2>/2, L. ■/, fr., A. foe, B. IV2, D. 
4 fr- still' farther t0 the S., Hot-Pens. Paskat, Italian, well spoken of; 

*ttLU w.imvrToN (PL d: C, 1), in a lofty and open situation to the N., 
Hotel Washington l^,^^ D .^ ^ P ^ ^ ^ 

6'rifr Below the station: 'Hot.-Pens. Er.oa (PL 1; C, 2), R., h., & A3 
5-. o,i A qi/,fr • "Hotel de la Ville & Pens. Bon-Air (PI. o; C, 2), 
aej. z /», ,v. o /z ■•> lNDUNIi unpre tending. — At Paradiso (p. 9), ^i M. 
? 6, VL a . HflT -Pens. Reiciimann (PL n ; B, 6), on the lake, R., L., & A. 
21/ 4 B I 1V< d' 31 /"- pens. 7-9 fr.; Hot.-Pens. National, also on the lake, 

8 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

pens 5-7 fr. ; 'Hot.-Pens. San Salvador (PI. m; A, B,6); "Bellevue (PI. 
A, 6), near the Mte. Salvatore station, R. 2>/ 2 , L. 1/2, B. 1, I). 3, pens. 
b-» ir. — At Cassarate (p. 9), 1 M. to the E. of the pier of Lugano-Citta, 
in a sheltered position, with a S. aspect, 'Pens. Villa Castagnola (PI. 

«i'/ s',/ W f P ^ etty g , arden ' B "> L " & A - 21 /2- 3 , B - l 1 /*, dcj. 2i/ 2 , D. 31/2, pens, 
b'/s-a'/a ir. ; Pens. Villa Etoile, 5-6 fr. ; Pens. Villa du Midi (PI. G, 5), 
1/3 M. farther on, E., L., & A. 2, B. 1, dej. li/„, D. 2, pens. 4>/ 2 -5 fr. 
fens. Villa Mokitz, on the mountain-slope, 5-6 fr.: Pens. Villa Viga- 
nello (p. 10). from 5 fr. 

Beer at the Deutsche* Brauhaus , at (he N.E. corner of the Piazza 
fcriardino ; Waller (rooms to let), Slraub, both on the quay, near the Hotel 
Lugano. — Cufi Centrale, Piazza della Riforma. — Confectioners : Meister 
(Vienna bakery), a little to the S.W. of the Pal. Civico; Forstet- Via 
Canova, at the post-office. 

Lake Baths (PI. B, 5), on the Paradiso road (20 c, box 60 c, drawers 
and towels 20 c). Warm Baths at Anastasi's, near the Hot. du Pare 

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Canova. — Physicians, Dr. Cornils, 
Dr Zainden,Dr. Albrtezi, Dr. Cicardi, Dr. Reali. Dentists, Katier, Winzelcr. 
— Booksellers, Schiiiul, Francke, <k Co. (Libreria Dalp), near the post-office. 

S arrlaffe m the Eaihva y Station to the town and vice versa, incl 
the Paradiso and the Salvatore railway, with one horse, 1 pers. 1, 2 pers 
IV2, 3 pers. 2 with two horses, 1-2 pers. 2, 3-5 pers. 3 fr. ; same fares from 
the town to Cassarate. To Castagnola H/2, 2, 21/2, 3, or 4 fr. ; from the 
t>t. Uotthard or the Salvatore railway-station to Cassarate, IV2, 2, 2V 2 3 
4ir., to Castagnola 2, 21/2, 3, 4, 5, 6 fr. ; toLuino. one-horse carr. 12, two- 
hwse 20 fr. ; to Capolago 8 or 14 fr.; to Varese 16 or 30 fr. ; driver's fee 
10 per cent of the fare. Drive round the Mte. Salvatore via Pambio Fi- 
gino, Morcote, and Melide (2y 2 hrs.), one-horse carr. 7, two-horse 12 fr 

Boat with one rower 13/ 4 f r ., two rowers 3 fr. for the first hour, each 
additional '/ 2 hr. 1/2 fr. and 1 fr. respectively, with fee. Sail Boat 3'/2 and 
I72 fr. ' 

English Chapel adjoining the Belvedere du Pare (PI. C, 4: see p 7- 
English chaplain resident from May to the end of Oct.). ' 

Lugano (932 ft.) , the largest and busiest town in the Swiss 
canton of Ticino , with 7000 inhab., is charmingly situated on 
the lake of the same name, and enjoys quite an Italian climate (the 
agave blooming here in the open air). It is a very pleasant place 
for a lengthened stay. The winter temperature is somewhat higher 
than that of Montreux or Meran, from which Lugano is also distin- 
guished by its comparatively low elevation above the sea. The 
climate is therefore less stimulating, and for susceptible constitu- 
tions forms a suitable transition-stage on the way farther south. 
The heat of summer is seldom excessive. The environs possess 
all the charms of Italian mountain scenery; numerous villages, 
churches, chapels, and country-seats are scattered along the banks 
of the lake, and the lower hills are covered with vineyards and 
gardens, contrasting beautifully with the dark foliage of the chest- 
nuts and walnuts in the background. To the S., immediately above 
the town, rises the Monte S. Salvatore, wooded to its summit; to 
the E., across the lake, is the Monte Caprino, to the left the Monte 
Bre and the beautiful Monte Boglia. On the N. opens the broad 
valley of the Cassarate , backed by a group of mountains among 
which the double peak of Monte Camogh'e (p. 11) is conspicuous. 

A broad Quay, planted with trees, and frequented as an evening 
promenade , stretches along the bank of the lake. Opposite the 

to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 9 

steamboat pier is the imposing Palazzo Chico(V\. C, 3), with a 
beautiful colonnaded court. To the E. extends the spacious Piazza 
Oiardino, at the harbour, with garden and a meteorological column. 
At the S. end of the quay rises a small Fountain Statue of Tell by 
Vela (1852). 

The church of 8. Maria degli Angioli (opposite , adjoining the 
Hotel du Pare), contains celebrated *Frescoes by Bernardino Luini. 

The painting on the wall of the screen, one of the largest and finest 
ever executed by Luini , represents the -Passion of Christ , and contains 
several hundred figures, arranged according to the antiquated style in 
two rows. In the foreground, occupying the upper part of the wall, 
stand three huge crosses , at the foot of which we perceive Roman war- 
riors, the groups of the holy women, and St. John, and the executioners 
casting lots for the garments. Above, on a diminished scale, from left to 
right, are Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken prisoner, the 
Mocking of Christ, the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, Thomas's Un- 
belief, and the Ascension, all immediately adjacent. Although the style of 
the composition strikes one as old-fashioned, especially after seeing Leon- 
ardo's works, the eye cannot fail to be gratified by the numerous beau- 
tiful details. The St. Sebastian and St. Rochus, below, between the 
arches, are particularly fine. To the left, on the wall of the church, is 
the Last Supper, a picture in three sections, formerly in the Lyceum, and 
in the 1st Chapel on the right is a fine Madonna, two paintings on panel 
by Luini. The sacristan expects a small fee (25-30 c). 

The interior of the town , with its arcades , workshops in the 
open air , and granite-paved streets , is also quite Italian in its 
character. — S. Lorenzo (PI. 0, 2) , the principal church , on a 
height below the station , probably erected by Tommaso Rodari at 
the close of the 15th cent., has a tastefully enriched marble facade 
in the early-Renaissance style. — The terrace in front of the station 
commands an extensive *View of the town and the lake. 

There are various pleasant Walks, well-provided with guide- 
posts and benches. To the S., on the high-road past the Hotel du 
Pare and Hotel Splendide, through the surburb of Paradiso (PI. A, 
B, 6 ; steamboat, see p. 7) and by the foot of Mte. Salvatore, to the 
(1^4 M.) headland of 8. Martino. To Melide, see p. 11. — From 
Paradiso a footpath leads to the right to (5 min.) the Belvedere, 
which commands another fine view. — To the W. by the Ponte Tresa 
road (PI. A, B, 4, 5; pp. 155-157), which diverges to the S. at 
the Villa Beausejour (short-cuts for walkers), to the (l 1 ^ M.) hill 
on which lies the frequented Restaurant du Jardin. The village 
of Sorengo (1325 ft.) is situated on a hill to the right (fine view 
from the church ; to the W. is the Lake of Muzzano). A carriage- 
road leads from the Restaurant du Jardin, to the left, via Oentilino, 
to (l J /2 M.) the conspicuous church of S. Abbondio (1345 ft), in 
the graveyard of which are several monuments by Vela. The walk 
maybe pleasantly extended from Gentilino to Montagnola and thence 
back via S. Abbondio (1 hr.). — To the E., from the Piazza Castello 
(PI. D, 3), we may follow the Via Carlo Cattaneo, which crosses the 
( l /i M.) Cassarate, to ( 3 / 4 M.) Cassarate (PI. G, 3), and thence 
proceed by the sunny high-road skirting the foot of the Mte. Bre 

10 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

to (1 M. ) Castaynola (1080 ft.), where we obtain a tine view of 
the Mte. S. Salvatore (good restaurant in the Villa Moritz, p. 8). 
At No. 227 in the Piazza Oastello is the entrance to the shady 
grounds of the Villa Oabrini (formerly Ciani, PI. D, E, 3), with a 
beautiful figure of a mourning woman ('La Desolazione') by Vine. 
Vela (gardener i/^-l fr.). — From Castagnola a picturesque but 
somewhat fatiguing footpath (best in the evening) leads to (3 M.) 
Oandria (p. 156), where some of the steamers touch. — Comp. the 
Map, p. 145. 

The most interesting excursion is the "Ascent of the Monte S. Sal- 
vatoke, by cable-railway (1800 yds. long), from Paradiso in 25 min. (fare 
3, down 2, return-ticket 4fr.). The station (PI. A, 6; 1245 ft.; Restaurant, 
dej.3, D. 4fr.) lies '/« M. from the steamboat pier Lugano-Paradito (steam- 
boat from Lugano-Citta in 10 min., 25 c). — The railway, with an initial 
gradient of IT: 100, crosses the St. Gotthard Railway, traverses a viaduct 
(110 yds. long; gradient 38:100) supported by iron pillars, and reaches 
the halfway station of Pazzallo (1600 ft.), where carriages are changed. 
Here is the machine-house for the electric motor and the steam-engine. 
The line now ascends over granite rock, at an increasing gradient (finally 
60 : 100), to the terminus (2900 ft. ; Restaurant). Thence we ascend on foot to 
the (7 min.) summit (Veita) of the Monte S. Salvatore (2980 ft.), on which 
there is a pilgrimage- chapel. The "View embraces all the arms of the 
Lake of Lugano , the mountains and their wooded slopes , especially 
those above Lugano , sprinkled with numerous villas. To the B. above 
Porlezza is Monte Legnoue (p. 153); N. above Lugano the double peak of 
Monte Camoghe (p. 11) , to the left of this the distant Rheinwald moun- 
tains ; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, with the Matterhorn and other Alps 
of the Valais. This view is seen to best advantage in the morning 
(panorama by Imfeld). — Walkers (from Lugano to the top 2 hrs.) pass 
the Hotel Bellevue (comp. PI. A, 6) and under the Gotthard railway, and 
follow the road to (IV2 M.) Pazzallo ; here they turn to the E., follow- 
ing the narrow street named 'Al Monte', and farther on cross (12 min.) 
the funicular railway. 

The ascent of -Monte Bre (3050 ft.), to the K. of Lugano, is another easy 
excursion (2V2-3 hrs.), scarcely less interesting than that to Mte. S. Sal- 
vatore (guide needless ; mule 10 fr.). From the Piazza Castello to the iron 
bridge over the Cassarate, see p. 9. Beyond the bridge we turn to the 
left, then after about 130 paces to the right, and ascend the winding road 
between low walls to a large mill, Molinazzo (PI. G, 2), where mules 
may be hired. Farther on we pass (1 M.) Viganello (pension, see p. 8), 
and below the hill crowned by the church of Pazzolino turn to the right 
to (l'/4 M.) Albonago (1525 ft.). Thence the road again ascends, partly be- 
tween walls, and among chestnuts, figs, and vines, to ( 3 /4 hr.) Aldesago 
(1950 ft.), on the mountain-slope, the highest village visible from Lugano. 
Aldesago may also be reached in 3/ 4 -l hr. from Castagnola (see above), 
via Ruvig liana. Above Aldesago the path divides: both branches lead round 
to the (V2- 3 /4ihr.) village of Bri (2630 ft. ; 2 hrs. from Lugano ; Restaurant), 
at the back of the hill. From the church of Bre we ascend (no path) to 
the summit of the mountain in 1/2 hr., either traversing the highest crest 
of the hill to the right, or crossing the spar to the left , in the direction 
of Lugano. The view of the several arms of the Lake of Lugano, especially 
in the direction of Porlezza, and the surrounding mountains, is remarkably 
fine. Lugano itself is not visible from the summit, but from the above- 
mentioned spur a good view of it may be obtained. 

Monte Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, is much 
frequented on holidays by the townspeople, who possess wine-cellars (can- 
tine) in the numerous cool grottoes by which the side of the mountain is 
honeycombed. These cellars are closed at sunset. Good wine of icy cool- 
ness may be obtained here ('Asti' recommended). The garden- restaurant of 
Cfivallino, tn the S. of the Cantine, has also become .1 popular resort. 

JilfreTvav.- S 
<)siaTUii\t> «a-j .-!• ' Jj' X ' ■ , 

i V>* 6 '— «arosio. 


to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 11 

Close by is a small waterfall. Small boat there and back in 2'/2 hrs., 
including stay (fares, see p. 8); steamboat on Sun. and holidays. — A 
footpath leads from the Cantine to the top of Mte. Caprino and thence 
along the ridge to the S.W. to the (3 hrs.) Colmo di Creccio (4300 ft.), 
which commands a picturesque view of the Lago di Lugano. 

A pleasant walk may be taken on the high-road from Campione 
(steamboat station), past the Madonna deW Annunziala, with 16th cent, 
frescoes, to 0/4 hr.) x Bissone (steamboat station) and by the railway- 
embankment to (20 min.) Metide (steamboat and railway station; see 
p. 12). Thence in •/« nr - »° S. Marlino (p. 9). 

Longer Excursions: — *Monte Boglia (4960 ft.; 4-4'/z hrs.; guide 
desirable). Ascent by Soragno and the Alp Bolla, or from Bre (p. 10), l 3 /4 hr. 
The view is less comprehensive but more picturesque than that from Mte. 
Generoso (p. 12). Descent on the B. side through the grassy Yal Solda to 
Castella and S. Mamette (steamboat-station ; p. 156) or Oria (p. 156). — To 
S. Bernardo and Bigorio (to station Taverne 3'/2-4 hrs.). We at first 
follow field-paths, leading over the fertile undulating district to the N. 
of Lugano and passing the villages of Massagno, Savosa, Porza, and Co- 
mano, to (D/2hr.) the church of S. Bernardo (2310 ft.), situated on a rocky 
plateau, commanding a picturesque view. (At the S.E. base of the plateau 
are the village of Canobbio and the chateau of Trevano.) Thence (at first 
following the top of the hill to the N. ; no path) to Sulci and the (l'/j hr.) 
monastery of Bigorio (2360 ft. ; refreshments), charmingly situated on a 
wooded hill (the church contains a Madonna attributed to Guercino or 
Perino delVaga). [A delightful walk may be taken hence, through chest- 
nut-woods and over pastures, to (l^hr.) the top of Mte. Bigorio (3615 ft.).] 
From the monastery back by (1 M.) Ponte Capriasca (1427 ft.), with a church 
containing a good old copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper (best light 
11-1), to (l'/4 M.) the railway- station of Taverne (p. 8). — Monte Tamaro 
(6430 ft. ; 4 hrs. ; guide) from Taverne (p. 7) or Bironico (p. 7) , not dif- 
ficult. Splendid view of Lago Maggiore (in the distance), etc. — Monte 
Camoghe (7300 ft.; 7-8 hrs. from Lugano; guide from Colla), a fam- 
ous point of view , fatiguing. Road via Canobbio and Tesserele , and 
then to the right, through the Val Colla, to (12 M. ; carr. in 2'/2 hrs.) Sca- 
reglia or Lower Colla (3205 ft. ; "Osteria Garzirola). Thence (with guide) 
by Colla and the Alp Pietrarossa, leaving the Mte. Garzirola (see below) 
to the left, to the (3 hrs.) Alp Sertena (5920 ft.) and the (I1/2 hr.) top, 
where we enjoy a striking panorama of the Alps from Mte. Rosa to the 
Ortler. The descent may be made to the N., via. the alps of Rivolle and 
Leveno and through the Val Morobbia, to Giubiasco and (5 hrs.) Bellinzona 
(p. 6; Bellinzona-Camogha 7-8 hrs.). — The ascent of Monte Garzirola 
(6940 ft.), accomplished from Colla in 3 hrs., is also recommended. — 
Pedestrians will find it to their account to return from the Val Colla to 
Porlezza over the Pass of S. Lucio (5960 ft.), or to the Val Solda (p. 156), 
either by the Cima deW Arabione (5928 ft. ; views) or past the remarkable 
Dolomitic peaks of the Denti di Vecchia. 

A pleasant excursion may be made in a light mountain-carriage 
(16-17 fr.) via Bioggio (1053 ft.) to (2 hrs.) Cademario (2407 ft.), whence the 
carriage is sent to Agno. From Cademario we ascend on foot to (20 min.) 
San Bernardo (2955 ft. ; view of Lago Maggiore, etc.). We next proceed 
to the Aronno-Iseo road and follow it to the left to Iseo (1254 ft.), Cimo, 
Vernate, and (2 hrs.) Agno (p. 167), where we rejoin the carriage. The 
chapel of S. Maria (2560 ft.) lies near the road, between Iseo and Cimo. 

From Lugano to Capolago, steamboat several times daily in 3 /thr., 
in connection with the Generoso Railway, see next page. Stations : Cam- 
pione, Bissone, Maroggia, Melano, and Capolago. 

Steamboat on the Lake of Lugano, in connection with the rail- 
ways to the Lago Maggiore and the Lake of Como, see p. 155. 

From Lugano to Chtasso and Como (Milan). The train crosses 
the Tassino Valley, by means of a viaduct, 120 ft. high (charming 
view to the left), and passes through the Paradiso Tunnel (833 yds.) 

12 Route 3. MONTE GENEROSO. 

under the N.E. spur of Monte S. Salvatore (p. 10). It then skirts 
the lake, with views (to the left) of the wooded slopes of the E. 
bank and the villages upon it. The village of (132 M.) Melide, 
iy 2 M. beyond the headland of S. Martino (p. 9), contains two 
popular resorts, the Grotto Demicheli (restaurant) and the Grotto 
Civelli (cold viands). The train and the road then cross the lake 
to Bissone by a stone viaduct i /-2 M. long, which sadly mars the 
scenery. At each end there is an arch for the passage of boats. 
Pleasant views in both directions. Two tunnels. Then (134 M.) 
Maroggia (Elvezia), at the W. base of the Mte. Generoso; continuous 
view of the lake on the right. 

136y2 M. Capolago (* Hoi. -Pens, du Lac, with garden and 
electric light, R. 2, pens. 6-9 ft.; Buffet), at the head of the S.E. 
arm of the lake, is the station for the Generoso Railway (steamboat 
from Lugano, see p. 11). 

From Capolago to the Top of Monte Generoso, rack-and-pinion rail- 
way (generally running from April 15th to Oct. 15th) in li/4hr. (fa.re7'/2fr., 
return-fare 10 fr.). The trains start from the steamboat-pier at Capolago and 
halt at (2 min.) the St. Gotthard Railway station, where the toothed rail be- 
gins. The train crosses the road and the St. Gotthard railway and ascends the 
slope of the Generoso (gradient 20 : 103, afterwards 22 : 100), with a continuous 
open view, on the right, of the Val di Laveggio, girt with wooded hills, 
the little town of Mendrisio, and behind, of the Lake of Lugano with S. Vi- 
tal e on the W. hank, and Mte. Salvatore to the N. Then it skirts abrupt 
cliffs and enters a curved tunnel (150 yds. long), immediately before which 
the summit of Monte Rosa is visible. — l'/i M. 8. Nicolao (2820 ft.; Restau- 
rant), a station in the iinely wooded Val Cereda. The line next describes 
a wide curve, enters the Val delta Giazza by a tunnel 50 yds. long, and 
proceeds high up on the mountain-slope, with fine views of the plain 
of Lombardy as far as Milan and Varese, and of the valleys of the Ge- 
neroso (to the right appears Monte Bisl'iuo, with its pilgrimage-church). 
— 3!/2 M. Bellavista (4U10 ft. ; Restaurant). A path leads from the station 
along the mountain-ridge (fine views ; benches) to the (5 min.) "Bellavista, 
a platform provided with railings, immediately above Capolago, with 
a beautiful view (best in the morning) of the Lake of Lugano and the 
surrounding heights, backed by the line of snow-peaks stretching from 
the Gran Paradiso to the St. Gotthard. About l /-z M. to the E. of the 
station (hotel-porter meets the trains) is the "Hdtel du Generoso (3965 ft.; 
R., L., & A. 4-5, B. I1/2, lunch 31/2, D. 5, pens. 12 fr.; Eng. Church Service), 
situated on a mountain-terrace commanding a view towards the plain of 
Lombardy. A bridle-path leads hence to the summit in ii/4 hr. — Beyond 
Bellavista the railway ascends through another tunnel (90 yds. long), and 
closely skirts the barren ridge, affording occasional views to the left of 
the lake and town of Lugano, and to the right, below, of the villages of 
Muggio and Cabbio. Beyond two short tunnels we reach the station of 
(5>/2M.) Vetta (5355 ft.; "Hotel Kulm, R. 5, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5 fr. , con- 
nected by view-terraces with the Restaurant Vetta). A new path provided 
with railings leads hence in 20 min. to the summit of Monte Generoso 
(5590 ft.). The "View, no less striking than picturesque, embraces the 
lakes of Lugano, Como, Varese, and Lago Maggiore, the entire Alpine 
chain from the Monte Viso to the Pizzo dei Tre Signori, and to the S. the 
plain of Lombardy, watered by the Po and backed by the Apennines with 
the towns of Milan, Lodi, Crema, and Cremona. — From the station of 
Vetta we may descend on foot to the Hotel du Generoso or to Bellavista 
station in 3 /t hr. 

Monte Generoso may also be ascended from Mendrisio (p. 13) from 
Maroggia (see above) by Rovio (1665 ft.; Hut.-Pens. Mte. Generoso' pens. 
4'/2-6 fr.), or from Balerna (p. 13) by Muggio in 4-4'/2 hrs. (roads to'liovio 

SPLUGEN. 4. Route. 1 3 

and Muggio, beyond which the ascent is fatiguing; also shorter footpath to 
Rovio). — From Lanzo d'Intelvi (bridle-path, 5Vz hrs.), see p. 156; recom- 
mended for the return (to Osteno 6 hrs.). 

The train now ascends the fertile valley of the Laveggio. 

139 M. Mendrisio (1190 ft. ; pop. 2870; *Angelo, Italian, R. & 
A. 2V2 fr-)i a small town of 2900 inhab. , y 2 M. from the station, 
lies at the beginning of the bridle-path to the Monte Generoso (to 
the Hot. du Generoso 3 hrs. , mule 6 fr.). — The short Coldrerio 
Tunnel carries us through the watershed between the Laveggio and 
the Breggia. 142 M.' Balerna. 

144 M. Chiasso (765 ft. ; *Bail. Restaurant ; *Alb. S. Michele, 
near the station) , the last Swiss village (custom-house ; usually a 
long halt). The line pierces the Monte Olimpino by means of a 
tunnel 3190 yds. long, beyond which a view of the Lake of Como 
is disclosed to the left. We then pass Borgo Vico , a suburb of 
Como, on the left. 

147 M. Como {Stazione Mediterranean p. 142); thence to (30 M.) 
Milan, see R. 20. 

4. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen. 

74 M. Diligence from Coire to Chiavenna twice daily in summer in 
13 hrs. (coupe 26 fr. 60 c, interior 22 fr.). Extra Post from Coire to Chia- 
venna with two horses 130 fr. 40 c, with three horses 181 fr. — Railway 
from Chiavenna to Colico, 17 M., in 1 hr. (fares 3fr. 10, 2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 40 c), 
corresponding with the steamboats to Como. 

Coire, Ger. Chur, Ital. Coira (1935 ft. ; Steinbock, Lukmanier, 
Weisses Kreuz, Stern, etc.), on the Plessur , l 1 ^ M. from its con- 
fluence with the Rhine, with 9400 inhab., is the capital of the Canton 
of the Grisons, and the Curia Rhaetorum of the Romans. The 
ancient cathedral of St. Lucius contains an interesting treasury. 

The Spliigen road ascends the broad valley of the Rhine. 

6 M. Reichenau (1935 ft. ; Adler), a hamlet at the confluence 
of the Vorder-Rhein and Hinter-Rhein. We continue to ascend the 
valley of the Vorder-Rhein, on either side of which tower snow- 
clad mountains. — 16 M. Thusis (2450 ft. ; Hot. -Pens. Viamala, 
Post, Rhaetia, etc.) lies at the confluence of the Rhine, and the Nolla. 
— Thence the road leads through the gorge of the *Via Mala, cross- 
ing the foaming river several times. Finest *View at the second 

23V2 M. Andeer (3210 ft.). — Then we follow the wooded Rofna 
Ravine and the picturesque Rheinwaldthal (Val Rhein) to — 

32*/ 2 M. Spliigen, Roman. Spluga (4757 ft. ; Hotel Bodenhaus, 
R., L., & A. 3!/2) D. 3 fr. ; Hotel Spliigen), the capital of the Rhein- 
wald-Thal, at the junction of the Spliigen and Bernardino routes. 
The latter here runs to the W. The Spliigen route turns to the left, 
crosses the Rhine, and ascends in windings to the (6 3 / 4 M.) Spliigen 
Pass [Colmo delV Orso; 6945 ft.), the boundary between Switzer- 
land and Italy. About 3 / 4 M. beyond the pass is the Dogana (6245 ft.), 
the Italian custom-house. 

14 Route 4. CHIAVENNA. 

The road now descends by numerous zigzags along the E. slope, 
being protected against avalanches by long galleries and avoiding 
the dangerous Liro Gorge. Beyond Pianazzo (Inn), near the entrance 
to a short gallery, the Madesimo forms a magnificent waterfall, 650 ft. 
in height, which is best surveyed from a platform by the roadside. 

From Pianazzo a road ascends to (l 1 /* M.) Madesimo (4920 ft.), a pret- 
tily situated village with a chalybeate spring and a 'Hydropathic (pens. 
8V2 fr.), recommended as a health-resort. 

50 M. Campo Dolcino (3455 ft.) consists of four large groups of 
houses. The second contains the church. The Liro Valley is strewn 
with fragments of rock, but the wildness of the scene is softened 
by the luxuriant foliage of the chestnuts lower down , from which 
rises the slender campanile of the church of Madonna di Oalli- 
vaggio. Beyond 8. Giacomo the rich luxuriance of Italian vegetation 
unfolds itself to the view. 

58^2 M. Chiavenna. — Hotels. "Hotel Conkadi, 1/4 M. from the 
railway-station, with railway-ticket and luggage office, II. , L., & A. from 
2, B. IV4, D. incl. wine 3 f r. ; Albergo Specola, at the station, K., L., 
& A. 2V2, B. 1 fr. ; Gbiavb d'Oko, on the Promenade. 

The Station ( s Cafe-Restaurant, dej. 2'/a fr. ; beer) lies outside of and 
below the town. Through-tickets are here issued to the steamboat-stations 
on the Lago di Como, with coupon for the omnibus-journey between the 
railway-station and the quay at Colico. 

Chiavenna (1090 ft.), the Roman Clavenna, an ancient town 
with 2800 inhab., is charmingly situated on the Mera, at the mouth 
of the Val Bregaglia, through which the road to the Maloja Pass and 
the Engadine leads. Opposite the Hotel Conradi are the ruins of 
an unfinished castle of De Salis, the last governor appointed by the 
Grisons. Picturesque view from the castle-garden or i Paradisd' (adm. 
50 c). — 8. Lorenzo, the principal church, has a slender clock- 
tower or campanile, rising from an arcaded enclosure which was 
formerly the burial-ground. The Battisterio (closed; fee 15-20 c.) 
contains a font of 1206, adorned with reliefs. 

The hills of the Val Capiola contain many 'Marmitte dei Giganti' or 
giant's kettles (Ger. Strudellocher, IMesenkessel) of all sizes (guides at 
the hotels). 

The Kailway to Colico (fares, see p. 13) traverses three tun- 
nels soon after starting, beyond which we enjoy a fine retrospect of 
Chiavenna. The line runs through a rich vine-bearing country, the 
lower parts of which, however, are exposed to the inundations of 
the Liro and Mera. The valley (Piano di Chiavenna) is enclosed on 
both sides by lofty mountains. On the right bank of the Mera lies 
Gordonn, at the mouth of the Val delta Forcola, beyond which 
the Bogyia forms a pretty waterfall in its precipitous descent 
from the narrow Val Bodengo. — CM. 8am6lar.o is the station for 
the large village of that name on the opposite (right) bank of the 
Mera, at the mouth of the V<d Menyasia. Before (8'/ 2 M.) Novate 
the railway reaches the Lago di Mczzola. This lake was originally 
the jN. bay of the Lake of Como, from which it has been almost 
separated by the deposits of the Adda; but the narrow channel 

INNSBRUCK. 5. Route. 1 5 

which connects the lakes has again been rendered navigable. To 
the S. appears the pyramidal Mte. Legnone (p. 153). The railway, 
supported by masonry and traversing tunnels, crosses the Adda 
beyond (12'/2 M.) Dubino. The Valtellina railway (p. 153) joins 
ours from the left ; we observe on a hill to the right the ruined 
castle of Fuentes, once the key of the Valtellina, erected by the 
Spaniards in 1603, and destroyed by the French in 1796. 

17 M. Colico (720 ft.), at the N. extremity of the Lake of Como, 
see p. 153. The station is nearly 1 f 2 M. from the quay. The om- 
nibus-coupons are collected at the exit from the station. There is 
abundant time to permit of passengers walking to the quay, instead 
of taking the omnibus. 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. 

175 M. Railway in 71/2-9 hrs. (express fares 36 fr. 65, 27 fr. 50 c. ; or- 
dinary 30 fr. 90, 22 fr. 95, 15 fr. 25 c). Views on the right as far as the 
summit of the Brenner. Information as to through- tickets, which are 
paid for in Italian money, see Introd. vn. 

The Brenner (4495 ft.), the lowest pass over the principal chain of the 
Alps, is traversed by the oldest of the Alpine routes, which was used as early 
as the Roman period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The 
railway, opened in 1867, is carried through 22 tunnels, and over 60 large 
and a number of smaller bridges within a distance of 78 M. The greatest 
incline, 1:40, is between Innsbruck and the culminating point. 

Innsbruck (1880 ft.; Tiroler Hof, It. , L., & A. from 2 fl., B. 
70 kr. , D. 21/2 A-; Hot. de VEurope, R., L., & A. from 17 2 fl., 
B. 60 kr., D. 2fl. ; Goldene Sonne, R., L., & A. iy 2 fl., B. 60 kr., 
these three opposite the station ; Hotel Kreid, Margarethen-Platz, 
near the station ; Habsburger Hof, Stadt Munchen, Ooldener Adler, 
in the town , these four second-class ; Bail. Restaurant , D. with 
wine 1 fl. 20 kr.), the capital of Tyrol, with 23,300 inhab., is 
described in Baedeker's Eastern Alps. ■ — • The railway ascends the 
valley of the Sill. Four tunnels. 4^2 M. Vnterberg- Stefanshriicke. 
Three tunnels. Beyond (6 M.) Patsch (2570 ft.) are three more 
tunnels. — 12l/ 2 M. Matrei (3254 ft.), with the chateau of Traut- 
son, is charmingly situated. — l5 1 /2 M. Steinach (3447 ft.). — 
The train now ascends a steep incline, crosses the valleys of Schmim 
and Vals in a wide curve beyond (18y 2 M.) St. Jodok (two tun- 
nels), and runs high above the Sill to (19y 2 M.) dries (4114 ft.). It 
then passes the small green Brennersee, and reaches — 

25 M. Stat. Brenner (4495ft.; Buffet), on the summit of the 
pass, the watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. From 
the hillside to the right descends the Eisak , which the train now 
follows. — 2772 M. Brennerbad (4290 ft.), a popular bath-establish- 
ment. The line then descends rapidly through two tunnels to (3072 M. ) 
Schelleberg (4075 ft.), where it turns into the Pflersch-Thal, return- 
ing, however, to the Eisak valley by a curved tunnel, 800 yds. 
long. 36 M. Oossensass (3494 ft.) is visited as a summer-resort. - — 
The train now runs through wild rocky scenery. 40 M. Sterzing 

16 Routed. BOTZEN. From Innsbruck 

(3110 ft.). On the left rises the castle of Sprechenstein, and on the 
right the ruins of Thumburg and Reifenstein. — 43 M. Freienfeld. 
— We now cross the Eisak. On the left hank are the remains of 
the castle of Welfemtein. — 45 M. Mauls. — 47^2 M. Grasstein 
(2745 ft.), at the entrance of the narrow defile of (50 M.) Mittewald, 
where the French were defeated in 1809. The lower end of the 
defile , called the Brixener Klause , near Vnterau, is closed by the 
Franzensfeste, a strong fortress constructed in 1833. The (5272 M.) 
main station (2450 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, D. 1 fi. 20 kr.), the 
junction of the Pusterthal line (for Carinthia) , lies some distance 
from the (54 M.) station for the fortress. — 661/2 M. Vahrn, at the 
mouth of the Schalderer Thai. The vegetation now assumes a more 
southern character; vineyards and chestnuts gradually appear. 

591/2 M. Brixen (1840 ft. ; •"Elephant, 3/ 4 M. from the station) 
was the capital of an ecclesiastical principality, dissolved in 1803, 
and is still an episcopal residence. — We cross the Eisak. To the 
right, aoove us, lies Tschbtsch. 6iy 2 M. Albeins. The valley con- 
tracts. 64 M. VUlnbss. — 65 M. Klausen (1715 ft.), consisting of 
a single narrow street. The Benedictine monastery oiSeben, on a 
steep rock above the village, was once a Rhaetian stronghold, then 
a Roman fort under the name of Sabiona. — Below Klausen the 
valley contracts. The line skirts precipitous porphyry cliffs. — 
68V2 M - Waidbruck (1545 ft.), at the mouth of the Groedener Thai. 
On the left, high above, rises the Trostburg. 

The train crosses the Grcedenerbach, and then the Eisak, in a 
wild ravine hemmed in by porphyry rocks. 71 ^ M. KasttlnUh ; 
73'/2 M. Atzwang (1220 ft.). Several tunnels. — 78 M. Blumau. 
Another tunnel is passed through. On the right bank are the vine- 
clad slopes of the Botzener Leitach. — 81 72 M. Kardaun, at the 
opening of the Eggenthal. The train now returns to the right bank 
of the Eisak and enters the wide basin of Botzen, a district of 
luxuriant fertility. 

83 M. Botzen, Ital. Bolzano (880 ft. ; *Kaiserhrone, Muster- 
platz, R. from 1 fl., L. & A. 60, B. 50 kr., D. 2 fl. ; * Victoria , op- 
posite the station, R. I-I1/2, E. & A. 3 / 4 fl. ; *Greif, Johaim-Platz, 
K. & L. 1- 170 fl.; Hotel de I' Europe; Mondschein, etc.), with 11,740 
inhab., the most important commercial town in Tyrol, is beautifully 
situated at the confluence of the Eisak and the Talfer, which de- 
scends from the Sarnthal on the N. The background towards the E. is 
formed by the strikingly picturesque dolomite mountains of the Val 
di Fassa ; to the W. rises the long porphyry ridge of the Mendel. The 
Gothic Parish Church of the 14th and 15th cent, has a portal with 
two lions of red marble, in the Lombard style. Beautiful open tower 
completed in 1519. — The Calvarienberg (950ft.; 25 min. walk; 
beyond the Eisak bridge cross the railway to the right) commands 
a fine view of the town and environs. ■ — Beyond the Talfer at the 
foot of the Guntschnaberg, lies Gries, frequented as a winter-resort. 

to Verona. TRENT. 5. Route. 17 

From Botzen a branch-line diverges to (20 M.) Mercm (1V2-2 hrs. ; 
1st cl., 1 fl. 64 kr. ; 3rd cl., 98 kr.). See Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

Beyond Botzen the train crosses the Eisak, which falls into the 
Etsch (or Adige') 4 M. below the town. The latter becomes navigable 
at (89'/2 M.) Branzoll. In the distance, to the right, rises the di- 
lapidated castle of Sigmundskron, and the wooded range of the Mittel- 
berg. Beyond (93 M.) Auer the train crosses the river. — 96 M. 
Neumarkt-Tramin, the former on the left bank of the Adige, the 
latter on the mountain-slope to the right. — 99 M. Salurn, com- 
manded by a ruined castle on an apparently inaccessible rock. — 
107 M. 8. Michele, with a handsome old Augustine monastery, is 
the station for the Val di Non. The train again crosses the Adige. 
— 110 M. Alle Nave; 111 M. Lavis, on the Avisio, which here de- 
scends from the Val Cembra. This impetuous torrent with its dif- 
ferent ramifications is crossed above its junction with the Adige by 
a bridge 1000 yds. in length. — 115 M. Oardolo. 

117^2 M. Trent. — "Hotel Tkento, near the station, R., L., & A. 
11/2-2 fl. In the town: *Eukopa, Via Lunga, R.& A. 1 fl. 40 kr. Second 
class: Aquila Bianua, near the castle; Agnello d'Oko; Due Conti. 

Trent (640 ft. J, or Trento, Lat. Tridentum, with 21,600 in- 
hab., formerly the wealthiest and most important town in Tyrol, 
and not insignificant under the Romans, possesses numerous towers, 
palaces, and broad streets, and bears the impress of an important 
Italian town. The pretty grounds adjoining the station were adorned 
in 1894 with a Monument to Dante, designed by Zocchi. 

The *Cathedral, begun in its present form in 1212, completed 
at the beginning of the 15th cent., and restored in 1882-89, is a 
Romanesque church surmounted by a dome. The N. portal, as at 
Botzen, is adorned with a pair of lions. In the Piazza Grande (at 
the cathedral) , which is embellished with the tasteful Neptune 
Fountain (1769), stands the Palazzo Pretoria (now the military 
headquarters), with the old Torre Orande. 

S. Maria Maggore, dating from the early part of the 16th cent., 
contains a picture, on the N. wall of the choir, with portraits of the 
members of the celebrated Council of Trent which sat here in 1545- 
63. The handsome organ-loft is in the Renaissance style. 

The Palazzo Municipale, in the Via Larga, to the N. of the cathe- 
dral, contains the Public Library and the Museum, the latter con- 
sisting of collections of natural history specimens, Roman and other 
antiquities, etc. 

On the E. side of the town rises the imposing Castello del Buon 
Consiglio, formerly the seat of the prince-bishops and now a bar- 
rack. A fine view is enjoyed from the huge Torre di Auguslo. — A 
good view of the town is also obtained from the terrace of the Ca- 
puchin Convent above the Castello, which was burned down in 1893 
but has since been rebuilt. — The rocky, fortified hill of Verruca 
or Dos Trento (950 ft.), on the right bank of the Adige, is another 

Baedekeb. Italy I, 10th Edit. 2 

18 Route 5. MORI. From Innsbruck 

ftae point of view, which may he visited hy a permesso obtained in 
the Pal. Pretorio (p. 17). 

Fkom Trent to Bassano through tub Venetian Mountains, 57 M. 
(diligence four times daily to Borgo in 4>/2 hrs., fare 1 fl. 20 kr. ; and 
thence once daily to Bassano in S 1 /* hrs., fare 2'/2 "•)■ — The road (rail- 
way under construction) ascends the narrow valley of the Fersina. 

7>/ 2 M. Pergine (1575 ft.; "Hdtel Voltolini), a considerable market- 
town , commanded by the handsome castle of that name. The road now 
descends to the small Lago di Levico (1440 ft.), separated by a narrow chain 
of hills from the larger and more beautiful Lake of Caldonazzo (from Cal- 
donazzo to Arsiero, see p. 223). At Levico ('Stabilimento; "Alb. Germania, 
etc.), a frequented watering-place, begins the fertile Val Sugana, watered 
by the Brenta, its capital being — 

21 M. Borgo di Valsugana (1295 ft. ; H6tel Valsugana, Croce), on the N. 
side of which rises the ruined castle of Telvana , with the remains of a 
second castle (S. Pietro) high above it. Below the town is the beautiful 
chateau of Ivano, belonging to Count Wolkenstein-Trostburg. 

Near (10 M.) Origno the valley of Tesino opens to the N., watered by 
the Origno. Beyond Grigno the valley is confined between lofty cliffs which 
barely leave room for the road. The Austrian custom-house is at (3 M.) 
Tezze, the Italian 3 / 4 M. beyond it. In a rocky cavity beyond (2 l /4 M.) — 

38 M. Primolano (Posta, poor) is situated the ruined castle of Covelo, 
a mediaeval stronghold. About 1 M. farther the Cismone descends from the 
Val Primiero. 6'/2 M. Valstagna is inhabited chiefly by the makers of 
broad-brimmed straw-hats. 

Near (5 M.) Solagna the ravine of the Brenta expands. About l'/2 M. 
farther the road turns a corner, and a view is obtained of a broad plain 
with large olive-plantations in which lies the picturesque town of — 

57 M. Bassano (see p. 233). 

The Railway follows the course of the Adige. — 122 M. Mata- 
rello. On a hill near (127 M.) Calliano rises the castle of Beseno, 
the property of Count Trapp. The lower valley of the Adige, as far 
as the Italian frontier , is named the Val Lagarina. It produces 
abundance of red wine and southern fruits. — 129 M. Volano ; 
130 M. Villa Lagarina. 

132 M. Kovereto (695 ft.; *H6t. Qlira; Agnello'), a town with 
9000 inhah., is noted for its silk-culture. The principal building 
is the old Castello in the Piazza del Podesta.. — Road to Torre and 
Schio, see p. 223. 

The train crosses the Leno. On the right bank of the Adige lies 
Isera, with vineyards, numerous villas, and a waterfall. On the left 
bank, to theE. of the railway, near Lizzana, is a castle, which about 
the year 1302 was visited by Dante when banished from Florence. 

135 M. Mori (570ft.; Railway Hotel, a tolerable Italian house, 
R., L., & A. lfl.20kr.). 

From Mori to Riva on the Lago di Garda via Aroo, 15'/2 M., steam- 
tramway in l'/2 hr. (fares 1st cl. 1 fl. 23, 3rd cl. 77 kr.). [The distance to 
Riva by the direct road is about 11 M.; carr. 3 l /-i, with two horses 7 fl.) 
The line crosses the Adige to (2 M.) Mori Borgata, the station for the large 
village of Mori (672 ft.) It then traverses the broad green valley to 
(4>/2 M.) Loppio (735 ft..), with the chateau of Count Cistelbarco, passes the 
little Lago di Loppio, with its rocky island, and winds up among rocky 
debris to the (l'/i M.) culminating point of the route, at the chapel of 
S. (liuvaiini (915 ft.). We now descend to (8 M.) Mago, a village situated on 
the brink of a ravine, with the ruins of the castle of Peaegal (922 ft.) on 
a barren rock to the left. The old road leads hence to the left to To'rbole 

to Verona. ALA. 5. Route. 19 

(p. 193) and (3 M.) Riva. The line descends along the right slope of the 
mountains into the Sarca valley, following the road to Arco. Presently, to 
the left, we enjoy an exquisite "View of the blue Lago di Gavda, with the 
Sarca at our feet, and the long Monte Brione opposite. The next stations 
are OUresarca and (12'/2 M.) Arco {p. 195). Thence we traverse the wide 
and fertile valley (to the left Mte. Brione; to the right, among the moun- 
tains , Tenno , see p. 195). 13'/z M. 8. Tommaso. 151/2 M. Riva (p. 194 ; 
steamers on the Lago di Gar da, see p. 191). 

Near (136!/ 2 M.) Marco the line intersects the so-called Lavini 
di Marco, probably the remains of an ancient glacier, according to 
others the traces of a vast landslip, which is said to have buried a 
town here in 883, and is described by Dante (Inferno xii. 4-9). At 
(137 M.) Serravalle the valley contracts. 

142 M. Ala (415 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; Hotel Ala), with 4600 
inhab., is the seat of the Italian and Austrian custom-house authori- 
ties. Those who have forwarded luggage by this route to or from 
Italy should enquire for it at the custom-house here. — 144 M. 
Avio, the last Austrian station ; the village lies on the right bank of 
the Adige. 

148 M. Peri (413 ft.), the first Italian station, is the starting- 
point for the ascent of the Monte Baldo (7210 ft. ; comp. p. 195), 
which separates the valley of the Adige from the Lago di Garda. 
— On an eminence to the right lies Rivoli, which was stormed several 
times by the French in 1796 and 1797 under Masse"na, and after- 
wards gave him his ducal title. — 156 M. Ceraino. The train now 
enters the Chiusa di Verona, a rocky defile celebrated in mediaeval 
warfare. At the entrance are the works of Incanale, commanding 
the pass. 

The train passes (160 M.) Domegliara, also a station on the 
Verona and Caprino line (comp. p. 213), then (164 M.) Pescan- 
tina, and (167 M.) Parona all' Adige (p. 213), crosses the Adige, 
and reaches the Verona and Milan line. 

At Verona (see p. 201) it first stops at (173 M.) the Stazione 
Porta Nuova and then at the (175 M.) Stazione Porta Vescovo, the 
principal station. 

6. From Vienna to Venice via, Pontebba. 

398 M. Austrian South Railway to Bruck; Austrian State Railway 
thence to Pontafel; North Italian Railway thence to Venice. Express 
train in l5'/2 hrs. (fares 74 fr. 10, 51 fr. 70 c), ordinary train in 24 hrs. 

Vienna, see Baedeker's Southern Germany ty Austria. The ex- 
press trains take 13/ 4 hr. from Vienna to (47 M.) Ologgnitz via 
Baden and Wiener -Neustadt. — At Gloggnitz (1450 ft.) begins 
the *Semmering Railway, the oldest of the great continental moun- 
tain-railways, constructed in 1848-1853 (best views on the left). 
In the valley flows the green Schwarzau. On the left is the three- 
peaked Sonnwendstein ; to the "W., in the background, the Raxalp. 
At (55 M.) Payerbach (1615 ft.) the train crosses the Valley of 


20 Route 6. SEMMERING. From Vienna 

Beichenau by a viaduct 80 ft. high and ascends rapidly on the 
S. slope of the valley (gradient 1 : 40). Beyond four tunnels it 
reaches (61 »/ 2 M.) Klamrn (2290 ft.), with a half-ruined castle of 
Prince Liechtenstein, on an abrupt rocky pinnacle. Far below runs 
the old Semmering road. The train now skirts the Weinzettelwand 
by a long gallery and reaches (66 M.) Breitenstein (2530 ft.). Two 
more tunnels are traversed, and the ravines of the Kalte Binne and 
the Untere Adlitzgraben crossed by lofty viaducts. 

After three more tunnels the train reaches (71 M.) Semmering 
(2930 ft.), and passes from Austria into Styria by means of the 
Semmering Tunnel, nearly 1 M. long. It then descends rapidly on 
the N. slope of the Froeschnitz to (78 M.) Spital and (82y 2 M.) Miirz- 
zuschlag (2200 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant). — The line now follows the 
picturesque valley of the Miirz, containing numerous forges. 87^2 M. 
Langenwang; 90 M. Krieglach ; 92 M. Mitterdorf. On the right 
rises the chateau of Pilchl, and beyond, the ruins of Lichtenegg. 
The train makes a wide sweep round the Wartberg-Kogel, crossing 
the Miirz twice, and reaches (97 M.) Kindberg , with a castle of 
Count Attems. — 102 M. Alarein; 106 M. Kapfenberg. 

108 M. Bruck (1595 ft. ; Wintersteiner), a small town at the 
confluence of the Miirz and Mur, with an old castle, is the junction 
of the line to Gratz and Trieste (see Baedeker' s Southern Germany). 
On a rocky height to the N. of the station is the ruined castle of 

The Staatsbahn, which we now follow, diverges to the right 
from the South Railway, crosses the Mur, and ascends the narrow 
valley of that river. Beyond (116 M.) Niklasdorf we again cross the 
Mur and reach (II8V2 M.) Leoben (1745 ft.), the capital of Upper 
Styria and the seat of the government mining authorities. The train 
describes a wide circuit round the town, and stops at the (11972 M.) 
suburban station of Waasen. It then follows the Mur, passing the 
chateau of Goss on the left. 

126 M. St. Michael (1955 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant), at the mouth 
of the Liesing-Thal, is the junction for St. Valentin and Linz. 
Several unimportant stations. — 140 M. Knittelfeld (2110 ft.). — 
149»/ 2 M. Judenburg (2380 ft.; Rail. Restaurant), an ancient town 
at the base of the Seethal Alps, with extensive foundries. — 153 M. 
Thalheim; 158 M. St. Georgen; 161 M. Vnzmarkt. On the right 
rises the ruin of Frauenburg , once the seat of the minnesinger 
Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Beyond (165i/ 2 M.) Scheifling, with the 
chateau of Schrattenberg (r.), the train quits the Mur , and ascends 
to (170V2 M.) St. Lambrecht (2900 ft.), on the watershed between 
the Mur and the Drave. It then descends the valley of the Olsa pass- 
ing (173 M.) Neumarkt and (177i/ 2 M.) Einoed. ' 

183 1 /;) M. Friesach (2090 ft.) , an ancient town, commanded by 
four ruined castles, near the confluence of the Olsa with the Met- 

to Venice. VILLACH. 6. Route. 21 

nitz. — The train now enters the Krappfeld, the fertile plain of tho 
Ourk ; to the E. is the Sau-Alpe , to the S. rise the Karawanken. 
187 M. Hirt; 190 M. Treibach; 199 M. Launsdorf (*Rail. Restau- 
rant). The most interesting of the numerous castles of the Carin- 
thian nobles which abound in this district is *Hoch-Osterwitz , the 
property of the Khevenhiiller family, situated 2 M. to the S.W., 
on a rock 500 ft. high. 

From (203 M.) Olandorf (*Rail. Restaurant) a branch -line 
diverges to Klagenfurt. — 203i/ 2 M. -St. Veit (1560 ft.), an ancient 
town with 3000 inhab., was the capital of Oarinthia down to 1519. 

— The line continues to ascend the pretty valley of the Glan. 
208'/ 2 M. Feistritz-Pulst. To the right is the loftily situated ruin of 
Liebenfels; to the left tbose of Karlsberg and (farther on) Hardegg. 

— 213 M. Olanegg, with an old castle. Beyond (219 M.) Feldkirchen 
the valley becomes broad and marshy. The train then approaches 
the Ossiacher See (1600 ft.). «224 M. Ossiach; 228 M. Sattendorf. 
At the S.W. end of the lake is the ruin of Landskron. 

232l/ 2 M. Villach (1665 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; Mosser; Tar- 
mann, etc.), an old town on the Brave, with 770O inhab. , the 
junction of the lines to Marburg and Franzensfeste, is very pictur- 
esquely situated in a fertile basin at the base of the Dobratsch 
(7110 ft.). 

The train skirts the town towards the S., and crosses the Drave. 

— 235 M. Bad Villach, with warm sulphur springs. The train now 
crosses the Gail. 237y 2 M. Fimitz; 243 M. Arnoldstein ; 246y 2 M. 
Thoerl- Maglem. The line then runs along the left side of the 
Schlitza Valley and passes through two tunnels. 

250 M. Tarvis (2410 ft. ; *Rail. Hotel $ Restaurant), where the 
railway from Laibach joins ours on the left, the chief place in the 
Kanal Valley, consists of ZJnter- Tarvis, in the floor of the valley, 
J / 2 M. from the the station, and Ober-Tarvis, 3 / t M. farther on, 
with a station of its own, at which the slow trains stop. 

Beyond Ober-Tarvis the line gradually ascends. To the left 
rises the Luschariberg (5880 ft.) , with a much - frequented pil- 
grimage-church. — 255 M. Saifnitz (2615 ft.), on the watershed 
between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. The train then descends 
along the Fella. — 258i/ 2 M. Uggowitz. Near the picturesque Fort 
Malborgeth the Fella is crossed. Beyond (261 M.) Malborgeth the 
train runs through a rocky ravine, at the end of which lies (265 M.) 
Lussnitz, passes Leopoldskirchen on the left, and crosses the Vo- 

270y 2 M. Pontafel (1870 ft. ; Railway Restaurant), the Austrian 
frontier-station, where the luggage of passengers arriving from Italy 
is examined. Pontafel is separated by the rushing Pontebbana from — 

271 M. Fontebba (Railway Restaurant), the first village in 
Italy, with the Italian custom-house (luggage examined). The next 

22 Route 6. UDINE. 

part of the railway, traversing the wild ravine of the Fella ( Valle 
del Ferro), is remarkable both for the grandeur of the scenery and 
for the boldness displayed in the construction of the line. The line 
at first descends rapidly along the right bank of the Fella, and 
then crosses the river by an iron bridge, 130 ft. high, at Ponte di 
Muro. — 278 M. Dogna, at the mouth of the valley of that name, at 
the head of which rises the grand pyramid of the Montasio or Bram- 
kofel (9030 ft.). — 279 M. Chiusaforte, at the entrance of the 
picturesque Raceolana Valley. At (284M.) Resiuttathe train crosses 
the Resia. Below (286 M.) Moggio the valley of the Fella expands. 
The bottom of the valley is covered with rubble. A little below 
(289 M.) Stazione per la Carnia the Fella flows into the Tagliamento, 
which here waters an extensive plain. 

292 M. Venzone. The train traverses the maTshy valley of the 
Tagliamento by an imposing viaduct, Y2 M. in length, and then 
quits the basin of that river, which flows towards the S.W. into 
the Adriatic Sea. — 296 M. Gemona-Ospedaletto, the junction of the 
new line to Venice via Casarsa and Portogruaro (comp. pp. 224, 293) ; 
300 M. Magnano-Artegna ; 302^2 M. Tarcento ; 305 M. Tricesimo ; 
309 M. Reana del Rojale. — 315 M. Udine, see p. 293. 

From Udine to (398 M.) Venice, see pp. 293-291. 

II. Piedmont. 

7. Turin 25 

From the Piazza Castello, with the Royal Palace, to the 
Academy (gallery of paintings) and the Piazze S. Carlo 
and Carlo Emanuele, 27. • — From the Piazza Castello to 
the Cathedral and the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto, 32. — 
From the Piazza Castello to the Piazza dello Statuto; 
Giardino della Cittadella; Central Station, 34. — From 
the Piazza Castello by the Via di Po, with its side-streets, 
to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, and thence to the 
Nuovo Giardino Pubblico, 35. — Right bank of the Po ; 
Capuchin monastery, 37. 
Excursions : The Superga, 38. — Moncalieri. Stupinigi 38. 

8. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur ....... 38 

Excursion to the Graian Alps 44 

9. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin 48 

a. Ceresole Reale, 48. — b. Lanzo, 48. — c. Snsa, 48. — 
d. Torre Pellice, 49. — e. Crissolo (Monte Viso), 49. 

10. From Turin to Nice over the Col di Tenda 49 

11. From Turin to Genoa 53 

a. Via Alessandria 53 

From Asti to Mortara (Milan), 53. — From Alessandria 

to Savona, 64. 

b. Via Bra and Savona 55 

Carignano, 55. — From Bra to Alessandria, 55. — From 
Bastia-Mondovi to Cuneo, 55. 

c. Via Acqui and Ovada 56 

12. From Bellinzona to Genoa 57 

From Milan to Vigevano and Mortara (Genoa), 58. 

13. From Turin to Piacenza via, Alessandria 59 

14. From Turin to Milan via, Novara 59 

From Santhia, to Biella, 60. — From Vercelli to Alessan- 
dria, 61. — From Novara to Varallo and to Busto-Arsizio 
and Seregno, 61, 62. 

This district 'at the foot of the mountains', enclosed on three sides 
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino, 
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No- 
vara, Cuneo, and Alessandria, with 3,233,000 inhab., and an area of about 
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and 
its tributaries, which yield rice and maize, and of highlands where ex- 
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain 
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and 
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and 
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher 
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the people still retains traces of 
their ancient affinity with the French; thus, pieuve, instead of the Italian 
piovere, om for uomo, cheur for cuore, sita for eitta, rason for ragione, 
piassa for piazza. This patois is universally spoken, even by the upper 
classes, but is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont, however, 
French is very generally spoken. 

The History of the country is closely interwoven with that of its 


dynasty. The House of Savoy (or Casa Sabauda) , a family of German 
origin , professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke 
Wittekind, the opponent, of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among 
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. (d. 
1056) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. In 1101 his 
descendants were created imperial counts of Savoy by Henry IV., and by 
judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the emperor alternately, 
they gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy over Turin, Aosta, 
Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. Amadeus VI. (1343-83), known as the 'Conte Verde' 
('green count') from his usual dress, strengthened and extended the power 
of his house in numerous feuds. Amadeus VIII., raised to the ducal dig- 
nity by Emp. Sigismund in 1416, added Geneva, Vercelli, and Piedmont 
to his possessions, and gave the principality its iirst legislative code. He 
was created pope as Felix V. (1439-49) by the Council of Basle and died 
in 1451. — Situated between the two great mediaeval powers of France on 
one Bide, and Austria and Spain on the other, the princes of Savoy fre- 
quently changed sides, and although sometimes overtaken by terrible dis- 
asters, they contrived to maintain, and even to extend their territory. 
At one period the greater part of the Duchy was annexed to France, but 
Emmanuel Philiberl ('Testa di Ferro', 1553-80) restored it to its original 
extent, being , as regards internal organisation also , its second founder. 
Under his son Charles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) the Duchy again became 
dependent on France. From the sons of this prince are descended the 
elder branch of the family, which became extinct in 1831, and the younger 
Carignano line , which succeeded to the throne in the person of Carlo 
Alberto. The following dukes were Vittorio Amedeo I. (1630-37), Fran- 
cesco Giacinto (1637-38) , Carlo Emanuele II. (1638-75) , and Vittorio Ame- 
deo II. (1675-1730). The last of these , having boldly allied himself with 
Austria during the Spanish War of Succession, managed to throw off the 
French suzerainty (1703) ; he obtained Sicily as his reward, which island, 
however, he was afterwards obliged to exchange for Sardinia (1720), and 
in 1713 assumed the title of King, which was subsequently coupled with 
the name of the latter island. His successors were Carlo Emanuele III. 
(1730-73), and Vittorio Amedeo III. (1773-96). After the battle of Turin 
(1706), in which Prince Eugene commanded the Imperialists, the Piedmont- 
ese princes directed their attention to Prussia, which served as a model 
for the organisation of their kingdom. In both countries the military 
and feudal element preponderated , and both were obliged to succumb 
to the new powers evolved by the French revolution. Carlo Emanuele IV. 
(1796-1802) was deprived of all his continental possessions by the French 
in 1798, and restricted to the island of Sardinia, which was protected 
by the English fleet. Vittorio Emanuele I. (1802-21) was at length rein- 
stated in his dominions, with the addition of Genoa, by the Congress of 
Vienna. The Napoleonic period had swept away the feudal institutions 
of Piedmont, and had bequeathed in their stead many of the benefits of 
modern legislation, and high military renown. It is therefore intelligible 
that the clerical reaction, which set in with the king's return, gave rise 
to an insurrection which caused the king to abdicate, and which had 
to be quelled by Austrian troops. His brother Carlo Felice (1821-31) ad- 
hered faithfully to Jesuitical principles, and lived on the whole in ac- 
cordance with his motto, 'Non sono re per essere seccato' ('worried'). 
The older line of the House of Savoy became extinct with this prince, and 
was succeeded by the collateral line of Carignano (p. 65 ; 27th April, 1831). 
Carlo Alberto (b. 1798), who had been educated at a French military 
school, and had headed the insurrection of 1821, was protected by France 
and Russia against the attempts of Austria to deprive him of his claims 
to the throne. His own experiences, and the force of circumstances, 
rendered him an implacable enemy of Austria. With him began the 
national development of Piedmont, although his efforts were not always 
consistent. The liberals called him the 'Be Tentenna' (the vacillating) 
while in 1843 he himself described his position as being 'between the 
daggers of the Carbonari and the chocolate of the Jesuits' On 6th 
Jan , 1848, Count Cavour made the first public demand for the establish- 

TURIN. 7. Route. 25 

ment of a constitution , and on the 7th Feb. the king , half in despair, 
yielded to the popular desires. The insurrection in Lombardy at length 
induced him to become the champion of national independence, and to 
give vent to his old enmity against Austria (23rd March), but one year 
later his career terminated with his defeat at Novara (23rd March, 1849). 
He then abdicated and retired to Oporto, where he died in a few months 
(26th July). It was reserved for his son Vittorio Emanuele II (b. 1820, 
d. 9th Jan., 1878) finally to give effect to the national wishes of Italy. 

7. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Arrival. The principal railway-station at Turin is the Stazione Cen- 
trale , or di Porta Nuova (PI. E, 4, 5), a handsome edifice with waiting- 
rooms adorned with frescoes, and the terminus of all the lines (Rail. 
Restaurant). — Travellers to Milan may take the train at the Stazione di 
Porta Susa (PI. C, 3, 4), the first stopping-place of all the trains of the 
Novara-Milan line (omnibuses and cabs meet every train). — Station of the 
steam-tramway to Rivoli in the Piazza dello Statuto (PI. C, 2); of that to 
Cirie-Lanzo near the Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1). 

Hotels. *Grand Hotel de Turin (PI. b; E, 4,5), opposite the central 
station, with lift, R., L., & A. from 3-5, B. H/2, dej. 3V2-4, D.5, pens, from 
10 fr. ; Bonne-Femme-Metropole-Feder (PI. h-, E,2), Via Pietro Micca, re- 
cently enlarged, with lift and electric light, well spoken of; Hotel de 
l'Europe (PI. a, E 2), Piazza Castello 19, with lift; Hotel d'Angleterre 
& Trombetta (PI. c; E, 3, 4), Via Roma 31, and Via Cavour 2, dej. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 10 fr. All these are of the first class. — Albergo Centrale (PI. g; 
E, 3), Via delle Finanze, R. 2-2V 2 , L. y 2 , A. 3 /t, B. IV4, dej. incl. wine 3, 
D. incl. wine 4, pens. 9 fr., well spoken of. — The following are second- 
class and more in the Italian style: Hotel Suisse (PI. i ; E, 4), Via Sacchi 2, 
near the central station, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. l'/4, dej. 2'/2, D. 4'/4, pens. 
8-10, omn. J / 2 fr., well spoken of; Hotel de France et de la Concorde 
(PI. 1; F, 2, 3), Via di Po 20; Tre Corone (PI. m; E, 2), Via S. Tom- 
maso 13; Bce Rosso (PI. E, 2), Via Venti Settembre; Dogana Vecchia 
(PI. n; E, 2), Via Corte d'Appello 4, adjoining the Palazzo di Citta, R., 
L., & A. 2 l /t, B. 1 fr., omn. 60 c, well spoken of. — The Grissini, a kind 
of bread in long, thin, and crisp sticks, are a speciality of the place. The 
Piedmontese wines have a high repute (comp. p. xx). 

Restaurants (comp. p. xix). "Cambio, Piazza Carignano 2, much fre- 
quented in the morning, best Italian wines, separate room for smokers; 
"Caffe-Eist. di Parigi, Via di Po 21; Trattoria del Commercio, Via Venti 
Settembre 74, near the Piazza Castello; Tavella (Dilei), Via di Po ; Trat- 
toria delta Posta, Piazza Carlo Alberto; Meridiana, Galleria Geisser, Via 
S. Teresa 6 (Vienna beer) ; Caffe Milano, Via Pietro Micca 2. — Vermouth 
di Torino (famous), good at Carpono's, Piazza Castello 18. 

Cafes. Parigi (see above); Londra, Via di Po ; Nazionale, Via di Po 20; 
San Carlo, Piazza S. Carlo (concert in the evening); Romano, by the Gal- 
leria dell' Industria Subalpina, in the Piazza Castello (cafe-chantant in 
the evening); Borsa, Via Roma 25 (newspapers); Ligure, Corso Vitt. Em. II., 
near the station (concerts); Tavella (see above). — Confectioners. Bass, 
Baratti <fc Milano, Piazza Castello, S. side; Stratta, Piazza S. Carlo 7. 
Chocolate: Moriondo <£ Oariglio, Piazza S. Carlo 6. — Beer. Voigl, corner 
of the Via Botero and Via Pietro Micca ; Birreria delta Bona, Via dell' Ac- 
cademia delle Scienze; Bir. J ta liana, Piazza Castello; Lumpp, Via Alfieri. 

Cabs (Vetlure, Cittadine): per drive (corsa) 1 fr., at night (12-6 a.m.) 
1 fr. 50 c. ; first 1/2 hr. 1 fr., first hour (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 
•/« hr. 75 c, at night I1/2, 2, and 1 fr.; each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse 
carriage 50 c. more in each case. 

Tramways (fare 10 c, transfer 15 c.) traverse the streets in many different 
directions (see Plan). The chief centres are Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2), 
Piazza Emanuele Filiberto ('Porta Palazzo' ; PI. D, E, 1), Piazza dello Statuto 
(PI. C, 2), Piazza S. Martino (PI. C, 3), and Piazza Carlo Felice (PI. E, 4). 

26 Route 7- TURIN. Theatres. 

Steam Tramways ply to various points in the more or less immediate 
neighbourhood; comp. the Italian time-tables. 

General Post Office (PI. 48, F 3; for poste restante letters, etc.), Via 
Principe Amedeo 10; also at the Stazione Centrale. — Telegraph Offices, 
Via Principe Amedeo 8 and at the Stazione Centrale. 

Booksellers. Carlo Clausen, Via di Po 19; Rosenoerg & Sellier, Via Bo- 
gino 3; F. Casanova, Piazza Carignano ; Fratelli Bocca, Via Carlo Alberto 3 ; 
L. Rovx & Co., in the Galleria Subalpina (p. 27). — Newspapers : Gazzetla 
Piemontese, Gazzetla del Popolo, Qazzetta di Torino. 

Goods-Agents. Malvano & Co., Via Principe Amedeo 14 (PI. F, 3) ; 
Fratelli Girard, Via Cernaia 14. 

Bankers. Pellegrini & Moris, Via dell' Arsenale 15; De Fernex <£■ Co., 
Via Alfieri 15. — Money Changers. Bauer & Borelli, Via Cavour 10. 

Physicians. Dr. F. Conti, Corso Oporto 30 (speaks English and French); 
Dr. Bergesio, Via Melchior Gioia 8 (speaks French). — Dentists. J.Bowman 
(Amer.), Via Finanze 11; Martini, Via Pietro Micca (speaks English); Ga- 
relli, Via Roma 15. — Chemists. A. Torre, Via Po 14 ; G. Torta, Via Roma 2. 

Military Music in the Piazza Castello every afternoon (5 p.m.); in 
summer daily in the old Piazza d'Armi about 6 p.m. , during the Corso, 
and Sun. 2-4 in the Giardino Reale (comp. p. 28). 

Baths. Bagni Cavour, Via Lagrange 22 ; Bagni di S. Carlo, Via Roma 
22; Bagni di S. Giuseppe, Via S. Teresa 21. Bath H/i-V/ifr., with fee of 
20 c. — Vapour Baths: Bagni della Margherita, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele 1-3; 
Via Provvidenza 40. 

Theatres. Teatro Regio (PI. 52; F, 2), Piazza Castello, for operas and 
ballets, with seats for 2500, generally open during Lent and the Carnival 
only (admission 3 fr., reserved seats 5, poltrone 10 fr.); Vittorio Emanuele 
(PI. 59; F, 2), Via Rossini 13, for operas, ballets, and equestrian perfor- 
mances, the largest in the city ; Alfieri (PI. 56; D, 3), Piazza Solferino, for 
comedy and operettas; Carignano (PI. 53 ; E, 3), in the Piazza of that name, 
for Italian comedies and (in autumn) operas ; Rossini (PI. 57 ; F, 3), Via di 
Po 24, for plays in the Piedmontese dialect; Balbo (PI. 60; F, 4), Via An- 
dria Doria, for farces, etc. 

British Vice-Consul, Giacinto Cassinis, Via Bogino 25. — United States 
Consular Agent, William E. Manlius, Via Madama Cristina 27. 

English Church, Via Pio Quinto 15, behind the Tempio Valdese; ser- 
vice at 10.30 a.m. — Protestant Service in the Tempio Valdese (PI. 18; 
F 4) on Sundays, in French at 11, in Italian at 3 o'clock. — Free Italian 
Church (Rev. Sign. Bracchetto), Via Maria Vittoria 27, first floor. 

Principal Attractions: Armoury (p. 28), Picture Gallery (p. 30) and 
Museum of Antiquities (p. 29), Mnseo Civico (p. 36), monuments in the 
Cathedral (p. 32), view from the Capuchin monastery (p. 37). 

Turin (785 ft.) , Ital. Torino, the ancient Taurasia, capital of 
theTaurini, a Ligurian-Celtic tribe, destroyed by Hannibal B.C. 
218, afterwards the Roman Augusta Taurinorum, was the capital 
of the County of Piedmont in the middle ages, and in 1418 became 
subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 
1720 it was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and from 1860 
to 1865 of Italy. The seat of a university and of a military aca- 
demy, and headquarters of the 1st Italian Corps d'Arme'e, this 
great city lies in an extensive plain on the Po, which receives the 
waters of the Dora Uiparia below the city. The plain of the Po 
is bounded on the W. by the Graian and Cottian Alps, and on the 
E. by a range of hills rising on the right bank, opposite the city 
(hill of the Capuchins, p. 37; Superga , p. 38). Turin was the 
chief centre of those national struggles which led to the unification 
of Italy. The removal of the seat of government to Florence seriously 


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impaired the prosperity of the citizens for a time, but they have 
long since recover&d their losses. The rapidly increasing population 
now numbers upwards of 320,000, including suburbs. 

Turin is conspicuous among the cities of Italy for the regularity of 
its construction. Its plan presents rectangular blocks of houses (Isole), long, 
broad, straight streets ( Vie) , spacious squares, and numerous gardens. 
Its hi tory explains this. The plan of the old town with slight varia- 
tions, is ascertained to be the same as that of the ; polony founded^ by the 
Emperor Augustus. It formed a rectangle of 2210 ft. in length, and 
1370 ft. in breadth, and is now intersected by the Via Garibaldi which 
runs between the Piaaza Castello and the Via del a Consolata. It had 
four principal gates, of which the Porta Palatma, to the N. (in the Pa- 
lazzo delle Tor?i, p. 33), still exists. The whole town was comprised 
within this circumference until in the 17th cent, a systematic extension 
of the city was begun in accordance with the original plan. The forti- 
fications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, and finally the siege of 1706 
cleared away most of the old buildings, and gave the town its present 
appearance. The fortifications were demolished by the French m 18UJ, 
and the citadel had to give place to the railway in 1657. 

The spacious Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2) forms the centre 
of the town. From this point the busiest streets diverge : Via Roma, 
Via Garibaldi, Via delV Accademia delle Scienze, and the broad and 
handsome Via di Po, leading to the bridge over the Po, and flanked 
by arcades (Portici), containing shops. The University in the Via di 
Po, see p. 35. — In the S.E. angle of the Piazza Castello is the 
Galleria dell' Industria Subalpina (PI. 20 ; F, 2), containing a cafe' 
(p. 25) and concert-rooms. The other end of this arcade is in the 
Piazza Carlo Alberto (p. 29). 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. 42 ; E, 2), the ancient castle, a lofty 
and cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only 
mediaeval structure of which Turin boasts, and was erected by 
William of Monferrat, when master of the town towards the end of 
the 13th century. It owes its present name to Maria, mother of King 
Victor Amadeus II. , who as Dowager Duchess ('Madama Reale') 
occupied the building , and embellished it in 1718 by the addition 
of a handsome double flight of steps and the facade with marble 
columns on the W. side, from a design by Juvara. The two original 
towers on the E. side are still standing ; two others on the W. side, 
one of which contains an observatory, are concealed by the facade. 
The Palace now contains several institutions. — In front of it stands 
a Monument to the Sardinian Army (PI. 24) by Vine. Vela, erected 
by the Milanese in 1859. 

At the N.W. corner of this piazza is the church of 8. Lorenzo, 
with a peculiar dome, and destitute of facade, by Guarini (1687). 
On the N. side of the Piazza Castello rises the Palazzo Keale, 
or Royal Palace (PI. 45 ; E, 2), begun in 1660, a plain brick edifice. 
The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza by a gate, the pillars 
of which are adorned with two groups in bronze of Castor andPollux, 
designed by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To the left in the hall 
of the palace (admission free), in a niche near the staircase, is an 
equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. (d. 1637); the statue 

28 Route 7. TURIN. Palazzo Carignano. 

is of bronze, the horse in marble ; below the latter are two slaves. 
The handsome staircase is embellished with statues of Emmanuel 
Philibert by Vami, and Carlo Alberto by Vela. The royal apartments 
are shown only in the absence of the king. 

The S.E. wing (Galleria Beaumont) contains the *Rotal Arm- 
oury {Armeria Reale; PI. 4, E 2), entered from the arcade of 
the Prefettura (PI. 49 , E F 2 ; last door to the left) ; admission 
(11-3) by tickets obtained (gratis) on the landing of the first stair- 
case. The collection, which is on the second story, is very choice. 

In the centre of Room I. are a bronze statuette of Napoleon I., the 
sword he wore at the battle of Marengo, a quadrant he used when a 
young officer, two French regimental eagles, and two kettle-drums cap- 
tured at the battle of Turin in 1706. Numerous models of modern 
weapons ; in a cabinet near the window, Prussian helmets ; then Japanese 
and Indian weapons and armour. A cabinet on the right contains gifts 
presented to Victor Emmanuel by Italian towns, a sword presented by Rome 
in 1859, a gilded wreath of laurel by Turin 1860, and a sword in 1865, 
on the occasion of the Dante Festival; in the centre, the favourite horse 
of Charles Albert; Piedmontese flags from the wars of 1848-49 over the 
cabinets. In a cabinet to the left of the entrance is a tiny MS. of the Koran, 
in tolerable preservation. — The long Hall contains, on the right, a gigantic 
suit of armour worn at the Battle of Pavia by an equerry of Francis I. of 
France ; beyond it, in front of the chimney-piece, a choice and very valuable 
collection of 32 battle-axes, a sword executed by Benvenuto Cellini 0), and 
some finely ornamented helmets of the 15th and 16th centuries. Under glass, 
a 'Shield by Benvenuto Cellini (?), embossed, and inlaid with gilding, re- 
presenting scenes from the war of Marius against Jugurtha. The finest 
suits of armour are those of the Brescian family Martinengo, three on 
the left and one on the right. Adjacent is an ancient rostrum in the form 
of a boar's head, found in the harbour at Genoa. At the end of the hall 
are the armour of Prince Eugene, the saddle of Emp. Charles V. in red 
velvet, and the beautiful armour of Duke Emmanuel Philibert. On the 
right , under glass , the sword of St. Maurice , the scimitar of Tippoo 
Sahib, etc. In the cabinet A are Roman weapons, helmets, and the eagle 
of a legion. In the cabinet F, at the top, the sword of the Imperial 
General Johann v. Werth (d. 1652), bearing a German inscription in verse. 

On the floor below is the Rotal Library of 60,000 vols, and 3000 MSS. 
(shown only on application to the librarian), containing valuable geo- 
graphical, historical, and genealogical works, miniatures of the 15th and 
16th cent. , drawings by Leonardo da Vinci ("Portrait of himself; see 
p. 130), Fra Bartolommeo, Correggio, Oaudemio Ferrari, etc. — A staircase 
ascends hence to the valuable Collection of Coins, trinkets, enamels, carved 
ivory, etc., in a small room adjoining the Armoury. 

The Palace Garden {Giardino Reale; Pl.E, F,2), entered from 
the arcade opposite the Palazzo Madama, is open, during the absence 
of the king, on Sundays and festivals, between 1st July and 1st Oct., 
1-5 o'clock (military music; p. 26). Fine view of the Superga. 
— The Cathedral adjoins the palace on the W. (see p. 32). 

In the Piazza Carignano, a little to the S. of the Piazza 
Castello, rises the Palazzo Carignano (PI. 39 ; F, 3), with a curious 
brick facade, erected by Guarini in 1680. An inscription informs 
us that King Victor Emmanuel II. was born here in 1820. The Sar- 
dinian Chamber of Deputies met here from 1848 to 1860 and the 
Italian Parliament from 1860 to 1865. The handsome 'facade at 
the back, in the Piazza Carlo Alberto, was added in 1871 by 
Iiollati and Ferri. 

Academy. TURIN. 7. Route. 29 

The rooms used by the parliament are now devoted to the Natural 
History Collections formerly in the Academy (open to the public daily, 
except Mon., 1-4). The collection is divided into the Zoological and Com- 
parative Anatomy Section and the Palaeontological, Geological, and Minera- 
logical Section. The former contains a fine array of birds and insects, and 
a collection of the vertebrates of Italy arranged in a separate gallery. 
The palseontological division contains a fine collection of fossil mollusca 
from the tertiary formations, and the skeletons of a gigantic armadillo 
Qlyptodon Clavipes) from Rio de la Plata, a Tetralophodon Avernensis, a 
Megatherium Cuvieri, and other antediluvian animals. 

In the Piazza Carignano . in front of the palace , stands the 
finely-executed, marble *Statue of the philosopher and patriot Vin- 
cenzo Qioberti (PI. 32 ; d. 1852), by Albertoni, erected in 1859. 

The Piazza Carlo Alberto (E. side of Palazzo Carignano) 
contains a bronze monument of King Charles Albert (PI. 27], 
designed by Marocchetti. The pedestal stands on four steps of 
Scottish granite ; at the corners are four colossal statues of Sardin- 
ian soldiers ; above are four female figures, representing Martyr- 
dom, Freedom, Justice, and Independence. — The Galleria Sub- 
alpina (p. 27) runs off this piazza. 

In the vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via dell' Accademia No. 4 , is the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze (PI. 3 ; E, 3) , containing a picture-gallery and museums 
of natural history and antiquities. The building, formerly the 
Jesuit College, was erected by Quarini in 1674. On the Ground- 
Floor, to the right, are Egyptian, Roman , and Greek sculptures 
(key kept on the first floor) , on the First Floor smaller anti- 
quities ; on the Second Floor (98 steps) the picture-gallery. Both 
collections are open daily 10-4 (in summer 10-3) ; |adm. to each 
1 fr. ; on Sundays and holidays 10-2, gratis. 

Museum of Antiquities (ituseo Egizio e di Antichita Greco- Romane). — 
Halls I. & II.: Egyptian statues and late Greek works found in Egypt; 
in the centre of the room, Mosaics found at Stampacci in Sardinia , re- 
presenting Orpheus with his lyre, and a lion, goat, and ass, probably the 
animals listening to him; large Egyptian sphinxes, figures of idols and 
kings, sarcophagi, reliefs. The finest figures are the colossal statue of 
Seti II., in red sandstone; the red granite statue of Amenophis II. ; a 
smaller statue of the same monarch in black granite ; a small white figure 
of Amosis; and the black 'Statue of Ramses II., above which is an in- 
scription in honour of the celebrated French Egyptologist Champollion. — 
We now enter the I. Gallery to the left. Statues of Jupiter, Marsyas, 
and Olympus, Youth (restored as Mercury), Hercules killing the snakes, 
a good torso , four figures placed round a column , bearing the name of 
Protys the sculptor. Minerva, over life-size. Amazon (in green basalt; 
freely restored). Etruscan sepulchral urn from Chiusi, with recumbent 
figure of the deceased. Inscriptions. 

The Small Ahtiqdities are on the First Floor. In the lit Boom are 
mummies, papyrus writings, scarabEei, trinkets, vases, porcelain sta- 
tuettes, and terracottas, many of which are Graeco-Roman. The 2nd Room 
on the right contains a papyrus with fragments of the annals of Manetho 
(a list of the kings of Egypt down to the 19th dynasty), discovered by 
Champollion; the 'Book of the Dead', edited by Lepsius; the Tabula 
Isiaca found in the pontificate of Paul III., etc. — A passage to the left 
of the 1st Room contains inscriptions and statuettes. — We now turn to 
the left into a room containing Cyprian antiquities, several interesting 

30 Route 7. TURIN. Picture Gallery. 

Etruscan cinerary urns with traces of painting, and (at the door) two 
Assyrian reliefs, the heads of a king and a eunuch. 

Beyond, on the left, is a room devoted to Koman Sculptures: in 
the middle, heads of poets and philosophers; along the longer wall, 
busts of emperors; in the corner to the left, colossal head ot a goddess, 
line "Head of Venus (bust modern), head of Antinous, fragments of a fine 
relief of a youth in a chariot with four horses, probably a Greek work, etc. 
A room on the right contains the Grseco-Etruscan Vasee ; by the window- 
wall are two complete tombs found between Turin and Milan, and early 
Italian vessels. In the next room are Bronzes and a few reliefs in silver. 
In front of the wall-presses are a tripod and a Silenus, found near Turin, 
head of Caligula, and Minerva, found in the Versa near Stradella in 1828. 
— The room in the middle contains terracottas, coins, and "Glass. 

The *Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca) , on the second floor, is 
important for the study of Macrino a" Alba (1460-1510) and his 
pupil Deferrari da Chivasso, and of Qaudenzio Ferrari (1471?- 
1546), who was inspired by Leonardo and influenced by theUmbrian 
school (Nos. 49 and 54). Sodoma (1480-1549), who originally be- 
longed to the Lombard school, is well represented by three pictures. 
Lorenzo di Credi's (1459-1537) Madonna, No. 356, of his best period, 
shows that he was influenced by Leonardo. Among numerous and 
important works of the old Netherlandish school aTe : 359. Petrus 
Cristus; 358. Memling ; 340. Sketch by Rubens; 338, 351, 363, 
384. by Van Dyck. (Catalogue 1^4 fr-, obtainable only from the 
booksellers.) The pictures bear the names of their painters. 

I. Room. Princes of the House of Savoy and battle-pieces. Beginning 
on the right : ten of the battles fought by Prince Eugene , by Huchten- 
burg; thirteen portraits of members of the House of Savoy; 28. Horace 
Vernet, King Charles Albert; 29, 31. French School; 26, 30. Dutch School; 
4. Van Schuppen, Prince Eugene on horseback. 

II. Room. 42. Defendente Deferrari, Madonna with SS. George and 
Barbara and Charles III. of Savoy (ancient frame); *49. Gaud. Ferrari, St. 
Peter and donor; 50 bis. Macrino d'Alba, Madonna and saints (1498); Qau- 
denzio Ferrari, 52. Visitation, 53. God the Father, 54. Pieta, 57. Joachim 
driven from the Temple, 58. Madonna and St. Elizabeth; 56. Bern. Lanini, 
Pieta; 50. Sodoma, Holy Family. On an easel : 784. Barnaba da Modena, 
Madonna (1370). 

III. Room. '55. Sodoma, Madonna and SS. Jerome, John, Lucia, and 
Catharine. — IV. Room : 90. Landscape by Massimo d'Azeglio. 

V. Room. 93. School of Fra Angelico, Madonna ; 94, 96. Fra Angelica 
da Fiesole, Adoring angels; 97. Piero Pollajuolo (School of Verrocchiol), 
Tobias and the angel; 98. /Studio of Sandro Botticelli, Same subject, 99. Ma- 
donna; "101. Fr. Francia, Entombment (1515); 106. Bugiardini, Holy Family; 
108. Garofalo, The boy Jesus in the Temple ; 108 bis. After Raphael, Portrait 
of Pope Julius II. in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence (p 464)- 844 Lod 
Maszolino, , Madonna and saints; 114. Giov. Pedrini, SS. Catharine and Peter 
?? arty i;Xo :tl8 E ; Girnl l mo Savoldo, Holy Family; 121. Franciabigio, Annuncia- 
tion; 122. Franc. Penm, Good copy (1518) of Raphael's Entombment in the 
Palazzo Borghese at Rome; 127 bis Clovio, 'II Santissimo Sudario' (comp. 
p. 32); 127, 128 Bronzmo, Portraits of Eleonora da Toledo and her hus- 
band Cosimo I. de Medici; 129. After Titian, an old copy, Pope Paul III. 
In the middle are four Madonnas: 779. Giov. Bellini (ruined bv retouch- 
ing); 780. Bart Vivarini (1481); 828^ Timoleo Viti (more probabl/So/ 
Perugtno; forged signature); 824. Gregorio Schiavone. 

VI. Room. Above the door: 132. Bonifazio II, Holy Familv 137 
138, 142, 143. Andrea Schiavone, Mythological scenes; 140 Ant Badile 
' — »ter of P. Veronese), Presentation in the Temple; onnoii'te 117 
tronese, The Queen of Sheba before Solomon; 160^ Agosl^o Ca'rraeci, 
scape; *lbL. Caravaggio Musician. • 

(master of 
P. Veron< 

Picture Gallery. TURIN. ,7. Route. 31 

VII. Room. 163. Outdo Rent, John the Baptist; 167. Jacopo Bastano, 
Cupid at the forge; 170. Giulio Cesare Procaccini (not Grespi), SS. Francis 
and Carlo Borromeo adoring the Madonna; 174. Spagnoletto, St. Jerome; 
182. P. Veronese, Finding of Moses. 

VIII. Room. Porcelain-paintings by Constantin of Geneva, copied from 
celebrated originals; Luca delta Robbia, Adoration of the Infant Saviour. 

IX. Room. Fruit and flower-pieces ; 220. by Snydert, 225. by Fyt, 228. 
by Be Heem. — Then a corridor with inferior works. 

X. Room. *234. P. Veronese, Mary Magdalen washing the Saviour's 
feet; Ouercino, 242. Ecce Homo, 239. St. Francesca Romana; 823. P. 
Veronese, Danae; 241.. Elisabetta Sirani, Cain and Abel; 237, 238. Poussin, 
Waterfall, Cascades of Tivoli; 244. Orazio Oentileschi, Annunciation; 251. 
Slrozzi (more probably Ribera), Homer. 

XI. Room. 257, 258. Sassoferrato , Madonnas , the first called ' della 
Rosa'; 257 bis. Canaletlo, Piazzetta in Venice; 262. Ouercino, Return of 
the Prodigal Son ; 263. Fr. Albani, Salmacis ; 260, 264, 271, 274. Albani, 
The four Elements; 287. Gius. Crespi, St. Nepomuk in the confessional; 
276. Carlo Dold, Madonna ; 283, 288. Bernardino Belotto, Views of Turin; 
295. Maratta, Madonna; 299, 300. Angelica Kaufmann, Sibyls. 

XII. Room. Netherlands and German school : 306. Engelbrechtsen 
(not Lucas van Leyderi), Crucifixion; 307. Flemish Master of the Female 
Half-figures, Crucifixion; 309. Adoration of the Magi, in the style of Hieron. 
Bosch; 313. Van Eyck (?), St. Francis receiving the stigmata; ' s 312, 320. 
Rogier van der Weyden, Madonna and St. Elizabeth, with portrait of the 
donor; 324. Flemish School (not Moslaert), Lute-player; "338. Van Dyck, 
Children of Charles I. of England; 340. Rubens, Sketch of his apotheosis 
of Henry IV. in the Uffizi; '351. Van Dyck, Princess Clara Eugenia of Spain. 

XIII. Room: Gems of the collection. 356. Mantegna, Madonna and 
saints (much retouched) ; 356. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna ; 357. Ouercino, 
Madonna; *358. Hans Memling , The Seven Sorrows of Mary, a chrono- 
logical composition of a kind much in vogue among northern artists ; 359. 
Petrus Cristus, Madonna; 849. Titian, St. Jerome, a late work; "361. Saenre- 
dam, Interior of a church, the figures by A. van Ostade; '363. Van Dyck, 
Prince Thomas of Savoy, a fine portrait; 364. D. Teniers, Tavern-scene; 
366. Wouwerman, Cavalry attacking a bridge ; 368. D. Teniers, Musician ; 
369. Sandro Botticelli, Triumph of Chastity; 371. Gaud. Ferrari, Crucifixion 
(an early work in distemper) ; *373. Raphael, Madonna della Tenda (a very 
fine picture, but the original is at Munich) ; ~375. Desiderio da Seltignano 
(not Donatello), Madonna (relief in marble); 376. Sodoma, Lucretia; 377. 
Paul Potter (1649), Cattle grazing; 377bis. Rembrandt, Old man asleep (an 
early work); 378. Jan Brueghel, Landscape; 379. Frans van Mieris, Por- 
trait of himself; 384. Van Dyck, Holy Family, painted under the influence 
of Titian ; 386. H. Holbein, Portrait of Erasmus (a copy) ; 389. J. Ruysdael, 
Landscape; 391. Gerard Dou, Girl plucking grapes; '392. Velazquez, Phi- 
lip IV. of Spain ; 393. Rubens (?), Holy Family ; 394. C. Netscher, Scissors- 

XIV. Room. 398. Sallaert, Procession ; 410. Floris, Adoration of the 
Magi; 420. Wouwerman, Horse-market; 435. Gerard Dou, Portrait; 428. 
D. Teniers, Card-players; 434bis. /. Ruysdael, Landscape; 441. B. Fabritius, 
Holy Family. 

XV. Room. 478, 483. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; 481. Bourguignon, 
Battle; 496. P. Mignard, Louis XIV. 

Opposite the Academy, to the E., is the large church of 8. 
Filippo (PI. 16; F 3), erected by Guarini in 1679, and restored hy 
Juvara in 1714. The portico in front is a later addition. The church 
contains pictures by Guercino, Solimena, and others. 

The neighbouring Piazza. S. Caklo (PL E, 3), 587 ft. long, 
and 264 ft. wide , is embellished with an equestrian *Statue of 
Duke Emmanuel Philibert (PI. 28), in bronze, designed by Maroc- 
chetti (1838). The relief on the "W. side represents the Battle of 

32 Route 7. TURIN. Cathedral. 

St. Quentin; that on the E. side the Peace of Cateau-Cambre'sis 
(1559), by which the duchy was restored to the House of Savoy; 
the duke as 'pacem redditurus' is in the act of sheathing his sword. 
— The two churches on the S. side of the piazza are S. Caklo 
(PI. 9) and S. Cmstina (PI. 9b), hoth founded at the beginning of 
the 17th cent. , with facades of later date: that of S. Cristina by 
Juvara (1718); that of S. Carlo, in Baveno granite, an imitation of 
Juvara's, added in 1836. S. Carlo contains a monument of the 
condottiere Francesco Maria Broglia, ancestor of the French family 
of Broglie. The high-altar-piece is by Morazzone. 

The Via Roma leads from Piazza S. Carlo to (N.) Piazza Castello 
(p. 27), and (S.) to Piazza Carlo Felice (p. 34) and the railway- 
station ; to the E. the Via Maria Vittoria, with the Pal. della Cisterna 
(PI. 46, F 3; at the corner of the Via Carlo Alberto), the residence 
of the Duke of Aosta, leads to Piazza Carlo Emanuele. — In the Via 
dell' Ospedale is the Exchange (PI. 6 ; F, 3), and adjoining it is a 
Museo Jndustriale Italiano (PI. 63 ; open on week-days 10-12 and 
2-4, on Sun. and holidays 12.30-4, gratis). Farther on is the large 
Ospedale S. Oiovanni Battista (PI. 38 ; F, 3). 

In the centre of the Piazza Casio Emanuele II. (PI. F, 3), 
commonly called the 'Piazza Carlina', rises the imposing 'Monument 
of Cavour (PI. 26), 46 ft. high, by Dupre, erected in 1873. Grateful 
Italy presents the civic crown to the creator of Italian unity, who 
holds a scroll in his left hand with the famous words 'libera chiesa 
in libero stato'. The pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures of 
Justice, Duty, Policy, and Independence ; the reliefs represent the 
return of the Sardinian troops from the Crimea , and the Paris 
Congress. — A memorial tablet in Via Cavour, No. 8, at the corner 
of the Via Lagrange, marks the house (PI. 44; F, 4) in which Count 
Camillo Cavour was born in 1810 (d. 1861). 

The Piazza Bodoni (PI. F, 3) is adorned with an equestrian 
statue, in bronze, by Sperati (1891), of General Alfonso La Mar- 
mora (d. 1878), whose reputation, made in the Crimea and the war 
of 1859, was somewhat dimmed by his less successful appearance 
in the war of 1866. 

Adjoining the Pal. Reale (p. 27) on the W. is the Cathedral 
(5. Oiovanni Battista; PL 10, E 2), erected on the site of three 
earlier churches in 1492-98 by Meo del Caprino of Florence in the 
Renaissance style, with marble facade. 

The Interior consists of nave, aisles, and transept, with octagonal 
dome. Over the W. Portal is a copy of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 131). 
Over the second altar on the right are small pictures, blackened with 
age, by Deferran (not Durer). Frescoes on the ceiling modern The seats 
of the royal family are to the left of the high-altar muQern - lne seals 

Behind the high-altar is the 'Cappella del Santissimo Sudario (open 
during morning mass till 9 o clock; reached by 3? steps to the rieht of 
the high-altar), constructed in the 17th cent, by the The-iHne ™n„k 
Ouarini. It is a lofty circular chapel of dark l.rown marble con tracing 

Palazzo di Citta. TURIN. 7. Route. 33 

strongly with the white monuments, separated from the choir by a glass 
partition, and covered with a curiously shaped dome. This is the burial- 
chapel of the Dukes of Savoy, and was embellished by King Charles 
Albert in 1842 with statues in white marble and symbolical figures to the 
memory of illustrious members of his family; (r.) Emmanuel Philiberl 
(d. 1580), 'restitutor imperii', by Marchesi; Prince Thomas (d. 1656), 
'qiii magno animo italicam libertatem armis adseruit nee prius dimi- 
care destitit quam vivere\ by Gaggini; Charles Emmanuel II. (d. 1675), 
by Fraccaroli; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), by Cacciatori. The peculiar 
light from above enhances the effect. In a kind of urn over the altar is 
preserved the Santissimo Sudario, or part of the linen cloth in which the 
body of the Saviour is said to have been wrapped. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we pass through the Via della 
Basilica to the Via Porta Palatina , which leads to the Palazzo 
delle Torri (PI. 47; E, 2), a Roman gateway with two mediaeval 
towers (or, according to others, a Lombard building of the 8th cent.), 
now fitted up as a drawing-school. In the same street, not far from the 
cathedral, is the church of Corpus Domini (PI. 12; E, 2), erected 
in 1607 by Vitozzi, on the site of, and named after, a chapel built 
in 1543 to commemorate a miracle of the Host (1521). — In 
the adjacent church of S. Spirito , dating from 1610,' Rousseau, 
an exile from Geneva, at the age of 16 , became a Roman Catholic 
in 1728, but he again professed Calvinism at Geneva in 1754. 

The Palazzo di Citta (PI. 40; E, 2), or town-hall, containing a 
library, was erected in 1659. The Piazza in front is adorned with a 
monument to Amadeus VI. (PI. 25), the 'Conte Verde' (p. 24), con- 
queror of the Turks and restorer of the imperial throne of Greece 
(d. 1383), a bronze group designed by Palagi in 1853. The marble 
statues in front of the Palazzo of (1.) Prince Eugene (d. 1736) 
and (r.) Prince Ferdinand (d. 1855), Duke of Genoa and brother 
of Victor Emmanuel II., were erected in 1858 ; that of King Charles 
Albert (d. 1849), by Cauda, in the colonnade to the left, was 
erected in 1859 ; that of King Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878), by 
Vela, to the right, in 1860. Opposite these statues are memorial 
tablets referring to the events of their reigns. 

The Via Milano leads hence to the N. to the church of 8. Domen- 
ico (14th cent. ■, containing a Madonna and St. Dominic by Guer- 
cino), and the Via Corte d'Appello to the W. to Piazza Savoia 
(PL D, 2), in which rises an obelisk (PI. 35), 75 ft. in height, 
commemorating the abolition of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the 
minister Siccardi in 1850. — The Via della Consolata leads hence 
to the chuTch of — 

La Consolata (PI. 11 ; D , 2), formed by the union of three 
churches, now a building in the baroque style, erected by Guarini 
in 1679, and decorated by Juvara in 1714. The chapel to the left 
below the dome contains kneeling statues in marble of Maria 
Theresa, Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of 
Victor Emmanuel (both of whom died in 1855), by Vela, erected 
in 1861. The church contains a highly revered Madonna. The 
passage to the right is hung with votive pictures. The campanile 
"""""-i, , .UililY Ti imh Kliit - ^ 

34 Route 7. TURIN. Citadel Gardens. 

belonged to the convent of S. Andrea (9th century). — The column 
of the Madonna in the adjoining piazza, erected in 1835, commem- 
orates the cessation of the cholera. 

A little to the N. E., and intersected by the OorsoRegina Marghe- 
rita, lies the Piazza Emanuele Filibekto (PI. D, E, 1), adjoined 
on the S. by Piazza Milano, and on the N. by Piazza dei Molini. 
To the N. of the latter runs the Yia al Ponte Mosca, with the 
station of the Cirie-Lanzo railway (p. 48) on the left, and on the 
right the new church of S. Gioachino, a basilica in the Lombard 
style, with a campanile 150 ft. high, designed by Count Ceppi. — 
The street then crosses the Dora Biparia by the Ponte Mosca, a 
handsome bridge of one arch, constructed in 1830, and named after 
its builder. Fine view of the Superga and of the Graian Alps over- 
topped by the Gran Paradiso. 

From Piazza Castello the Via Garibaldi leads to the Piazza 
dello Statuto (PI. C, 2), with the huge Mont Cenis Tunnel 
Monument, by Tabacchi : the Genius of Science soars above a pile 
of granite rocks , on which lie the stupefied and conquered giants 
of the mountain. On a tablet are the names of the engineers, Som- 
meiller, Grattoni, and Grandis. 

From the Via Garibaldi we proceed to the S. by the Gorso Sic- 
cardi to the Giardino della Citadella (PI. D, 2, 3), where statues 
were erected in 1871 to Brofferio (d. 1866), poet and orator, and 
opposite , in 1873 , to the jurist J. B. Cassinis. — Farther on, at 
the corner of the Via della Cernaia , in front of the former citadel, 
is a monument by Gius. Cassano in memory of Pietro Micca (PI. 
D, 3) , the heroic 'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice of his 
own life saved the citadel of Turin, on 30th Aug., 1706, by 
springing a mine when the French grenadiers had already advanced 
to the very gates. Nearly opposite is a column bearing a bust of 
Al. Borella , the author , and in the Via della Cernaia rises the 
statue of General Alex. Lamarmora (d. 1855 in the Crimea) , by 
Cassano. — A marble tablet above the gateway of the citadel com- 
memorates the Italian soldiers who fell in Africa in January, 1887. 

In the Piazza Solferino rises an equestrian statue of Duke 
Ferdinand of Genoa (PI. 29, D E 3; comp. p. 33), commanding 
general at the battle of Novara, by Balzico ; and the gardens of the 
piazza contain monuments of General Gerbaix de Sonnaz, by Dini, 
and the historian Gius. La Farina, by Auteri-Pomar. 

In front of the imposing Central Station (p. 25 ; PI. E, 4, 5) 
extends the Piazza Caelo Felice , with its tasteful gardens, 
adorned with a bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeglio , patriot, poet, 
and painter (d. 1866), by Balzico , erected in 1873. This'piazza 
is adjoined by two smaller ones , the Piazza Paleocapa to the W. 
with the statue of the minister of that name (PI. 34), and the Piazza 
Lagrange, on the E., with the statue of L. Lagrange the mathe- 

University. TURIN. 7. Route. 35 

matioian (d. 1813 atParis ; PI. 331. The broad Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
leads to the W. to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele 11. (PI. D, 4), with 
the monument of the king (PL 37; unfinished). 

In the Via dell' Arsenale, running N.W. from the Piazza Paleo- 
capa, stands the Arsenal (PI. 5; E, 4), occupying an entire block, 
and containing the Museo Nazionale d' Arliglierta (adm. daily ex- 
cept Sun.), a collection of ordnance of every description from the 
14th cent, to the present day. — In the Via S. Secondo, the con- 
tinuation, to the S., of the Via dell' Arsenale, rises the church of 
<S. Secondo , completed in 1882 in the Lombard style, with a cam- 
panile 170 ft. high. 

In the Via di Po (p. 27), which leads to the S.E. from Piazza 
Castello, on the left, is the University (PI. 51 ; F, 2), erected in 
1713 from designs by the Genoese Bicca, with a handsome late- 
Renaissance court. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman anti- 
quities, chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here 
to Carlo Emanuele III., and to Vittorio Amadeo II. (at the en- 
trance), both by the brothers Collini; to Prof. Riberi (d. 1861), 
by Albertoni; to Dr. L. Qallo (d. 1857), by Vela; to Prof. Timer- 
mans (A. 1875), by Tabacchi; and to Pescatore, the jurist, by Dini. 
On the corridor of the first floor are busts of celebrated professors 
and a large allegorical group presented by Victor Emmanuel I. The 
Library (open to the public daily , 8-6 in summer, and 9-4 and 7-10 
in winter ; closed in Sept. ; chief librarian, Oomm. Cav. F. Carta) 
numbers 200,000 vols, and contains valuable Aldine editions and 
manuscripts from Bobbio. The University (founded in 1404) has at 
present 85 professors and 2300 students. 

No. 6, to the right in the Via dell' Accademia Albertina, is the 
Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti (PI. 1, F 3 ; shown on week- 
days, 10-4 ; gratuity 50 c), founded in 1652, and transferred hither 
in 1833. It contains a small collection of pictures , many being 
copies. Among the best are : 126. Quentin Matsys (?) , Head of 
Christ; 140, 141. Fra Filippo Lippi, Four saints (wings of altar- 
piece); 218. Giovenone, Adoration of the Child. Also numerous 
*Cartoons by Gaudenzio Ferrari and Lanini, and a cartoon of Leo- 
nardo's Madonna with St. Anna by an artist of the Lombard School 
(copy of the picture in the Louvre). 

The Via Montebello , the next cross-street , leads to the so- 
called Mole Antonelliana (PL 22; G, 2), begun in 1863 as a 
synagogue by AntoneUi (d. 1888) and completed by the city in 
1878-89 as a historical national museum, in memory of Victor Em- 
manuel II. It is a square building (44 yds. each way) resembling 
a tower, with a singular facade formed of several rows of columns; 
its height to the head of the gilded statue (13 ft. high) at the top 
is 538 ft. The dome is striking from its bold disregard of the or- 
dinary technical rules of construction. The hall beneath the dome 

36 Route 7. TURIN. Museo Civico. 

is 84 ft. square and upwards of 300 ft. high, and contains three 
galleries one above the other. 

In the Via di Gaudenzio Ferrari , No. 1 , is the Museo Civico 
(PL 62; F, 2), containing the civic collections (gratis on Sun., 
Thurs., and holidays, 12-3; on other days, 9-4, fee 50 c). 

Gkound Floor. Early sculptures, early niediseval relief of the Ma- 
donna, coffin of the poet Vagnone (d. 1499) with reliefs of Orpheus and 
Perseus, terracottas, wood-carvings of the 16th cent., a model of the Bucin- 
toro (p. 277). — FiEST Flooh. Modern paintings and sculptures. Marhle 
statues of Eve by Fan tacchioUi and Dante by Vela. The realistic tendency 
of modern Italian art is well illustrated in the death agonies depicted in 
the Crucifixion of Eulalia by Franceschi and the 'Femme de Claude' by 
Mosso. Good water-colours by Bossoli , illustrating the events of 1859-01. 
Statuette by Balzico, the 'Plebiscite in Naples'. In the last room are a 
few old paintings by Bart. Vivarinitf), Bugiardini, Honthoril, and Victors, 
and a marble bust of Sappho by Canova. — Second Flook. Rooms 12-14: 
Sculptures in wood, tapestry, bronze and iron work. Room 15: Modern 
wood and ivory carvings ; six pieces of sculpture from the tomb of Gaston 
de Foix (p. 128), by Bambaja. R. 16 : Miniatures (missal of Cardinal della 
Rovere, 15th cent.), enamels, majolica. R. 17: Italian ceramic ware. RE. 18, 
19 : Mementoes of Massimo d'Azeglio (p. 34). R. 20 : Interesting collection 
of stained glass. RR. 21, 22: Prehistoric and ethnographical collection. 

Several monuments adorn the squares in this new quarter. That 
of the Dictator of Venice, Daniele Manin (d. 1857), beyond the 
Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, by Vela, represents the Republic 
of Venice leaning on the medallion-portrait of Manin. Also sta- 
tues of Cesare Balbo (d. 1583), minister and historian, by Vela ; 
of General Bava, by Albertoni ; of the Marquis Pes de Villamarina, 
the Sardinian statesman, in the adjoining Pare Oavour; and, nearer 
the Piazza Maria Teresa (PI. G, 3), of General Guglielmo Pepe (d. 
1853), the brave defender of Venice in 1849, by Butti. 

From the large Piazza Vittokio Emanuele (PL G, 3) the Via 
di Po (p. 27) leads on one side and a handsome bridge over the Po 
(fine view of the opposite bank, see p. 37) on the other. The Corso 
Lungo Po, adorned with a Monument of Garibaldi (PL 31 ; G, 4) 
erected in 1887, also leads from this square up the river to the 
Nuovo Giardino Pubblico. In the Via Mazzini, diverging to the 
right, rises the church of S. Massimo (PL 15 ; F, G, 4), built in 
1845-54, crowned with a dome. Facade adorned with statues of the 
Four Evangelists. Good modern frescoes in the interior, and several 
statues by Albertoni. —In the Corso Vitt. Emanuele II., which leads 
from the chain bridge {Ponte Maria Teresa; PL G, 4) to the Piazza 
Carlo Fehce, on the left, rises the new church of S. Giovanni Evan- 
gelista in the Romanesque style. A few paces beyond it is the Wal- 
densian Church ( Tempio Valdese ; PL 18, F 4; see p 49) the first 
Protestant church built at Turin after the establishment of religious 
toleration in 1848. — Close by, at the corner of the Via S Anselmo 
and the Via Pio Quinto, is the Synagogue (PI. 19 • F 4 5~) in the 
Moorish style (1884). - In the Piazza Saluzzo to the S W is the 
church of SS. Pietro e Paolo, with a Byzantine facade (18G5") 

A favourite promenade is the Nuovo Giardino Pubblico (PI G 

Cemetery. TURIN. 7. Route. 37 

4, 5), above the iron bridge on the left bank of the Po (several 
cafe's). It comprises the Botanical Garden, and the royal chateau II 
Valentino, a turreted building of the 17th cent., now occupied by 
the Polytechnic School (Reale Scuola di applicazione per gli Ingegneri). 
In the court is a bronze statue of Quintino Sella, the scholar and 
statesman, by Ces. Reduzzi (1894). On the S. side of the garden is 
a model of a Castle of the 15th cent, (open 9-12 and 2-6 ; adm. 1 fr., 
on Thurs. , Sun., and holidays 50 o.) with its dependent village, 
erected for the exhibition of 1884 (restaurant). — In the adjacent 
Corso Massimo d'Azeglio are several scientific and medical insti- 
tutions connected with the university. 

On the Right Bank of the river, a little beyond the chain-bridge 
leading from the Corso Yitt. Emanuele II. (p. 36), stands the Crim- 
ean Monument (PI. 31a; H, 4), by L. Belli (1892), a large granite 
pyramid, with bronze reliefs and marble figures of Victory, aBersag- 
liere, and a sailor, erected to commemorate the war of 1855-56. 

The Via Moncalieri leads from the chain-bridge to the left, along 
the bank of the river, to (5min.) the Monte dei Cappuccini (PI. U, 
3, 4 ; 955 ft. above the sea, 164 ft. above the Po'), a wooded hill 
rising almost directly from the river and ascended by a cable-tram- 
way (return-fare 15 c). At the top are an old Capuchin church 
and a well-equipped station of the Italian Alpine Club (open when 
the flag is flying; adm. 25 a), with maps and other collections, and 
commanding a noble view. The hill was fortified down to 1802. 

The 'View (best by morning light) embraces the river, city, plain, and 
the chain of the Alps in the background, prominent among which are (right) 
the snowy peaks of Monte Rosa (15,215 ft.), the Gran Paradiso (13,780ft.), 
and Monte Levanna (11,975 ft.); towards the N.W. is the Rocciamelone 
(Ll,60i ft.), concealing Mt, Cenis ; then, to the left, the valley of Susa (p. 2), 
the Sagra di S. Michele (p. 3) on a conspicuous lull; farther to the S.W. 
Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 

Near the Monte dei Cappuccini, opposite the large bridge lead- 
ing from the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele I. (p. 36), stands the spacious 
domed church of Gran Madre diDio (PI. 14 ; H, 3), erected in 1818 
in imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, to commemorate the return 
of King Victor Emmanuel I. in 1814. The groups flanking the steps 
represent Faith and Charity. The lofty columns of the portico are 
monoliths of granite. — In front of the church rises a Monument 
of Victor Emmanuel I. (d. 1824), by Graggini. — A few hundred 
yards farther is the Villa della Regina, now a school for the daugh- 
ters of officers who have fallen in battle. To the S. of the Ponte 
Margherita (Pi. H, 1) is a large building dedicated to the same object. 

The Cemetery (Cimitero), II/2 M. to the N.E. of Turin, on the 
Chivasso road (open 10-4 in winter in fine weather; in March. 
April, Sept., and Oct. 9-6; in summer 8-8), is reached from the 
Ponte delle Benne by a shady avenue (steam tramway from Piazza 
Emanuele Filiberto, see p. 25). The front part of the cemetery is 

38 Route 7. TURIN. Superga. 

enclosed by a wall with arches, while the more interesting portion 
beyond is surrounded by arcades covered with domes. In the front 
section, to the left by the wall, is the tomb of Silvio Pellico(i. 1854) ; 
in the other section we observe the names of D'Azeglio, Bava, Vrof- 
ferio, Gioberti, Pepe, Pinelli, and other eminent moderns. 

The *Superga, or Soperga (2145 ft. ; comp. Map, p. 25; tram- 
way from Piazza Castello to the village of Snssi in >/2 hr. ; thence 
to the top by cable-tram in 20 min. ; no change of carriages in the 
case of treni diretti; fares 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 85 c), is well worthy of a 
visit. The Superga, the royal burial-church, a handsome edifice 
with a portico, and crowned with a dome, is conspicuously situated 
on a hill to the E. of Turin. The church, a votive offering dedicated 
by Victor Amadous II., the first king of Sardinia, on the occasion of 
the raising of the siege of Turin in 1706 (p. 24), was erected in 
1718-31 from designs by Juvara, and consecrated in 1749. The in- 
terior (closed 12-2) contains a room hung with indifferent portraits 
of all the popes. At the entrance to the burial-vault is the Arch- 
angel Michael contending with the Devil, a marble group by Carlo 
Finelli ( 1842). Splendid *View of the Alps, especially from the dome, 
the ascent of which is recommended. At the terminus of the Funi- 
colare is a hotel-restaurant (D. 3 fr., incl. wine). 

To the S. of Turin on the line to Genoa (R. 11a) lies Moncalieri 
(steam-tramway from the Piazza Castello), a pleasant little town of 
10,000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a chain of hills, and command- 
ing a superb view. On a height above the village is the royal Chilean, in 
which Victor Emmanuel I. died in 1824. The picture-gallery in the 
\Y. wing contains a series of large paintings illustrating the history of 
the House of Savoy. The last of the series, 'Delivery of the plebiscite of 
Tuscany by Baron Ricasoli in I860' is interesting from its numerous por- 
traits (fee V2-I fr-)- A horse-tramway runs to the chateau from the term- 
inus of the steam-tramway. 

About 6 M. to the S.W. of Turin (steam-tr.imway from the Via Sacchi, 
near the Central Railway Station) lies Stupinigi , a large royal hunting- 
chateau, erected from designs by Juvara in the reign of Charles Emma- 
nuel III., with a beautiful and extensive park ("Albergo del Casta Veechio, 
at the back of the chateau, moderate). 

8. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur. 

Railway to (80 M.) Aosta in 41/0-51/4 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 25, 

6 fr. 60 c). The j>art of the line between Ivrea and Aosta (42 M. ; fares 

7 fr. 60, 5 Ir. 30, a fr. 45 c.) is distinguished both bv the beauty of the 
srenrry and the boldness of its engineering. — From Aosta to Courmay.uv, 
21 M., Omnibus thrice daily in July and Aug. (at other times to Pre-St-Di- 
dier only) in 5 hrs. (return 4 hrs.), fare 3 fr. (outside-sent 3>/a fr ) The 
hours ot starting from Aosta have hitherto been 6, 11. and 3.30 from Cour- 
mayeur 6, 1, and 5. One-horse carr. 18, two-horse 30 fr. ' 

From Turin to (18 M.) Chivassn, see p. 59. lietweon the de- 
pressions of the lower mountains peeps the snowy summit of the 
(Iran Paradiso, and to the K., farther on, that of Monte liosa. 

22 M. Montanaro ; 25 M. Rodallo ; 27 M. Caliiso-dmaresr- 29 M. 
Candin ; 31 M. Mercenasco ; 33 M. Strambino. 

TVREA. 8. Route. 39 

39 M. Ivrea (770 ft.; Scudo di Francia; TJniverso; Corona 
d'ltalia) , a town with 5400 inhab., is picturesquely situated on 
the Dora Baltea (Fr. Doire), on the slope of a hill crowned with an 
extensive and well - preserved old Castle , with three lofty brick 
towers, now a prison. Adjacent is the Cathedral, a building of an- 
cient origin, but frequently restored. An ancient sarcophagus 
adorns the adjoining Piazza. A monument was erected here in 1880 
to Ettore Perrone, general and minister (d. 1848). Ivrea, the an- 
cient Eporedia, was colonised by the Romans, B.C. 100, in order to 
command the Alpine routes over the Great and Little St. Bernard. 
Pleasant walk to the Madonna del Monte (pilgrimage-church) and 
the lake of S. Giuseppe with a ruined monastery (1 hr.). 

Steam-tramway from Ivrea in l 3 /t hr. to(18V2M.) Santhia (p. 60; fares 
2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 50 a). 

The train crosses the Dora, penetrates the hill on which Ivrea 
stands by means of a tunnel, 1100 yds. long, and enters the fertile 
valley of the Dora. 41 M. Montalto ; on a rocky hill to the right 
stands the ruined battlemented castle of that name. 42'/2 M- Borgo- 
franco (925 ft.); 45 M. Tavagnaseo; 47 M. Quincinetto. 

49 M. Pont-St-Martin. The village (1105 ft. ; Cavallo Bianco, 
with garden; Rosa Rossa~), with a ruined castle, foundries, and an 
old Roman bridge over the Lys, is very picturesquely situated at the 
mouth of the deep Val Gressoney, 1 M. from the station. 

A new road, passing Lillicmes and Fontainemore , ascends through the 
beautiful chestnut woods of the picturesque Val Gressoney, watered by 
the Lys, to (9 M.) Issime (*Posta), whence a bridle-path (road under construc- 
tion) leads via. Gaby to (3 hrs.) Gressoney-St-Jean (4495 ft. ; "Hotel De la 
Pierre, B. & A. 2 l /t, pens. 8 l /2 fr. ; Hotel-Pension du Mont-Rose), the capital 
of the valley, and to (l'/i hr.) Oressoney-la-TrmiU (5370ft.; Hotel Thedy, 
pens. 7'/2 fr.), both finely situated near the S. foot of Monte Eosa and fre- 
quented as summer resorts. Easy passes lead hence to the E. over the 
Col (POlen and the Col di Yaldobbia to Alagna (p. 173), and to the W. over 
the Bettaforca to Fiery in the Val d'Ayas or Challant (p. 40). For details, 
as well as for the glacier-passes to Zermatl (Lysjoch, Felikjoch, etc.) and 
ascents of the S. peaks of Monte Rosa, see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

We next cross the Lys and follow the broad valley, flanked 
by fine mountains, to (oO 1 ^ M.) the prettily- situated Donnas 
(1066 ft.; Rosa). The train now ascends a rocky defile and passes 
through a tunnel 660 yds. long under Fort Bard (1282 ft.), which 
was built in the beginning of the 11th cent, and was taken in 1242 
by Count Amadeus of Savoy after a long siege, while in May. 1800, 
before the battle of Marengo, it was gallantly defended by 400 Aus- 
trians, who kept the French army in check for a week. The train 
then crosses the Dora to (52 M.) Hone-Bard, beautifully situated. 
On the left opens the Val di Camporciero, or Cliamporcher, with its fine 
rocky peaks (p. 45); to the N.W. towers the Mont Luseney (11,500 ft). 
— At Campagnola the train crosses the Dora and intersects a pro- 
montory of debris. — 55 M. Arnaz, with a ruined castle. 

56V 2 M. Verres. The village (1280 ft,; Italia; Ecu de France), 
with 1100 inhab. and the old castle of Rocca , belonging to the 

40 Routes. C1IATILLON. From Turin 

former Counts of Challant, lies picturesquely at the entrance of the 
Val Challant, 3 /4 jtf. from the station. Opposite, on the right bank 
of the Dora, lies Issogne, also with an interesting chateau of the 
Counts of Challant. To the N.E., between the Challant and Gressoney 
valleys, towers the rocky pyramid of the Becca di Viou (9370 ft.). 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 2) were alternately occupied by 
the Franks and the Longobards, and belonged to the Franconian Empire, 
in consequence of which the French language still predominates in these 
Italian districts. The village of Bard (below the fort) is the point of 
transition from Italian to French, while at Verres the latter is spoken al- 
most exclusively. 

Above Verres the valley expands, but soon contracts again. Ex- 
tensive vineyards are passed. We cross the Evancon and the Dora. 
On the slope to the left is the village of Champ de Praz, lying at 
the entrance of the Val Chalame, the torrent of which has overspread 
the valley of the Dora with detritus. Farther on, lofty walls of rock 
rise to the left. ■ — • Near (60 M.) Montjovet appear on the right, 
high above us, the extensive ruins of the chateau of Montjovet or 
St. Germain. Tunnel. The train crosses the Dora by means of a long 
viaduct and enters the picturesque '"Defile of Montjovet, the grandest 
part of the line, with a succession of tunnels and buttresses of ma- 
sonry, and the brawling Dora far below. 

63 M. St. Vincent (1415 ft.). To the right, 1 M. above the 
station, at the end of the defile and the foot of ML Zerbion (8925 ft.), 
lies the village (1886 ft. ; *Lion d'Or; Corona), with a mineral spring 
and baths. — Two short tunnels. Loftily perched on the left is the 
old castle of Ussel, belonging to the Counts of Challant. 

64V 2 M. ChAtillon (1807 ft. ; "Hotel de Londres; Pens. Suisse'), with 
900 inhab. and a handsome chateau of the old Counts of Challant, 
is beautifully situated 1 M. above the railway , at the entrance to 
the Val Tournanche. Its houses are picturesquely scattered over the 
gorge of the Matmoire or Marmore, a torrent descending from the 
Matterhorn ; and in the middle of the town is a bridge spanning the 
ravine in one fine arch. (To Val Tournanche, and over the The'odule 
Pass to Zermatt, see Baedekers Switzerland.) 

The line crosses the Matmoire, traverses a deep cutting through a 
deposit of debris, threads two tunnels, and reaches (67y 2 M.) Cham- 
have, noted for its wine To the W. opens the view of the beautiful 
valley of Aosta, rich in fruit and surrounded by lofty mountains, 
with the three-peaked Rutor (p. 47) in the background. 

Beyond a tunnel, the line traverses a mass of de'bris at Diemoz 
(viaduct 107 yds. long), and crosses the Dora. To the left lies the 
picturesque chateau of Finis, at the mouth of the Clavalile Valley, 
through which peeps the snowy peak of the Trrsiva (11,520 ft,). 
The train crosses the Dora twice and reaches (72 M.) Nus with a 
ruined castle, at the mouth of the Val St. Barthcl'my. We then 
recross to the right bank of the Dora. On the slope above (73 M ) 
St. Marctl, which lies at the mouth of the valley of the same name 

to Courmayeur. AOSTA. 8. Route. 41 

is the much-frequented pilgrimage-church oiPlou. We again cross the 
Dora to (74^2 M.) Quart-Villefranche, with the chateau of Quart on a 
hill to the right (2485ft.). We then cross the Bagnere and the Bulkier. 

80 M. Aosta. — "Hotel Rotal Victoeia, opposite the station, R., 
L., <fc A. 41/2, B. I1/2, dej. 372, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr.; "Hot. dd MOntblanc, 
at the W. end of the town, R., L., & A. 3-3V2, B. I1/2, 1>. 5 fr. — Albercu 
Lanier, in the Hotel de Ville, in the market-place ; Corona, opposite. — 
Caffe Nazionale, in the Hotel de Ville; Railway Restaurant, poor. Beer at 
Zimmermami's, near the Hotel de Ville. Good bed-rooms at the omnibus- 
office in the market-place, R., L., & A. 3fr, — Omnibus and carriages to 
Courmayeur, see p. 33. 

Aosta (1910ft.), with 5700inhab., the Augusta Praetoria Salas- 
sorurn of the Romans and now the capital of the Italian province of 
Aosta, lies at the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire or Dora 
Baltea. The valley was anciently inhabited by the Salassi, a Celtic 
race, who commanded the passage of the Great and the Little 
St. Bernard, the two chief routes from Italy to Gaul. They frequently 
harassed the Romans in various ways, and on one occasion plundered 
the coffers of Caesar himself. After protracted struggles the tribe 
was finally almost extirpated by Augustus, who captured the sur- 
vivors, 36,000 in number, and sold them as slaves at Eporedia (p . 39) . 
Heathen founded Aosta to protect the roads, named it after himself, 
and garrisoned it with 3000. soldiers of the Praetorian cohorts. The 
importance of the Roman Aosta is indicated by the extant remains. 

Near the railway-station, which lies on the S. side of the town, 
is an excellent bronze Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., in "hunting 
costume, designed by Tortone (1886) and commemorating the king's 
sporting expeditions amid the Graian Alps. A short walk brings us 
to the ancient Town Walls, flanked with towers, which form a rect- 
angle 790 yds. by 620 yds. They are preserved in their entire extent, 
and on the S.W. side the ancient facing and cornice are still in situ. 

The walls of the old Theatre and the arcades of iho Amphitheatre 
are visible above the houses in the market-place, where the main 
streets of the town intersect each other. 

The principal street leads to the E., through the ancient *Porta 
Pretoria, to the (1/4M.) handsome ♦Triumphal Arch op Augustus, 
with its ten Corinthian pilasters. It then crosses the Buthier, which 
has changed its channel, to the beautiful arch of the old Roman 
Bridge, now half-buried in the earth. 

In the suburbs lies the church of St. Ours, the choir of which 
contains the tomb of Bishop Gallus (d. 546) and finely carved stalls 
of the 15th century. The old crypt is borne by Roman columns. 
The cloisters contain early-Romanesque columns (12th cent.), with 
interesting capitals. Near the church rises a Tower, built of Roman 
hewn stones in the 12th cent., opposite which are a sarcophagus 
and two ancient columns at the entrance of a chapel. In the same 
piazza is the Priory of St. Ours, a picturesque building of the 15th 
cent. , with terracotta ornamentation and an octagonal tower. The 
interior contains good wood-carvings and frescoes. 

42 Route ... VILLENEUVE. From Turin 

The Cathei>rai- owes its present form to the 14th century. 
Above the portal a painted terracotta relief; in the choir two mo- 
saics of the 10th cent, and early-Renaissance stalls. The treasury 
contains two shrines of the 13th and 15th cent. , a cameo of a 
Roman empress in a setting of the 13th cent., and a diptychon of 
the Consul Probus (406) with the Emp. Honorius. 

At the S. gate rises the tower of Bramafam (12th cent.), in 
which a Count Challant is said to have starved his wife to death out 
of jealousy. By the W. wall is the Tour die Lepreux, described in 
Xavier Le Maistre's novel, in which a leper named Guasco (d. 
1803) and his sister Angelica (d. 1791) dragged out their miser- 
able existence. — Numerous cretins will be seen in Aosta. 

The "Becca di Nona (10,305 ft.), rising to the S. of Aosta, commands 
a superb view of the Alps. Ascent 6-7 hrs., with guide (12 fr.). Two-thirds 
of the way up is the Alp Comboi (6959 ft. ; Inn) ; on the top is a refuge-hut 
(Capanna Budden). — The Mont Emilius (11,670 ft.) may be ascended by 
experts from Comboi (see above) in 4 hrs., with guide (30 fr.). The view 
is still more extensive than that from the Becca di Nona. 

The Road to Courmayeub. traverses the broad shadeless valley 
of the Dora Baltea, passing the handsome royal chateau of Sarre 
(2145 ft.), to Ayrnaville, with iron-fonndries and the chateau of 
Count Castiglione with its four towers. Opposite St. Pierre (2165 ft), 
with its church and old chateau on a rock, opens the Val de Cogne 
on the S. (see p. 44). Thence we continue, enjoying a fine view of 
the three-peaked Kutor, the Grivola, etc., and passing an old tower, 
to (oi/ 2 M.) — 

Villeneuve ('2295 ft.; Cervo, poor), a picturesquely situated 
village, commanded by the rock-perched ruin of Argent. 

From Villeneuve to Ceresole over the Col de Nivolet (13 hrs.). 
Ascent from Villeneuve by a paved path, rough and steep. To the W. a 
fine view of Mont Blanc. Opposite (3/ 4 hr.) Champlong, where we reach 
the lowest part of the Val Snvaranche (see below), the beautifully wooded 
Val de Iihemes opens on the W. ; on the height between the valleys rises 
the chateau of Intro d (p. 47). Following the lofty right bank of the deep 
valley we next come to (3 hrs.) Valsavaranche (passes to the Val de Cogne 
and the Val deRhe'mes, p. 47), thrnTignet an&Bien. and (2i/4hrs.) Porn* (6380 ft; 
Inn, with 4 beds), the highest hamlet in the Val Savaranche, at the W. base 
of the Gran Paradiso (p. 46). 

The Val Savaranche divides here. We cross the brook descending 
from the W. branch of the valley, and ascend a steep rocky slope in 
numerous windings, passing a line waterfall, to the (1 hr.) Croix d'Aro- 
letla (iS(HJ ft.), a cross on the brink of a precipice, where we enjoy a 
magmlicent survey ot the (Iran Paradiso and its three peaks opposite to 
us, to the N. of winch are the ];,'cca de Moutandevne, Pointe Herbetet, and 
the (uivola. Traversing a desolate, and at places marshy valley, with 
numerous traces of glacier-friction, we next pass (1 hr.) the Chalets de 
.We« (rustic little Inn) and a small lake with a roval shooting-box, 
which lie to the left, and reach the (1 hr.) Col de Nivolet (8660ft.), a 
narrow ridge ot rock with a superb view of the Levaium (i> 48) rising 
on the opposite side of the deep Val dOrco. To the W are the lofty Col 
de In ,„l,s,- and the Cmm <H Jiousson ; to the E. the chain of the Gran 
lnradi,;,,. (A route leads across the Voile «„«,«„ into the Val de R/iemes.) 

Our route descends a sleep rocky slope, in many windings to a bleak 
valley with several small tarn, and a few chalets, and thence by steep 
zigzags on the eft side of the brook with its numerous falls to (2 hrs.) 

to Courmai/cur. COURMAYEUK. 8. Route. 43 

Chapis, or Ghiapili di Sopra (5718 ft.), the highest hamlet in the Veil Locana, 
or valley of the Oreo, and (2 hrs.) Ceresole Beetle (p. 48). 

Beyond Villeneuve we cross the Savaranche and ascend rapidly 
to (3 l /% M.) Aroier. High np on the precipitous cliff to the right 
stands the church of St. Nicolas (39*25 ft.). In front of us is the 
snowy Iiutor (p. 47). Near the beautifully situated but dirty village 
of (i/ 2 M.) Liverogne (2390 ft.; Hot. du Col du Mont, plain) we 
cross the deep gorge of the Dora di Valgrisanche, a S. affluent of 
the Dora Baltea (p. 60), and traverse a rocky gorge to Ruinaz 
(2580 ft. ; Croix, poor). Opposite lies Avise, with a ruined castle 
and an old church. Mont Blanc now comes in sight. The road 
passes through another wild defile (Pierre Taillee) and crosses to 
the left bank by the (2 M.) Pont d'Equilive (2570 ft.). The valley 
expands. On the right bank is the pretty waterfall of Derby, descend- 
ing in several leaps. 2y 2 M. Morgex (3020 ft.; Angel 0). The road now 
follows the lofty slope for some distance, with a fine retrospective 
view of the Orivola (p. 45), and crosses to the right bank of the 
Dora Baltea before (21/2 M.) — 

Pre-St-Didier (3280 ft.; *Hotel de I'Univers, moderate; Restau- 
rant de Londres~), a picturesquely situated village with baths, where 
the road to the Little St. Bernard diverges to the left. 

Excursions. The ascent of the "Tete de Crammont (8955 ft. ; 31/2 hrs.) 
is highly interesting. Following the St. Bernard road to the first tunnel 
(shorter footpath in 20 min.), we thence ascend to the right to the 
(V2 hr.) hamlet of Chanton (5970 ft.), whence we reach the summit in 
2'/2 hrs. more. Splendid view of Mont Blanc and the Graian Alps. About 
5 min. below the top is the Pavilion Saussure, a refuge-hut of the Italian 
Alpine Club. Another route (bridle-path) diverges to the right from the 
St. Bernard road at Elevaz, 3 M. from Pre-St-Didier, joining the above 

44 Route 8. COGNE. Grecian 

Courmayeur (4015 ft.), a considerable village, with mineral 
springs, beautifully situated at the head of the Aosta valley, is 
much frequented by Italians in summer. The highest peak of Mont 
Blanc is concealed from Courmayeur by the Mont Chetif (7685 ft.}, 
but is seen from the Pre'-St-Didier road, 1/2 M. to the S. — About 
1 M. to the N. are the small sulphur-baths of La Saxe. 

The -Mont de Saxe (7735 ft.; 2'/2-3 hrs. ; guide, 6 fr., unnecessary) 
affords a complete view of the S.E. side of Mont Blanc with its numerous 
glaciers, from the Col de la Seigne to the Col de Ferret, the Col du 
G-eant and the Jorasses being prominent. A good bridle-path ascends 
from Courmayeur, hy La Saxe (see above) and Le Villair, to the (2 hrs.) 
Chalets du Pre (6670 ft.) and the (1 hr.) summit. The descent may be made 
by the Chalets de Lemhi (6400 ft.) into the Val de Ferret. — Excursions in 
the Mont Blanc chain, to Chamonix, etc., see Baedekers Switzerland or 
Southern France. 

Excursion to the Graian Alps. 

The Graian Alps, an extensive mountain-system culminating in the 
Gran Paradiso (13,320 ft.) and the Grivola (13,020 ft.), lie between the 
valleys of the Dora Ballea and the Isere on the N., and those of the 
Dora Riparia and the Arc on the S. We here describe a few of the most 
interesting routes through the E. part of this grand mountain-region, 
in the form of a circular tour of four days from Aosta, taking in Cogne, 
Valsavaranche, Rhcmes Notre-Dame, Valgrisanche, and Liverogne. Cogne is 
the liest centre for excursions. 

The mountains of Cogne form a favourite chasse of King Humbert, 
as they did of his father Victor Emmanuel (p. 41), and the mountain- 
goat ('Steinboek', Ital. 'stambecco', Fr. 'bouquetin'), elsewhere nearly 
extinct, is still found here. Several excellent bridle-paths, leading to the 
royal shooting-lodges, are a great assistance to the pedestrian. 

1st Day. — FroM Aosta to Cogne (6y 2 hrs.). As far as (6 M.) 
Aymaville (2120 ft.) we may follow the high-road (p. 42), but it is 
preferable to cross theDoire near Aosta, and to goby Gressan and Jo- 
vencan, across meadows and fields. The bridle-path then ascends 
rapidly past the church of St. Martin to Poia (2790 ft.), and enters 
the monotonous Val de Cogne at a great height above the ravine of 
the brawling Grand' Eyvie. Far below we soon observe the houses 
of Pont d'Ael (2865 ft,), with its admirably preserved *Eoman 
Bridge (formerly an aqueduct), 60 yds. long and 394 ft. above the 
stream. It was erected in the reign of Augustus. The valley con- 
tracts. Near the bridge by which we cross the stream, we obtain a 
view of the Grivola for a short time. We next reach (iy, hr.) 
Vieye* (3730 ft,; cantine), at the mouth of the Comhe de Nomenon 
(pretty waterfall), with the Grivola and the Gran Nomenon 
(11,440 ft.) in the background. Beyond ()/ 4 hr.) SUvenoire (on the 
right) and a deserted iron-foundry, we again cross the brook by 
the Pont de Laval (4480 ft.), where the mountains of Cogne are 
revealed. We then recros-; to (li/ 2 hr.) Epinel (4760 ft ) opposite 
the lofty Punta del Ponwt (p. 45), with the Trajn Glacier on the 
right. At (y 2 hr.) CreUaz the Valnonley descends i'mni the S to the 
Grand' Eyvie; (20 min.) Coyne. 

Cogne (5030 ft.; *H6t. Grivola, pons. 6y 2 fr., and Hot Royal 
both unpretending), charmingly situated, with a beautiful' view of 

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the Gian Paradiso and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, with their 
glaciers (Glacier de la Tribulation , du Grand Grou, du Money, 
etc.) to the S., and of the Mont Blanc to the N.W., is an excellent 
starting-point for excursions. Three valleys converge here : the 
Vallone di Valnontey from the S., the Vallone d'Urtier from the (3.E., 
and the Vallone di Grauson from the N.E. 

Ascents and Passes. (Guides, Elys&e and Joseph Jeanlet, L. Gui- 
chardaz.) Tunta del Pousset (10,745 ft. ; 5 hrs. ; guide 6, with mule 12 fr.), 
a superb point of view. At Crilaz (see p. 44) the bridle-path crosses the 
Valnontey and enters a wood and then ascends grassy slopes to the cha- 
lets of Ors-Dessus and (3 hrs.) Pousset-Dessns or Superiors (8385 ft.). Thence 
a steep climb of l J /2 hr., passing a very giddy place near the top, brings 
us to the rocky crest of the Punta del Pousset. Close to us, above the 
Grivola Glacier, towers the Grivola, which is hardly inferior in boldness 
to the Matterhorn, and other mountains of the Pennine and Graian Alps 
are also visible. — Grivola (13,020 ft.; from Cogne 9 hrs. ; two guides at 
28 fr. each), difficult, and tit for experts only. Ascent from Valsava- 
ranche still more difiicult. 

The 'Punta di Tersiva (11,520 ft.; 7 hrs., with guide) presents no 
difficulty to adepts. We proceed through the Vallone di Grauson to the 
(21/2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (7450 ft.) and to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Ervilliere (8245 ft.); 
thence, passing the little Lac Doriires, to the (1 hr.) Passo d'Invergneux 
(9185 ft.) and by the W. arete to the (Shirrs.) summit. Magniticent view 
of the Graian and Pennine Alps and of the plain of Piedmont (Turin), etc. 
The ascent may be also made from the S. from the Val of Urtier via the Pon- 
ton Alp, or from the N. (more difficult) from the Val de Clavaliti (p. 40). 

In the Vallone di Valnontey, opening to the S. of Cogne, lie the (3 hrs.) 
chalets of Le Money (7590 ft.), which command an admirable view of the 
Gran Paradiso with its glaciers (ascent, see p. 46). Two difficult glacier- 
passes, the Colle Grand Crou or Col Tuckett (11,135 ft.), between the Gran 
Paradiso and Becca di Gay, and the Colle Money (11,245 ft.), between the 
Roccia Viva and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, lead from the head of the 
Vallone de Valnontey to Ceresole Reale (p. 48 ; guide 15 fr.). 

From Cogne to Baud over the Col de Cogne, 11-12 hrs., attractive 
and not difficult. A bridle-path (royal hunting-path) crosses the Urtier 
at QI2 hr.) Champlong (8185 ft.), and ascends the valley of the stream with 
its abundant flowers and waterfalls, commanding fine views of the Gri- 
vola to the W. and to the S. of the Combe de Valeille (see p. 46). We 
next pass the chapel of Cret to the (2 hrs.) chalets of Pianis, whence we 
may either follow the lower path to the right by Brulot and Peyrasas, or 
that to the left along the slope of the Tersiva (see above), by Ponton with 
its little lake and along the Tour de Ponton, to the (2 hrs.) Col de Cogne 
(Fenetre de Cogne or Fineslra Champorcher, 9285 ft.), between the Tour de 
Ponton and the Becco Costassa. We descend into the pastoral Val Cham- 
porcher or Camporciero, passing the chalets of Dondenna, to (3Vs hrs.) 
Champorcher (4647 ft. ; rustic Inn), and thence by Pont-Boset to (2'/2 his.) 
Hone-Bard (p. 39). 

From Cogne to St. Marcel over the Col de St. Marcel, 8 hrs., 
not difficult and practicable for mules. The route leads through the 
Vallone di Grauson to the (2^2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (see above), and thence 
past the little Coronas Lake to the (2 hrs.) Col de St. Marcel (Colle di 
Coronas, 9535 ft.), a saddle of the Cresta del Tessonet. We descend through 
the wooded Vallone di St. Marcel to (31/2 hrs.) St. Marcel (p. 40). 

From Cogne to Aosta over the Passo d'Arbole, 9 hrs. (with guide), 
fatiguing but interesting. The route ascends via the chalets of Chavanis 
and Arpisson (7630 ft.) to the Col d'Arbole (9303 ft.) ; admirable view of 
the Gran Paradiso and Grivola. Descent via the Chalets d'Arbole (8186 ft.) 
and the hermitage of St. Grat (5315 ft.). — To Aymaville over the Colle 
de Chaz-Seche (9250 ft.) or the Colle del Drinc (8735 ft.), 7-8 hrs., both attract- 
ive and not difficult. 

46 Route 8. VALSAVARANCHE. Qraian 

Feom Cogne to the Val Soana ackoss the Col della Nouva, 
7-8 hrs., attractive and repaying. To Pianes , see above. Here we turn 
to the right and ascend past the chalets of Chavanit and Brulot to the 
foot of the glacier. Trending to the left to avoid the glacier, we reach 
(3 lira.) the Col della Nouva (Colle deW Arietta ; 9670 ft.), and enjoy an 
admirable view of Mont Blanc and the S. side of the Graian Alps. Steep 
descent to the chalets ui Arietta, and through the Val Campiglia to (3 hrs.) 
Campiglia, 0/2 hr.) Valpralo, and (1/2 hr.) lionco (Inn, clean), in the Val 
Soana, 2 ] /2 hrs. above Ponte Canavese (p. 48). — Two other passes to the 
Val Soana lead respectively across the Colle Bardoney (9292 ft.), between 
the Punta Lavina and the Punta Rol (fatiguing), and across the Bocchetta 
di Ranzio (9850 ft.), to the N. of the Punta Lavina (difficult). 

To the Val Locana (p. 43) over the Colle Grand Crou or the Colle 
Money, see p. 45. Two other difficult passes lead from the Vallone di 
Valeille, the lateral valley parallel to the Vallone d' Urtier, on the S. (see 
p. 45) to the Rifugio (9020 ft.) of the Italian Alpine Club in the Val Pktnlo- 
netto and to the Val d'Orco: the Colle di Telleccio (10,910 ft.), between the 
Tour du Grand St. Pierre (12,110 ft. ; the difficult ascent of which may be 
made from the pass) and. the Ondezzana; and the Colle Sengie (10,515 ft.), 
between the Ondezzana and the Punta Sengie. 

2nd Day. — Feom Cogne to Valsavaranche over the Colle 
Louson (8-9 hrs.; guide 10 fr.), easy and attractive. From ( 3 / 4 hr.) 
Valnontey (5505 ft.) the bridLe-path ascends to the right, through 
wood, passing a pretty fall of the Louson, to the (2^2 hrs.) royal 
shooting-lodge (8490 ft.; 'Campement du Roi') and the (2 hrs.) 
Colle Louson. (10,830 ft.) , with an admirable view (still more ex- 
tensive from a height a few minutes to the S.). We now descend, 
enjoying superb views of the GranParadiso, on the left, and Grivola, 
on the right, to (IY2 hr.) the Chalets de Leviona (7755 ft.). (Good 
walkers may cross the brook here near the small waterfall, and 
descend by a steep path direct to Valsavaranche.) The bridle-path 
follows the left bank and reaches the bottom of the Val Savaranche 
near the (li/ 2 hr.) hamlet of Tignet , 1 M. to the S. of Valsava- 
ranche, or Degioz (5055 ft.; Best, du Club Alpin), the chief village 
in the Valsavaranche (guides, G. Blanc and G. Dayne'). 

Two other somewhat fatiguing passes from Cogne to Val Savaranche 
are the Col de VHeroetet (10,830 ft.), and the Colle Mesoncles (10,170 ft.). — 
From Val Savaranche to Ceresole Reale, see p. 42. 

The Gran Paradiso (13,320 ft. ; difficult, for adepts only ; guide 60 fr.) 
may be ascended in 7-8 hrs. from (2>/4 hrs.) Pont (p. 42), the highest 
hamlet in the Val Savaranche. About l /i hr. to the S. of Pont we ascend 
to the left to the (4 hrs.) Ricovero Vittorio Emmanuele II. (10,200 ft.), built 
by the Italian Alpine Club, above the Moncorvi Alp, and thence cross the 
Glacier de Moncorvi to the (4 hrs.) summit. 

3rd Day. — From Valsavaranche to Rhrmbs Notre-Dame over 
the Colle d'Entrelor (6 hrs. ; guide 6 fr.). The bridle-path ascends 
from Valsavaranche by (1 M.) Creton, at first somewhat steeply, to 
(2 hrs.) a royal shooting-lodge (7185 ft.), and thence leads in zig- 
zags along the slope to the left, passing (D/ 4 hr.) the small Lago 
di Djouan (8280 ft.) and the Lago Nero (9075 ft.), to the (II/2 h r 
Colle d'Entrelor (9870 ft.), between the Cima di Gollien (10,115 ft.) 
and the Cima di Percia (10,110 ft.). Fine view of the Rutor (p. 47) 
to the W., and of the Gran Paradiso and Grivola to theE. Descent 
rather steep through the Vallone d'Entrelor, with the Berca di Sam- 

Alps. VALGRISANCHE. 8. Route. 4/ 

heina (10,365 ft.) on the left, to (2 l /< 2 hrs.) Bhemes Notre-Dame 
(6015 ft. ; poor cantinc, or a bed at the cure's), the chief place in 
the Val de Rhemes, which is enclosed by imposing glaciers. Notre- 
Dame is 5 hrs. from Villeneuve. The route down the valley passes 
Rhlmes-St-Georges and Introd (2585 ft.), with the chateau of that 
name, where the Val de Rhemes unites with the Val Savaranche 
(p. 42). In descending we obtain a fine view of Mont Velan and the 
Grand Combin to the N. 

A shorter but more toilsome route than the Col d'Entrelor leads from 
Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre-Dame across the Colle di Sort (9730 ft.), 
which lies to the S. of the Mt. Koletta (11,100 ft.). 

4th Day. — From Rhemes Notre-Dame over the Colle della 


Valgrisanche ; guide 6 fr. ; 3 hrs. more to Liverogne). Steep ascent to 
the (3'/2 his.) Colle della Finestra (0235 ft.), between the Becca de 
Tei, on the right, and the Becca dell' Jnvergnan (11,834 ft.), on the 
left, with fine view of theOrmolune and the Rutor. The path descends 
through the stony Vallone del Bouc. Where it divides, we keep to 
the left. On our left are the Glacier de Rabuigne and Mont Forciat, 
which conceals the Becca dell' Invergnan. Passing (IV'2 nr the Alp 
Nouva (7020 ft.; small Inn), we descend and crosss the brook to Fornet 
(5675 ft.), the highest hamlet in the Val Grisanche; then to Sevey, 
Mondange, and (2 hrs.) Valgrisanche (5470 ft. ; Cantine du Col du 
Mont, or a bed at the cure's), the chief village in the valley, prettily 
situated at the base of the Rutor. 

The ascent of the Rutor, an extensive, glacier-clad mountain with 
several peaks (S. and highest peak 11,435 ft.; N. peak 11,310 ft.), either 
from Valgrisanche, or better from La Thuile on the Little St. Bernard 
route (p. 43), presents no serious difficulty (guide 40 fr.). From La Thuile 
a bridle-path leads through the deep and narrow Rutor valley to the 
(2 hrs.) grand "Falls of the Rutor (6345 ft.) whence we ascend to the left 
by a new path to the (I1/2 hr.) Capanna S. Margherita (£085 ft.), situated 
above the small Rutor Lake (now drained). Thence across the large Rutor 
Glacier to the (3 hrs.) Tele du Rutor (11,435 ft.), which commands a most 
splendid panorama (refuge-hut of the Italian Alpine Club on the top). — 
Feom Valgrisanche to Bookg-St-Maubice (p. 43; 15 hrs. from Aosta), 
over the Col du Mont (8630 ft.), a tolerable bridle-path. 

The bridle-path from Valgrisanche to Liverogne (3 hrs.) leads 
through the beautifully wooded Val Grisanche, on the left hank of 
the Doradi Valgrisanche, to Ceres or Serre (Hot. Frassy, rustic) and 
Revers, where the river disappears for a short distance under rocks. 
The hamlet of Planaval lies to the left. The valley contracts to a 
wild ravine. The path on its left side skirts a precipice high above 
the roaring torrent. On the opposite bank, on an apparently in- 
accessible rock, is perched the ruined castle of Montmajeur or 
Tour d'Arboe. — Liverogne, see p. 43. Near Liverogne the path 
quits the gorge and descends to the left through meadows and groups 
of trees to the road from Oourmayeur to Aosta (p. 42). 


9. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin. 

a. From Turin to Ceresole Rkale. To (31 M.) Cuorgnl, rail- 
way in 2 hrs. (carriages changed at Settimo Torinese; cornp. p. 59), 
via Eivarolo , etc. From Cuorgnl (Alb. dclla Corona Grossa ; carr. 
at the Iinprosa Fiora's; seat in an omn. to Noasca 5, one-horse carr. 
16, two-horse 27 fr.) a road ascends the valley of the Oreo via, (372M.) 
Ponte Canavese (Alb. Valentino), a picturesque little town at the 
junction of the Val Soana and Val Locana, and Locana to (18 M.) 
Noasca (3480 ft. ; Alb. Reale, R., L., & A. 31/2, de'j. 2V 2 , D. 33/ 4 fr.j. 
In the neighbourhood is the pretty waterfall of the Noaschetta. — 
A bridle-path (mule 6 fr.) leads from Noasca through the wild gorge 
of the Oreo, known as the Scalare di Ceresole, to (l ] /2 nr — 

Ceresole Eeale (5290 ft.; Grand Hotel, R., L., & A. from 4, 
B. II/4, de'j. 3, D. 4, pens. 12 fr. ; Alb. Levanna), a village with 
300 inhab., frequented as a summer-resort for its chalybeate spring. 
From Ceresole to Cogne, see p. 45 ; to Villeneuve and Aosta, see p. 42. 

b. From Turin to Lanzo, 20 M., railway in li/ 4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 
35 , 2 fr. 25 , 1 fr. 50 c.) , starting from the Via al Ponte Mosca 
(PI. E, 1 ; p. 34). — 4!/ 2 M- Venaria Reale, with ruins of a royal 
hunting-chateau destroyed by the French Republicans, at the influx 
of the Ceronda into the Stura. The train crosses both streams and 
ascends the valley of the latter. 8 M. Caselle. 13 M. Cirie, with a 
Gothic church of the 13th century. — 20 M. Lanzo Torinese (1770 ft. ; 
Posta; Europa ; Bail. Restaurant), prettily situated on a hill, with 
a ruined castle, and surrounded with villas. 

Lanzo is the best starting-point for excursions in the three Valleys 
of the Upper Stdra. The southernmost of these is the Valle di Viii, 
through which a road leads to the village of Viu (2475 ft.). — In the middle is 
the Valle d'Ala, which diverges from the N. or chief valley at Ceres (2310 ft.) 
and contains the villages of Ala di Stura (3545 ft. ; road to this point) and 
Balme (4785 ft.). Between the two villages is the fine waterfall of the 
Gorgia di Mondrone. — Through the Val Grande, on the N. , a road as- 
cends via, Chialamberlo (2805 ft.) and Groscavallo (3615 ft.) to Forno Alpi 
Graie (3935 ft.), at the base of Monte Levanna (11,875 ft.). — An interesting 
excursion may also he made to the valley of the Tesso, and to the loftily 
situated Santuario di S. Ignazio (3060 ft. ; l>/a hr.). The Ponte del Roc, 
which crosses the Stura near Lanzo with an arch of 120 ft. in length, was 
built in 1378. — See C. Katti's '£« Torino a Lanzo e per le Valli delta 
Stura'' (Casanova, Turin). 

c. From Turin to Susa. — To (27 M.) Bussoleno by the Mt. 
Cenis Railway (l-l 3 / 4 hr.), see p. 3. — From Bussoleno a short 
branch-line (4^2 M. in 17 min. ; fares 80, 55, 35 c.) runs to Susa 
(1625 ft; Hotel de France; Soleil), a small and ancient town, the 
Roman iSegusio, picturesquely situated 011 the right bank of the Dora. 
A garden on the W. side of the town contains a Triumphal Arch, 
44 ft. in height, 39 ft. in width, and 23 ft. in depth, with projecting 
Corinthian columns at the corners and sacrificial scenes on the frieze, 
erected according to the inscription in A.l). 8 to Augustus. There 
are also a few other Roman relics. The church of S. (iiiisto dates 

PINEROLO. 9. Route. 49 

from the 11th century. On the opposite bank of the Dora rises the 
fort La Brunetta, which was destroyed by the French in 1798. 

d. From Turin to Torre Pellicb, 34!/ 2 M., railway in 2t/ 4 hrs. 
(fares 5 fr., 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 50 c). — The train diverges from the Genoa 
line (p. 53) at Sangone and turns to the S.W. — 15^2 M. Airasca, 
whence a branch runs to Saluzzo (22^2 M. ; passing Moretta, p. 50). 

1772 M. Pinerolo, Fr. Pignerol (1312 ft.; Campana; Cannon 
d'Oro), a town with 12,000 inhab., an old cathedral, and a mon- 
ument to Gen. Brignone by Tabacchi. 

A steam - tramway runs hence to Cavour and Saluzzo (see p. 50). 
Cavour lies at the foot of the Rocca, an isolated granite cone rising 530 ft. 
above the plain, the once fortified top of which commands a fine view of 
the Alps. From the 17th cent, onwards it was the seat of the now ex- 
tinct counts of Cavour. — Another steam-tramway runs from Pinerolo to 
Perosa, in the Val Chisone, where it connects with diligences to Perrero 
and Fenestrelle. 

29'/2M. Bricherasio (branch-line to Barge, see below); 33M._Lm- 
serna. — 34 V2 M. Torre Pellice, Fr. La Tour (1920 ft.;' Ours; Lion 
d"Or; Pens. Bel-Air, Pens. Suisse, both well spoken of, pens. 6 fr.), 
a town of 2800 inhab. and the capital of the Waldensian Valleys. 

The Waldensian Vallets (ValUes Vandoises), adjoining the French 
frontier, were the home of those well-known Protestant communities (about 
25,000 souls) who were formerly so cruelly persecuted and who have resided 
here for upwards of six centuries. The language of the valleys is French. 
After Torre Pellice the chief settlements are Luserna (see above), Villar, 
and Bobbio Pellice (all three in the valley of the Pellice); Angrogna, in the 
beautiful valley of the same name to the N. of Torre Pellice ; S. Germano, 
in the Val Chisone; and Perrero (see above), in the Val Germanasca. 

e. From Turin to Crissolo. Railway to (37y 2 M.) Barge in 
2'/ 3 hrs. (5 fr. 75, 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 85 c). — Our line diverges to the 
S. at (29 y 2 M.) Bricherasio (see above) from that to Torre Pellice and 
runs via (32 M.) Campiglione and (35 M.) Bagnolo Po to (37 V2 M.) 
Barge, with 2100 inhabitants. — From Barge a road leads to (3 M.) 
Paesana (p. 50) and up the valley of the Po to (91/2 M.) Crissolo, Fr. 
Crussol (4580 ft. ; Alb. del Club Alpino; guide, Olaudio Perrotti). 

Crissolo is the starting-point for the ascent of Monte Viso (12,608 ft.), 
the highest summit of the Cottian Alps (not recommended to any but ex- 
perts ; guide 20 fr.). We follow the bridle-path leading to the W. to the 
Col de la Travtrtetle (9770 ft.) as far as the (2 hrs.) Plan del Re (.6625 ft. ; 
small inn), near the sources of the Po. Thence we proceed to the S., 
across the Passo delle Sagnette (9760 ft.), to the (3V2 hrs.) Rifugio Quintino 
Sella of the Club Alpino Italiano (9840 ft.) , in the Val delle Forciolline. 
From this point we reach the summit by a stiff climb of 4 hrs. up the 
S. face. The summit commands a splendid panorama, embracing Mont 
Blanc and Monte Eosa on the N. — From the Col de la Traversette to 
Abriit, see Baedeker's Southern France. 

10. From Turin to Nice via the Col di Tenda. 

136 M. Railway to Cuneo (55 M., iu 21/4-3 hrs.; fares 9 fr. 95, 7 fr., 4 fr. 
50 c.) and to Limone (74 M., in 41/2 hrs. ; 13 fr. 60, 9 fr. 55, 6 fr. 15 c). Post- 
Omnibds ('Courier') from Limone to (62 M.) Nice in 16 hrs. (fares 12 fr., 
10 fr.), leaving Limone in the morning and Nice in the evening (office at Nice 
in the Hotel de VAigle Noir, Place St. Francois, Boul. du Pont-Vieux). — 
A railway is being constructed from Limone to Ventimiglia and Nice. 

Bakdeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 4 

50 Route 10. SAVIGLIANO. From Turin 

From Turin to (18 M.) Carmagnola, see p. 55. — 24 M. Bac- 
conigi, with a royal chateau and park laid out in 1755 by Le Notre, 
once the favourite residence of Carlo Alberto (d. 1849). From (28 M.) 
Cavallermaggiore branch-lines run E. to (8 M.) Bra (p. 55) and W. 
to (10 M.) Moretta (p. 49). — 32 M. Savigliano (Corona), a town of 
10,000 inhab., on the Macra, with ancient fortifications. The princi- 
pal church contains paintings by Mulinari (1577-1640), a native of 
the town, surnamed Carraccino, as an imitator of the Carracci. 

From Savigliano a branch-line (10 M., in l fe hr. ; fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 30, 
95 c.J runs to Saluzzo (1197 ft. ; Corona Grossa), capital of the province 
(formerly marquisate) of that name, with 19,700 inhab., the seat of a 
bishop , with flourishing trade and industries. The higher part of the 
town affords a fine survey of the Piedmontese plain. A monument was 
erected here in 1863 to Silvio Pellico, the poet (d. 1854), author of 'Le Mie 
Prigioni' and the tragedy of 'Francesca da Rimini', who was born at Sa- 
luzzo in 1788 and expiated his patriotic efforts by ten years' 1 imprison- 
ment in S. Margherita, the Doges' Palace (see p. 249), and the Spielberg 
at Briinn. — Railway to Airasca, see p. 49. Tramway to Turin, p. 25; to 
Pinerolo, p. 49; to Venasca; and to Revello, where there is an ancient copy 
of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 131), with variations. From Revello a road 
ascends the valley of the Po to (V/2 M.) Paesana (p. 49) and Crissolo (p. 49). 

From Saluzzo to Cuneo, 20 1 J2 M., railway in l 1 /4-l 1 /2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 75, 
2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c). The intermediate stations are insignificant. 

36 M. Oenola. — 40 M. Fossano (Bail. Bestaurant), with 8000 in- 
hab., situated on a hill on the left bank of the Stura, seat of a bishop, 
has an academy and mineral baths (branch-line to Mondovi, p. 56). — 
44 M. Maddalena. — 47 M. Centallo , a picturesque place with re- 
mains of mediaeval fortifications. — 50 M. S. Benigno di Cuneo. 

55 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1722 ft. ; *Alb. Superga, unpretending; 
Barra di Ferro, good cuisine ; Stella <f Oro), the capital of a province, 
with 12,000 inhab., lies on a view-commanding hill at the conflu- 
ence of the Stura and the Oesso. After the battle of Marengo the 
fortifications were converted into shady promenades, which afford 
splendid views of the Maritime Alps, of Mte. Viso (p. 49; N.W.), 
and the Besimauda (p. 56 ; S.E.). In the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele a 
monument to Giuseppe Barbaroux, by Dini, was erected in 1879. 
The Franciscan Church is in the Gothic style (13th cent.). Pleasant 
walk to the Madonna degli Angeli at the confluence of the streams. 

From Cuneo to the Certosa di Pesio and to Mondovi, see p. 55; to <S«- 
luzzo, see above. — Steam Tramway from Cuneo, via Caraglio, to Dronero, 
situated to the N.W. in the Maira valley; and also to Borgo S. Dalmazzo 
(see below). 

The rail way to Limone ascends the valley of the Gesso , which 
is bordered by hills covered with groves of chestnuts. 60 M. Boves. 

63 M. Borgo S. Dalmazzo (Tre Galli; Delfino), a small town 
with 2500 inhab., is overlooked by the church of Madonna del Mon- 
serrato (view). 

From Borgo S. Dalmazzo a delightful excursion may be made to the 
Upper V alley op the Gesso (diligence daily in summer as far as the 
Bagni di Valdieri). — The road ascends along the left bank of the Gesso 
to (6 M.) Valdieri (2485 ft. ; Alb. della Posta), a village with 1400 inhab 
which is the starting-point for an ascent of the Monte VArp (6000 f t ) — 
Beyond Valdieri a road leads to the left tn Entraque (2958 ft. • "An'jelo 

to Nice. COL DI TENDA. 10. Route. 51 

unpretending; Moro), a village of 1700 inhab., finely situated in a lateral 
valley. From this point excursions may be made to the Iiousset Vallen, 
through which a road ascends to (7 M.) a Waterfall 1280 ft. high; to (2i/ 2 hrs".) 
the Lake of Eovina (5117 ft.); to the top of the Bee d'Orel (8145 ft. ; *View); 
and to (6 M.) the royal hunting-lodge of S. Giacomo (good road through beech- 
woods). From S. Giacomo bridle-paths lead to the glacier-filled head of 
the valley at the Monle Clapier, and across the Colle delle Finestre to (8 hrs.) 
St-Martin-Lantosque (p. 103). — The main road continues to ascend the 
Gesso valley. About 8 M. above Valdieri, in a sequestered upland valley, 
lie the Bagni di Valdieri (4425 ft.), with eight warm sulphur-springs (100- 
156° Fahr.) and a well-equipped hotel. The splendid situation attracts many 
other guests beside the patients. To the E. lies a fine beech-forest. To the 
W. a pleasant excursion may be made into the Vallasco Valley, with its 
royal shooting-box. The chief mountain-ascent is that of the ' : Punta deW 
Argentera (11,145ft.; 6 hrs., recommended to experts only; guide 12 fr.), 
the highest of the Maritime Alps, the splendid panorama from which in- 
cludes the plain of the Po and the Tyrolese Alps on the N.E., the Alps of 
Dauphiny on the W., the coast of Provence on the S.W., from the lower 
valley of the Var to the Islands of Hyeres, and Corsica on the S. The 
ascent of the Monte Matto or Rocca del Mat (10,130 ft.) is fatiguing though 
not difficult (5 hrs. ; guide 10 fr.). 

Another road connects Borgo S. Dalmazzo with the Upper Valley of 
the Stuea, a tributary of the Tanaro (diligence to Bagni di Vinadio in 
summer). The capital of this fair valley, known to the Romans as the 
Vallis Aurea on account of its fertility, is (10 l /2 M.) Demonte (2550 ft. ; Alb. 
Garibaldi), an industrial place with 2400 inhab., pleasantly situated in an 
open part of the valley. Above Demonte the valley contracts. The next 
villages are (17 M.) Vinadio (3020 ft.; Alb. d'ltalia), picturesquely situated 
and encircled by strong fortifications, Sambuco, and Argentera (Fr. Argen- 
tine), with the Italian custom-house. [For the route over the Col de 
Larche or Col de I'Argentiere to Larche and Barcelonnette , in France, see 
Baedeker's Southern France.] — A road to the left, halfway between Vina- 
dio and Sambuco , leads to the high-lying Bagni di Vinadio (4363 ft.), 
situated in a lateral valley, 7 M. to the S.W. of Vinadio, and possessing 
an unpretending hotel (pens. 772-9 fr.) and eight hot sulphur-springs 
(86-144° Fahr.), similar to those of Valdieri (see above). A pleasant ex- 
cursion may be made hence to the (1 hr.) hamlet of Callieri, with its old 
woods of beech and pine and a fine waterfall. Admirable views are had 
from the Becco d'Ischiatbr (9860 ft.; 5 hrs.), reached by passing the lakes 
of the same name, and from the Monte Tinibras (9950 ft.); but the ascent 
in each case is fatiguing (guide 12 fr.). 

63Y2 M. Roccavione. The train enters the valley of the Verme- 
nagna, enclosed now by wooded heights, now hy precipitous lime- 
stone cliffs. Numerous tunnels. — 65 M. Robilante ; 70 M. Vemanle. 
Fine retrospect (r.) of Mte. Viso. 

74M. Limone (3285 ft.; Posta, Europa, plain), the present 
terminus of the railway, lies in an open stretch of the valley, at the 
N. base of the Col di Tenda. — Post-Omnibus to Nice, see p. 49. 

The Old Road over the Col di Tenda, or di Cornio (6263 ft.), where 
the Maritime Alps (W.) terminate and the Ligurian Alps (E.) be- 
gin, ascends in windings to the fortified head of the pass and then 
descends the S. slope in 69 zigzags, passing several refuges, into the 
valley of the Roja, which reaches the sea at Ventimiglia. The New 
Road, constructed in 1883 and now exclusively used, penetrates the 
Tenda by means of a tunnel, about 1^2 M. long, which first gradu- 
ally ascends and then descends (N. entrance 4330 ft., S. entrance 
4196 ft). From the central point both ends are visible. The road 

52 Route 10. S. DALMAZZO DI TENDA. 

then descends through chestnut-groves, passing near the sources of 
the Roja, to the (9 M.) foundries of Vievola, where the main tunnel 
of the railway, 5 M. long, is to emerge. Farther on we pass through 
a ravine, enclosed by curious sandstone rocks, and reach — 

12 M. (from Limoue) Tenda (2675 ft. ; Alb. Nazionale, Lanza, 
Croce Bianca , Italia , all plain) , a picturesque little town with 
1000 inhab., overhung by precipitous walls of rock. Fragments of 
the castle of Beatrice di Tenda (comp. p. 138) stand on a rock here. 

Excursions may be made from Tenda through the Urno Wood to (4 hrs.) 
the top of the Monte Ciagore (7525 ft.), which commands a view extending 
to the sea; to the Rocca deW Abisso (7395ft.); to the N.E., through the 
picturesque valley of the Rio Freddo and over the (4 hrs.) Colle dei Signori 
(refuge-hut), to the top of the ' Cima di Mwguareis (8690 ft.), the highest 
summit of the Ligurian Alps (*Vie\v). 

"We now descend through a narrow rocky valley to — 

14 M. S. Dalmazzo di Tenda (2250 ft. ; Italian custom-house), 
situated amid luxuriant groves of chestnut, with several villas and 
an old Carthusian abbey, fitted up as a hotel and hydropathic (open 
from mid- April to the end of Oct., pens. 8 fr. ; Engl. Ch. service). 

About 2 M. to the E. of S. Dalmazzo lies Briga (2500 ft.; Hotel de la 
Source), in the valley of the Levenza, with an interesting church. A little 
to the S. is the pine-forest of Pine". — A bridle-path leads to the W. to 
(3 hrs.) 8. Maria Maddalena (5110 ft.), in the attractive Vol di Casterino, 
surrounded by larch-woods. Excursions may be made from this point 
past the old silver and lead mine of Valanria, once worked by the Sara- 
cens, to the wild Valle delV Inferno, strewn with huge blocks of rock and 
containing 14 small lakes, and on to (3 hrs.) the Meraviglie (7218 ft.), rocks 
of slate inscribed with rude drawings of unknown antiquity; to the top 
(5 hrs.) of the ~Monte Bego (9425 ft.), which commands a splendid view of 
the Alps, Nice, and the Kiviera (ascent fatiguing but not difficult); and to 
the mountain-lakes of Valmasca, which lie in a rocky valley, one above 
another , the largest (2'/2 hrs. ; toilsome walk) at a height of 7675 ft. at 
the foot of the snow-clad Lusiera (9695 ft.). 

Beyond the (17 M.) French frontier the valley contracts to the 
Oola di Qandarena, one of the most imposing gorges of the Alps, so 
narrow at places as barely to leave room for river and road between 
the perpendicular rocks (1200-1300 ft.). — At (19 M.) Fontana 
(Fr. Fontan, 1424 ft.), with the French custom-house, the scenery 
assumes a more southern character and the first olives appear. 
Farther on, Saorgio (Fr. Saorge), on a lofty rocky terrace to the left, 
with the ruins of a castle destroyed by the French in 1792, com- 
mands the road. Adjacent is a large monastery. 

At (24 M.) Oiandola (1250 ft. ; Hotel des Etrangers; Poste), sit- 
uated in a green valley at the foot of bare cliffs of slate, the road 
to (17 M.) Ventimiglia (p. 88 ; diligence twice daily) diverges to 
the left. This descends the picturesque valley of the Roja, passing 
Breglio (Fr. Breil), with the ruined chateau of Trivella, and Airole. 
— Our road ascends steeply to the Col di Brouis (2748' ft.) in the 
midst of bleak mountains. To the right rises the Monte Mangiabo 
(6025 ft.), which commands an extensive view. Farther on we de- 
scend, soon obtaining a view of the sea, to — 

367-2 M. Sospello, Fr. Sospel (1175 ft. ; Hotel Caremo, mediocre • 

ASTI. 11. Route. 53 

H6t. de la Poste), a town of 3900 inhab., situated at the E. foot of 
the Col di Braus (see below), in the valley of the Bevera (affluent 
of the Roja, see above), amidst dense olive-groves. 

A charming excursion may be made through the upper valley of the 
Bevera to (5'/2M.) Moulinet (Beausite, Torelli, plain), to which anew road 
ascends in windings on the right bank of the torrent (fine waterfalls). At 
many points a passage for the road had to be blasted in the rocks. 

The road now ascends circuitously to the Col di Braus (4230 ft.). 
To the left, on a lofty rock, is the castle-like village of Castillon (p. 91). 
Sterile region, with rocks curiously stratified at places. "We descend 
to (50!/2 M.) Escarene (Ital. Scarena), cross the Paillon, and skirt 
the left bank of that brook, passing through the villages of Drap and 
La- Trinite- Victor. — 62 M. Nice, see p. 95. 

11. From Turin to Genoa. 

a. Via Alessandria-Novi. 

103 M. Railway in 374-7 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 75, 13 fr. 15, 8 fr. 45 c. ; ex- 
press 20 fr. 65, 14 fr. 45 c). 

The line at first runs towards the S., at some distance from the 
left bank of the Po, crosses its affluent the Sangone (beyond which 
the branch-line to Pinerolo diverges, p. 49), and then the Po itself 
by a bridge of seven arches. — 5 M. Moncalieri, with a royal cha- 
teau on the hill (p. 38). A final retrospect is now obtained of the 
hills of Turin, and of the snowy Alps to the left. — From (8 M.) 
Trofarello branch-lines diverge to Savona (p. 56), to Cuneo-Limone 
(RR. 10, lib), and to Chieri. — Stations Cambiano, Pessione, Villa- 
nova £ Asti, Villafranca d'Asti, Baldichieri, S. Damiano. The train 
then crosses the Borbore and reaches the valley of the Tanaro, on 
the left bank of which it runs to Alessandria. 

S&fe M. Asti (Leone d'Oro; Albergo Reale; Rail. Restaurant), 
the ancient Asta, with 17,300 inhab. and numerous towers, is 
famous for its sparkling wine (Asti spumante) and its horticulture. 
The left aisle of the Gothic Cathedral, erected in 1348, contains 
(2nd chapel) a Madonna with four saints by a master of the school 
of Vercelli, and (3rd chapel) a Sposalizio, probably by the same. 
— The adjacent church of S. Giovanni (the sacristan of the cathedral 
keeps the key) is built over an ancient Christian basilica, part of 
which has again been rendered accessible, and has monolithic col- 
umns with capitals bearing Christian symbols (6th cent.). The 
Piazza is adorned with a statue of the poet Alfieri (1749-1803, a 
native of Asti), by Vini, and the Giardino Pubblico with a mon- 
ument of Victor Emmanuel II. Near the Porta Alessandria is the 
small octagonal Baptistery of 8. Pietro (11th cent.), borne by short 
columns with square capitals, and enclosed by a low, polygonal gal- 
lery. — Asti is the junction of the line via Acqui-Ovada (p. 56). 

From Asti to Moetara (Milan), 46 M., in 2 3 /4-3>/2 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 40, 
5 fr. 90, 3 fr. 80 c). Stations unimportant ; 29 M. Casale-Monferralo, see p. 61 ; 
Mortara, see p. 58. — From Asti to Castagnole (p. 55), 13 M., in 1 hr. — 
Tramway from Asti to Cortanze and to Canale (via S. Damiano, see p. 53). 

54 Route 11. ALESSANDRIA. From Turin 

Next stations Annone , Cerro , Felizzano, Soiero. Country flat 
and fertile. Near Alessandria the line to Bellinzona (R. 12) diverges 
to the N. The train crosses the Tanaro by a bridge of 15 arches, 
skirts the fortifications, and reaches — 

56y 2 M. Alessandria (Bail. Restaurant; *Europa; Alb. di Londra; 
Italia e Vniverso, poor), a town with 30,800 inhab., situated on the 
Tanaro in a marshy district, and only remarkble as a fortified place. 
It was founded in 1168 by the Lombard towns allied against the 
Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, and named after Pope Alexander III. A 
bronze statue, designed by Monteverde, was erected here in 1883 
to the statesman Urbano Rattazzi (d. 1873), a native of the town. 
— Alessandria being a junction of several lines, carriages are gen- 
erally changed here ; railway to Vercelli via Valenza, p. 61 ; to No- 
vara and Bellinzona, pp. 61-58; to Milan via Mortara and Vige- 
vano, see p. 58; to Pavia via Valenza, see p. 175; to Piacenza, 
Parma, Bologna, etc., see RR. 13 and 41; to Bra, see p. 55. 

Steam Tkamways from Alessandria via Marengo to Sale and Tortona, to 
Casale-Monferrato (p. 61), to Spinetta (p. 59), and to Monlemagno (p. 61) via 

Feom Alessandria to Savona (via Acqui), 65 M., in 4 hrs. (fares 
11 fr. 90, 8 fr. 35, 5 fr. 35 c). — As far as Gantalupo the line is the same 
as to Bra (see p. 55). — 21 M. Acqui, also a station on the railway from 
Asti to Ovada and Genoa (see p. 57). — The line ascends the valley of the 
Bormida, passing through ten tunnels. Stations of little importance. 52 M. 
S. Giuseppe di Cairo, see p. 56. — 65 M. Savona, see p. 56. 

The line crosses the Bormida (p. 57). About IY4M. to the E. of 
the bridge, in the plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia, lies 
the village of Marengo, near which, on 14th June, 1800, Napoleon 
defeated the Austrians in a battle momentous for the destinies of 
Europe. — 62 M. Frugarolo. 

70 M. Novi (Hot. Novi), a town with 10,000 inhab., commanded 
to the right by hills with a belvedere-tower, was the scene of a 
victory gained by the Austrians and Russians under Suvorov over 
the French on 15th Aug., 1799. Branch-line to Pavia and Milan 
via Tortona and Voghera, see p. 59, and R. 27. Steam tramway to 
Ovada, see p. 57. 

At (74 M.) Serravalle-Scrivia the train enters a mountainous 
region. 77 M. Arquata-Scrivia, with a ruined castle. Between this 
and Genoa there are twenty-four tunnels. The train threads its way 
through rocky ravines (la Bocchetta) and over lofty embankments, 
crossing the Scrivia several times. Scenery imposina;. 83l/ 2 M. Isola 
del Cantone; on the hill to the right a ruined castle. — 86 M. Ronco 
is the junction of the old line to Genoa via Pontedecimo. 

The train enters the Rnnr.o Tunnel, upwards of 5 M. in length 
and then descends through the narrow Polcevera V alley with the help 
of numerous viaducts and cuttings. Opposite we see the old line 
(see above), now used for local and goods traffic only. 91 ;y[. Miqna- 
nego; 95^2 M. 8. Quirico. The valley now expands; its well-culti- 
vated slopes are dotted with the summer-villas of the Genoese 

to Genoa. CARMAGNOLA. 11. Route. 5 5 

101'/2 M. Sampierdarena (p. 80), where through-travellers to or 
from Nice change carriages (Rail. Restaurant). On the right are the 
lighthouse and citadel, below which the train passes by a tunnel. 

103 M. Genoa, see p. 64. 

b. Via Bra and Savona. 

From Torin to Savona, 91 M., in 41/2-6 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 65, 11 fr. 65, 
7fr. 50 c; express 18 fr. 30, 12 fr. 80c); thence to Genoa, 271/2 M., in 
11/4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 40, 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 20 c. ; express 5 fr. 45, 4 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the right. 

From Turin to Trofarello, 8 M., see p. 53. — 12y 2 M. Villa- 

A road crossing the Po leads hence to the W. to (41/2 M.) Carignano, a 
town with 4300 inhab. and several fine churches , situated on the high- 
road from Turin (tramway) to Nice. S. Giovanni Battista was erected by 
Count Alfieri ; <S. Maria delle Grazie contains a monument to Bianca 
Palseologus, daughter of Guglielmo IV., Marquis of Montferrat, and wife 
of Duke Charles I., at whose court the 'Chevalier Bayard' was brought 
up. — Carignano, with the title of a principality, was given as an ap- 
panage to Thomas Francis (d. 1656), fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., 
from whom the present royal family is descended. 

18 M. Carmagnola, with 2900 inhab., was the birthplace (1390) 
of the famous Condottiere Francesco Bussone, son of a swineherd, 
usually called Count of Carmagnola , who reconquered a great part 
of Lombardy for Duke Filippo Maria Visconti , and afterwards be- 
came Generalissimo of the Republic of Venice. At length his fidel- 
ity was suspected by the Council of Ten , and be was beheaded in 
the Piazzetta (p. 248) on 5th May, 1432. Bussone's fate is the sub- 
ject of a tragedy by Manzoni. — The 'Carmagnole', the celebrated 
republican dance and song of the French Revolution, was named 
after this town, the home of most of the street-musicians of Paris. 
— Steam-tramway to Turin. — To Cuneo and Nice, see p. 50. 

The line continues towards the S.E. 24 M. Sommariva del 
Bosco; 26 M. Sanfre; 29 M. Bandito. 

31 M. Bra (10,000 inhab.), with a busy trade in wine, cattle, 
truffles, and silk. Branch to Cavallermaggiore, see p. 50. 

From Bka to Alessandria, 53 M., railway in 3-4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 
65, 6 fr. 75, 4 fr. 35 c). — 41/2 M. S. Vittoria; pleasant excursion thence 
to the royal chateau of Pollenzo, with the remains of the Roman town of 
Pollentia. — II1/2 M. Alba, with 6900 inhab.; the cathedral of S. Lorenzo 
dates from the 15th century. — 191/2 M. Castagnole-Lanze; branch- line to 
Asti (p. 54). We next traverse a fertile wine-country. 251/2 M. S. Stefano 
Belbo, on the Belbo, the valley of which the train traverses for some 
distance. 34 M. Nizza di Monferrato, also on the Asti-Ovada-Genoa line 
(l». 57). — 53 M. Alessandria, see p. 54. 

36 M. Cherasco, at the confluence of the and Stura, not 
seen from the line, which ascends the former. Stations Narzole, Mon- 
chiero-Dogliani, Farigliano, Carru. — 53 M. Bastia Mondovi. 

Branch -Line to Cuneo, 221/2 M., in l»/ 4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 
1 fr. 85 c). — 5'/;; M. Mondovi ( Tre Limoni d'Oro), the only important station, 
is a town of 5200 inhab., on the Ellero, with a cathedral of the 15th cent., 
a monument to Charles Emmanuel I. (unveiled in 1891), and a loftily 
situated old tower. Near Mondovi are two fine stalactite caverns : the 

56 Route 11. MONDOVI. From Turin 

Grolta di Bosnia, close to Frabosa, in the Valle oVEUero, 9'/2 M. to tlie S., 
and the newly-discovered Grotta dei Dossi, at Villanova, 6 M. to the S.W. 
Both are easily accessible and partly lighted by electricity (usually open 
June-Oct. ; a dm. 2^4 fr., no fees). A carriage may be procured at the inn 
at Mondovi. — IT1/2 M. Beinette is the station (diligence -connection) for 
the Certosa di Pesio, which lies 9'/2 M. to the S., in the lonely and 
romantic Val Pesio. The Certosa, which was founded in 1173, is now a 
''Hydropathic and pleasant health-resort, open from June 1st to the end 
of Sept. (pens, from 8 fr.). Excursions may be made hence to the Sources 
of the Pesio, in a rocky ravine below the steep N. side of the Cima Mar- 
guareis (p. 52), and to (4 hrs.) the mountain-lake of Real (6460 ft.). The 
Certosa is also the starting-point for the ascent of the Colla Piatia (6825 ft.), 
with its large Alps, and of the "Besimauda or Bisalta (7880 ft.), a ridge 
of gneiss rising abruptly from the plain and commanding a splendid view 
of the valley of the Po and the Ligurian Alps. — 22'/2 M. Cuneo, see p. 60. 

From Mondovi to Fossano (p. 50), 15 M., railway in 1V 4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 
80, 1 fr. 30 c); to S. Michele, steam-tramway in 3 /i br. 

5672 M. Niella; 60 M. Castellino-Tanaro. — 62i/ 2 M. Ceva, on 
the Tanaro. 

Feom Ceva to Ormea, 22'/2 M., railway in I'M 1 /* hr. (4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 
1 fr. 85 c). — The train ascends the valley of the Tanaro. Intermediate 
stations unimportant. 15 ] /2 M. Garessio. — 22'/2 M. Ormea (2398 ft. ; Albergo 
Nazionale) , an ancient and picturesque little town , with rich marble 
quarries. It is frequented as a summer-resort; and pleasant excursions 
may be made to the imposing stalactite cavern of Nava (discovered in 
1886), to the rocky gorges of the Negrone, and via, Viozene to the top of 
the Mongioje (8630 ft. ; not difficult). — From Ormea a road (railway pro- 
jected) leads across the Col di Nava (3074 ft.) to (31 M.) Oneglia (p. 83). 

The train passes under the old castle of Ceva by a tunnel and 
begins to cross the Ligurian Alps, the most imposing part of the 
line. Between this and Savona are numerous viaducts and 28 tunnels. 
The train quits the Tanaro and ascends. Beyond (66 J / 2 M.) Sale is 
the Oalleria del Belbo, a tunnel upwards of 3 M. in length, the 
longest on the line. 69V 2 M. Saliceto ; 73*/ 2 M. Cengio, in the 
valley of the Bormida di Millesimo. 

79 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo, on the Bormida di Spigno, through 
the valley of which the Acqui railway descends (see p. 57). 

Interesting journey amid the deep ravines and precipices of the 
Apennines. Tunnels and viaducts in rapid succession. 86V 2 M. 
Santuario di Savona, a pilgrimage-church, founded in 1536. 

91 M. Savona, and thence to Genoa, see pp. 81, 82. 

c. Via Acqui and Ovada. 

100 31. Railway in 5 3 /4-8'/ 2 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 15, 12 fr. 70 8 f r 15 c ) 
From Turin to(35i/ 2 M.) Asti, see R. Ha. Our line here diverges 
from that to Alessandria and crosses the Tanaro. Near (39 M.) San 
Marzanotto-Rivi we reach the fertile hill-district of the Colli Asti- 

giani. On the heights is the old chateau of Bellangero. 41 M. 

Mongardino. We thread a tunnel and enter the valley of the Ti- 
glione. 42 M. Vigliano d' Asti; 43 M. Montegrosso. Tunnel. 46 M. 
Agliano-Castelnuovo-Calcea. — The line now crosses the Belbo and 
unites with that from Bra to Alessandria at (50!/ 2 M.) Nizza diMon- 
ferrato (p. 56), a town of 5000 inhab., producing wine'and silk. 
— Farther on we again cross and recross the Belbo. Tunnel 53 m' 

to Genoa. ACQUI. 11. Route. 57 

Bazzana. Another tunnel, bb 1 /^ M. Mombaruzzo, in the Val Cer- 
vino. — We thread a long tunnel near (581/2M.) Alice-Belcolle and 
reach the valley of the Medrio, which the train crosses repeatedly. 

63 M. Acqui (Grand Hotel; Moro ; Italia), the Aquae Statiellae 
of the Romans, an episcopal town on the Bormida with 7400 in- 
hab., is known for its warm sulphur springs. The Cathedral, with 
its double aisles, is of the 12th century. The Austrians and Pied- 
montese were defeated by the French near Acqui in 1794. Good wine 
is produced in the vicinity. — To Alessandria and Savona, see p. 54. 

We now cross a bridge of fifteen arches, spanning the Bormida, 
which falls into the Tanaro below Alessandria. Farther on we cross 
the Visone torrent. Tunnel. 65 M. Visone, in the valley of the Cara- 
magna, which the train crosses thrice near (67^2 M.) Pranco-Cre- 
molino. — We then penetrate the tunnel of Cremolino, which is 
2 M. long, and enter the valley of the Orba, an affluent of the Ta- 
naro. — 71 V2 M. Molare. — 721/2 M. Ovada, a town with 4600 in- 
habitants. Steam-tramway hence to Novi, see p. 54. 

77Y2 M. Rossiglione. — Beyond (8OV2 M.) Campoligure the line 
pierces the crest of the Apennines by the Galleria del Turchino 
(3 M. long). Overhead is the pass of the same name (1745 ft.). We 
then descend to (85 M.) Mele, about 3 M. above Voltri (p. 81). 

Farther on the line skirts the slopes of the mountains. 88 M. 
Acquasanta; 92 M. Granara; 94 M. Borzoli. Several fine views of 
the sea are obtained to the right. — 97 M. Sampierdarena, and 
thence to Genoa, see p. 80. — 100 M. Genoa, see p. 64. 

12. From Bellinzona to Genoa. 

156 M. Railway in 7'fe-12Vi hrs. (fares 28 fr. 15, 19 fr. 75, 13 fr. 20 c. ; 
express 30 fr. 70, 21 fr. 55 c). — At Mortara this line is joined by another 
coming from Milan, on which some of the through-trains from Milan to 
Genoa run. From Milan to Genoa, 106 M., in 4'/ 3 -7V2 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 35, 
13 fr. 60, 8 fr. 75 c. ; express 21 fr. 30, 14 fr. 95 c). — Passengers for the 
Riviera coming from the N. can generally make better connections by the 
Bellinzona-Chiasso-Milan-Voghera-Genoa route; comp. RR. 3, 27. 

Bellinzona, see p. 6. Journey to Cadenazzo , where the Lo- 
carno line diverges, see p. 7. — At (IOY2 M.) Magadino (p. 162) 
the train reaches the Logo Maggiore, and skirts its E. bank (views 
to the right). Opposite lies Locarno (p. 161), at the mouth of the 
Maggia. 12!/2 M. S. Nazzaro ; 14 M. Banzo-Gera (opposite Bris- 
sago, p. 163). At Zenna we cross the Dirinella , the Italian fron- 
tier. Tunnel. — 16'/ 2 M. Pino, the first Italian station. The bank 
becomes steep and rocky , and the construction of the railway was 
attended with great difficulties here. Between Pino and Luino there 
are six tunnels, and numerous cuttings and viaducts. Delightful 
views of the lake to the right; on the opposite bank lies Cannobbio 
(p. 163), and farther on is the promontory of, with the pic- 
turesque castles of that name on a rocky islet (p. 164). Near 
(21 M.) Maccagno the train crosses the Giona. Several tunnel?. 

58 Route 1-J. MORTARA. 

25 M. Luino, an international station , with Swiss and Italian 
custom-houses, see p. 163. — To Lugano, see p. 157. 

The line crosses the Margorabbia (p. 164) below its union with 
the Tresa (p. 157), and leads by Oermiynaga and through a tunnel 
to (2972 M.) Porto -Valtravaglia. Beyond a tunnel under the castle 
of Calde (p. 164) we skirt the bay of the same name (opposite Intra, 
p. 165) and enter the Tunnel of Calde, 1 3 / 4 M. long. 

34 M. Laveno (p. 164) is beautifully situated at the mouth of 
the Boesio, at the foot of the Sasso del Ferro (p. 164). The lake here 
attains its greatest breadth. Splendid view of the broad bay of 
Stresa; in the centre lie the Borromean Islands: in the distance 
rise the snow-peaks of Monte Rosa and the Simplon. 

Laveno is the station for Intra , Pallanza, Slreta , and the Borromean 
Islands (steamer and small boats, p. 161 ; from the station to the quay, 
1 /i hr. ; omn. in 6 min.). — Railway to Varese and to Milan, see pp. 160-158. 

The line quits the lake. Tunnel of Mombello (3/ 4 M.). 361/2 M. 
Leggiuno- Monvalle ; 4O72M. Ispra, on a promontory (opposite Bel- 
girate and Lesa, p. 170); 43'/2 M. Taino-Angera. 

47 M. Sesto-Calende, at the efflux of the Ticino from the lake, 
junction for Arona and for Milan (p. 160). A handsome iron bridge, 
with three openings (central 310 ft., the others 260 ft.), and two 
roadways (the upper for the railway, the lower for the Simplon 
road), here spans the Ticino. The railway to Arona (p. 160) di- 
verges to the right on the other side of the river. 

We follow the right hank of the Ticino. 48 M. Castelletto- 
Ticino ; 51 M. Porto-Varalpombia ; then a long tunnel. 52 M. Pom- 
bia. From (56 V 2 M.) Oleggio a branch-line runs to (1272 M.) Arona 
(p. 160), passing Varalpombia &n&Borgo-Ticino. A glimpse of Mte. 
Rosa is obtained to the right. Flat country. — 59 M. Bellinzago. 

67 M. Novara (p. 61), junction for Milan and Turin (R. 14). 

72i/ 2 M. Oarbagna; 74i/ 2 M. Vespolate; 77 M. Borgo-Lavezzaro. 
We traverse rice-fields, interspersed with arable land and mulberry- 
trees.— 82 M. Mortara, a town with 5100 inhabitants. The church 
of S. Lorenzo contains pictures by Crespi, Lanino, Procaccini, and 
Gaud. Ferrari (Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian). 

„, , A ' t Mortara the direct line to Milan diverges. Feom Milan to Moktaka, 
321/2 M ln ii/ 4 13/, hr . f farcs 5 fr- 90i 4 fr 15) 2 fr _ C5 c ess 6 fr 50 

™ ^o?-^ e S ^ rt from lhe Central Station, and pass Porta Ticinese 
(PI B, 8), Corsico, lrezzano sitl Kaviglio, Gnggiano, and Abbiategrasso (with 
a church by Bramante). "tt e cross the Ticino to Vigevano (Alb. Reale), 
a town of some importance in the silk-trade, with 13,700 inhab. and a 
spacious market-place surrounded by arcades. Tramways from Vigevano to 
Novara (p. 6t) and to Oltobmno (p. 59). - Then (32y 2 M.) Mortara, see above. 
Mortara is also the junction for the VEROELr.i-P A viA line- in/, M in 
3-4 hrs (fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). Stations unimportant 'rercelU, 
see p. 60; Pama, see p. Ji3. ' 

Tramway from Mortara by Ottobiuno (p. 58) to Pieve del Cairo. 

85 M. Olevano; 89 l / 2 M. Valle; 92 7 2 M. Sartirana; %1L M. 
Torre- Berretti (railway to Pavia, see p. 175). 

To the left the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line 

CHIVASSO. 14. Route. 59 

in the distance. The train crosses the Po. — 100 M. Valenza, once 
a fortified town, has a cathedral of the 16th cent, (thence to Pavia, 
see p. 175; to Vercelli, see p. 61). — Tunnel iy 3 M. in length. 
104 M. Valmadonna; several prettily situated little towns lie on 
the chain of hills to the right. The is then crossed. 
108 M. Alessandria; thence to Genoa, see p. 54. 

13. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria. 

117 M. Railway in 4-8 hrs. (fares 21 fr. 25, 14 fr. 90, 9 fr. 60 c. ; 
express 23 fr. 45, 16 fr. 40 c). 

From Turin to Alessandria, 57 M., see R. 11. Beyond Alessandria 
we traverse the hattlefield of Marengo (p. 54). 62 M. Spinetta, to 
the S.E. of Marengo, is also connected with Alessandria by a steam- 
tramway. 65 M. S. Giuliano. The train crosses the Scrivia. 

At (70 M.) Tortona our line unites with that from Milan to 
Genoa via. Voghera (seep. 175), which we follow to (81 M.) Voghera. 

861/9 M. Casteggio, the Clastidium of the wars between the Romans 
and Gauls; 89'/ 2 M. S. Giuletta; 931/2 M. Broni; 96 M. Stradella 
(6300 inhab.), all at the base of the N. spurs of the Apennines. 
(From Stradella to Bressana-Bottarone and Pavia, see p. 175 ; steam- 
tramway to Voghera, see p. 175.) — At (98 M.) Arena-Po we enter 
the plain of the Po. 103 M. Castel S. Giovanni; 10572 M. Sar- 
mato; 108 M. Rottofreno. 110 M. S. Niccolb, in the plain of the 
Trebbia (ancient Trevia~), memorable for the victory gained by Han- 
nibal, B.C. 218, over the Romans. 

117 M. Piacenza, see p. 300. 

14. From Turin to Milan via Novara. 

93 M. Railway in 3-5 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c; ex- 
press 18 fr. C5, 13 fr. 10 c). Glimpses of the Alps to the left. — Stations at 
Turin, see p. 25. 

The Dora Riparia is crossed , then the Stura between (5 M.) 
Succursale di Torino and (lO 1 ^ M.) Settimo Torinese, whence a rail- 
way runs N. to Rivarolo, with branches thence to Cuorgnl (p. 48) and 
Castellamonte. We cross the Oreo and the Malon. 15 M. Brandizzo. 
— 18 M. Chivasso (600 ft.; Alb. del Moro), a town with 4300 inhab., 
near the influx of the Oreo into the Po. Branch-lines hence to Aosta 
(p. 41) and (30!/2 M.) Casale-Monferrato (p. 61). Tramway to Turin. 
A road leads from Chivasso to the S. to (2 M.) S. Genesio, with 
sulphur-baths (Gr. Hot. S. Genesio; pens, from 8 fr., open 1st May 
to 1st Dec). — 20 M. Cnstelrosso; 22^2 M. Torrazza di Verolan. Near 
(25 M.) Saluggia the train crosses the Dora Baltea (p. 43). 29t/o M. 
Livorno-Vercellese ; 32 M. Bianze; 35^2 M. Tronzano. 

37 M. Santhih (Alb. del Pallone, mediocre), with 3500 inhab- 
itants. The church, restored in 1862, contains an altarpiecc by 
Gaud. Ferrari. — Tramway to Ivrea (p. 39). 

60 Route 14. VERCKLIJ. l'rom Turin 

From Santhia to Biella, 18'/s M., railway in 3 /i-i hr. (lares 4 fr. 10, 
3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 5 c). — Biella {Testa Grigia; Angelo; Leon <TOvo; Alb. Cen- 
trales Bve Rosso, all in the new town; Grand Hotel, with hydropathic 
establishment, in the old town; photographs of mountain-scenery at Vit- 
torio Bella's) contains 11,700 inhah. and is divided into Biella Piazzo (1558 ft.), 
the high-lying old town, and Biella Piano (1410 ft.), the new town. The 
industrial new town possesses arcaded streets and a fine Cathedral of the 
beginning of the 15th cent., with a facade of 1825. The latter stands in 
a spacious Piazza, where the episcopal palace and a seminary are also 
situated. Near the cathedral is an early-Christian Baptistery. The church 
of S. Sebasliano is a fine Renaissance structure of 1504. The Giardino Pub- 
blico contains monuments of Gen. Alfonso Lamarmora (p. 32) and Garibaldi, 
while the Piazza del Teatro is adorned with a statue of Quintino Sella, the 
statesman, by Ant. Bortone (1888). The palaces of the old town, rising pic- 
turesquely on the hill and reached by a Cable Tramway, are now tenanted 
by the lower classes. — About 3 M. to the N.E. of Biella, at the village of 
Bioglio (2235 ft.), lies the Villa Sella, with a beautiful garden and a splendid 
view of the Alps (visitors admitted). 

From Biella Steam Tramways run^ to (13 M.) Valle Mosso via (7 M.) 
Cossato, and to (5'/2 M.) Mongrando via (2 M.) Occhieppo (see below). A 
third line ascends to the H. through the valley of the Cervo to (5 M.) An- 
dorno (1805 ft.; "Grand H6UI, pens. 12-15 fr. ; Croce Rossa; Engl. Ch. service 
at the Grand Hotel), a charmingly situated village, with two water-cure 
establishments, which has recently become popular as a summer-resort with 
English and other visitors. Numerous pleasant excursions may be made 
in the neighbourhood. — Beyond Andorno the tramway goes on to (6 M.) 
Sagliano, with a monument to Pietro Micca (p. 34), and (9 II.) Balma, 
whence omnibuses (25 c.) run to C'ampiglia (2460 ft. ; Albergo). From 
Campiglia a road ascends to the Ospizio di S. Giovanni (3345 ft.), situated 
on the height to the left. Another leads via Rosazza (Alb. della Gragliasca) 
to Piedicavallo (Alb. Mologna, well spoken of), whence Mle. Bo (8385 ft.; 
"View) may he ascended in bl/z hrs. (guide 5fr.). 

A pleasant excursion may also be made via (l'/4 M.) Cossilla (1970 ft.), 
with its water-cure, and Favaro (2460 ft.) to Oropa, 6 M. to the N.W. of 
Biella (omn. five times daily, 2 J /2 fr., down I1/2 fr. ; carr. with one horse 
6, with two 12 fr.). Here stand a large Stabilimento Idroterapico (3480 ft.), 
founded in 1850 (open June-Sept.; R. l'/2-3, A. 1, pens. 6, water-treatment 
2 fr. daily, Engl. Ch. service in June and July), and the famous pilgrimage- 
church of Madonna d'Oropa (3870 ft.). 

About 7V2M. to the W. of Biella (road via Occhieppo, see above; omn. 
from the Leon d'Oro 2V2 fr. ; carr. with one horse 6, with two 12 fr.) lie 
the pilgrimage-church and hydropathic establishment of Graglia (2625 ft.), 
situated 2 M. above the village of that name, in the midst of a splendid 
array of mountains. Comp. Pertusi-Ratti, 'Guida pel Villeggiante nel 
Biellese' (Casanova, Turin). 

The train skirts the high-road. 40i/ 2 M. 8. Oermano-Vercellese. 

491/2 M. Vercelli (Tre Re; Leon d'Oro), an episcopal town with 
20,200 inhabitants. From the station we see the imposing church 
of S. Andrea, founded in 1219, with a dome and W. towers like 
those of northern churches. Interior early-Gothic. Adjacent is a 
Museo Lapidario, with Roman inscriptions and sculptures. The 
church of S. Cristoforo contains frescoes by G. Ferrari (1532-38) 
and B. Lanini ; by the high-altar, *Madonna and donors in an 
orchard, by fraud. Ferrari. S. Cater Inn, ,9. Paolo, and the Istituto di 
Belle Arli also contain works by Ferrari. In the cathedral-library are 
some rare old MSN. The town possesses statues of Cavour ("1864) 
Victor Emmanuel II., and Garibaldi. — To the S. of Vercelli lie the 
Cam-pi Itaudii, where Marius defeated the Cimbri in B C 101 

to Milan. NOVARA. U. Route. 61 

Steam-tramways ply from Vercelli to Trino on the S.W. , to Casale- 
ifonferrato (see below) on the S., and to the N. to Aranco in the valley 
of the Sesia and to Biandrate and Fara. 

From Vercelli to Alessandria, 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 35, 
4 fr. 45, 2 fr. 85 c). The chief intermediate station is (U'/a M.) Casale-Mon- 
ferrato (Angelo; Leon d'Oro), on the right hank of the Po, with 17,000 in- 
hab., the ancient capital of the Duchy of Monferrato, which afterwards 
belonged to the Gonzagas. The interesting Eomanesque Cathedral, a vaulted 
basilica with double aisles and a fine atrium, was founded in 741 by the 
Lombard king Liutprand, and rebuilt in 1107. It contains several good 
paintings (by G. Ferrari and others), and sculptures by Lombard masters. 
The church of S. Doirlenico, in the Renaissance style, the Palazzo di Citta, 
with handsome colonnade, and other palaces are also noteworthy. The 
Ghibelline prince William of Montferrat is mentioned by Dante in his 
Purgatory (VII. 134). Casale-Monferrato is the junction of the Asti-Mortara 
line (p. 53) and of that to Chivasso (p. 59). It is also connected with Ales- 
sandria, with Vercelli (p. 60), and with Montemagno (p. 54 ; via Altavilla) 
by tramways. — Various small stations, including Valenza (p. 59). — 35 31. 
Alessandria, see p. 54. 

From Vercelli to Pavia, see p. 59. 

The train crosses the Sesia (p. 172); to the left rise th<; Alps, 
among which the magnificent Monte Rosa group is conspicuous. 
52^2 M. Borgo-Vercelli; 56!/2 M. Ponzana. 

62 M. Novara (*Rail. Restaurant; Alb. d' Italia, well spoken 
of; Tre Re; Roma; Hotel de la Ville), an episcopal town and for- 
merly a fortress, with 15,000 inhab., was the scene of a victory 
gained by the Austrians under Radetzky over the Piedmontese 
in 1849, which led to the abdication of Charles Albert. 

From the station we cross the Piazza Carlo Alberto, with a 
Monument of Garibaldi, to the Via Vitt. Emanuele, passing a Mon- 
ument of Cavour, by Dini, and turn to the right to the church of 
S. Gaudenzio, erected about 1570, with a facade by Tibaldi and a 
dome 396 ft. high, added by Antonelli (p. 35) in 1875-78. The church, 
without aisles, in imitation of S. Fedele at Milan, contains several 
good pictures by Gaud. Ferrari. The tower (300 steps) commands a 
wide view. 

The Cathedral, a Renaissance building upon old Roman found- 
ations, connected with the Baptistery by an entrance-court, pre- 
sents a picturesque appearance. It contains a Marriage of St. Ca- 
tharine, by Gaud. Ferrari. — In front of the theatre is a marble 
statue of Charles Emmanuel III., by Marchesi. — The Mercato, or 
Corn Exchange , near the Porta Torino, is a handsome building 
with colonnades. Between the Mercato and the Castello is a mon- 
ument to Victor Emmanuel II. — In the Corso Garibaldi, near the 
Palazzo Civico, is a monument to Charles Albert. 

Tramway to Vigevano (p. 58) and to Biandrate (p. 61). 

From Novara to Varallo, 34 M., railway in 2'/4 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 25, 
4 fr. 40, 2 fr. 80 c). Unimportant stations. — ' Varallo, see p. 172. 

From Novara to Seregno, 34 M., railway in l'/2-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 50, 
3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 20 c). Unimportant stations. — 17 M. Busio-Arsizio (p. 159). 
— 2572 M. Saronno (p. 140). — 34 M. Seregno (p. 142). 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by those from Domo- 
dossola (p. 4) and from Bellinzona to Genoa (R. 12). Carriages often 
changed at Novara. 

62 Route 14. 


69 M. Trecate. Near S. Martino the line crosses the Ticino hy 
a handsome stone bridge of eleven arches , which the Austrians 
partially destroyed before the battle of Magenta. 

Farther on -,ve cross the Naviglio Grande , a canal connecting 
Milan with the Ticino and Lago Maggiore (comp. p. 118). On the 


^orta di Geno va 

right, near (77 M.) Magenta, stands a monument erected to Napo- 
leon III. in 1862 , to commemorate the victory of the French and 
Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June, 1859, which compelled 
the latter to evacuate Lombardy. Opposite the station are numerous 
graves of those who fell in the struggle, with a small chapel on an 
eminence, and adjoining it a charnel-house. Tramway to Milan, 
see p. 117. — The line intersects numerous rice-fields, which are 
kept under water two months in the year. 79 M. Vittuone ; 84^2 M. 
Rhb (p. 159), where the line unites with that from Arona. 
93 M. Milan (see p. 115). 

III. Liguria. 

15. Genoa 64 

From the principal station (Piazza Acquaverde) by the 
harbour to the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo and the Piazza 
Nuova, 68. — S. Maria in C'arignano, 72. — From the 
Piazza Deferrari via the Piazza Corvetto, Piazza Fontane 
Morose, Via Garibaldi, Via Cairoli, and Via Balbi to the 
Piazza Acquaverde, and thence to the lighthouse to Ihe 
W. of the harbour, 72. — Via di CirconvallazioneaMonte; 
Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, 79. — Campo Santo, 79. — 
Excursions, 79. 

16. From Genoa to Ventimiglia 80 

17. The French Coast from Ventimiglia to Cannes. Nice 

and Environs 88 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 104 

The Maritime and Ligurian Alps and the contiguous Apennines (the bound- 
ary between which is some 20 M. to the W. of Genoa) slope gently north- 
wards to the Po in the form of an extensive rolling country, and descend 
abruptly towards the sea to the S. The narrow Riviera, or coast-district, 
expands at a few points only into small plains. The cultivated land climbs 
up the hillsides in terraces, sheltered from the N. wind, and enjoying a 
line sunny aspect. While the mean temperature at Turin is 53'/3° Fahr., 
it is no less than 61° at Genoa; and again, while the temperature of Jan- 
uary averages 31° at the former, and occasionally falls below zero, it 
averages 46° at the latter, and is rarely lower than 23". The climate 
of the Riviera is therefore milder than that of Rome, and is even favour- 
able to the growth of the palm. Genoa itself, however, cannot be recom- 
mended to health-seekers, as it is very windy and exposed to abrupt 
changes of temperature. 

As the country differs in many respects from Piedmont, so also do its 
Inhabitants, while their Genoese dialect, which is difficult for foreigners 
to understand, occupies a middle place between the Gallic patois of Upper 
Italy and that of Sardinia. The historical development of the two countries 
has also been widely different. The natural resource of the Ligurians, or 
the inhabitants of the Riviera, was the sea, and they were accordingly known 
to the Greeks at a very early period as pirates and freebooters. To what 
race the Ligurians belong has not yet been ascertained. As the Greek 
Massalia formed the centre of trade in S. France, with Nice as its extreme 
outpost towards the E., so Genoa constituted the natural outlet for the 
traffic of the Riviera. During the 3rd cent. B.C. Genoa became subject 
to the Romans, who in subsequent centuries had to wage long and obstinate 
wars with the Ligurians, in order to secure the possession of the military 
coast-road to Spain. As late as the reign of Augustus the Roman culture 
had made little progress here. At that period the inhabitants exported 
timber, cattle, hides, wool, and honey, receiving wine and oil in exchange. 
In the 7th cent, the Lombards gained a footing here, and thenceforth the 
political state of the country was gradually altered. The W. part with 
Nice belonged to Provence, but in 1388 came into the possession of the 
Counts of Savoy, forming their only access to the sea down to the period 
when they acquired Genoa (1815). After the Austrian war of 1869 Nice 
(1512 sq. M.) and Savoy (3889 sq. M.) were ceded by Italy to France in 
1860 as a compensation for the services rendered by Napoleon III. The 
district of Liguria, consisting of the provinces of Porto Maurizio and 
Genoa, with an area of 2040 sq. M. and 899,300 inhab., once formed the 
Republic or Genoa, which in the 13th cent, became mistress of the W. 

64 Route 15. GENOA. Hotels.* 

part of the Mediterranean , and afterwards fought against Venice for the 
supremacy of the Levant. Genoa's greatness was founded on the rum of 
Pisa. The Tuscan hatred of the Genoese was emhodied in the saying — 
'Mare senza pesce, montagne senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza 
vergogna', and Dante (Inf. xxxiii. 151-53) addresses them with the words — 
'Alii, Genovesi, uomini diversi 
D'ogni costume, e pien d'ogni magagna; 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi?' 
Modern historians describe the character of the Genoese in the middle 
ages in a similar strain. The whole energy of the Genoese seems indeed 
to have been concentrated on commerce and the pursuit of gain. Notwith- 
standing their proud naval supremacy, they participated little in the 
intellectual development of Italy, and neither possessed a school of art, 
nor produced any scholars of eminence. When at length the effete re- 
public was incorporated with Piedmont, it became the representative of 
radical principles as contrasted with the conservatism of the royalist terri- 
tory. Giuseppe Mazzini , the chief leader of the national revolutionary 
party, was born at Genoa in 1808, and Garibaldi, though born at Nice 
(1807), was the son of a Genoese of Chiavari. The rivalry of the once 
far-famed republic with the upstart Turin , and of the restless harbour 
population with the stolid Piedmontese, have of recent years been pro- 
ductive of very notable results. Modern Genoa has, moreover, regained its 
ancient mercantile importance , though its naval arsenal has been trans- 
ferred to Spezia. 

15. Genoa. 

Arrival. The Stazione Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2; Restaurant, dej. 2, D. 
3 fr.), the West or Principal Station (for all trains), is in the Piazza 
Acquaverde (goods-station in the Piazza del Principe). — The East Station, 
or Stazione Piazza Brignole (PI. H, 6), at the end of the Via Serra, and 
connected with the chief station by means of a tunnel below the higher 
parts of the town, is the first place where the Spezia and Pisa trains stop. 
— Railway - tickets of all kinds may also be obtained of the Fratelli 
Gondrand, Via Roma 45. — Travellers arriving at Genoa by sea (embark- 
ing or disembarking, 1 fr. each , with luggage), and wishing to go on by 
rail without delay, may, immediately after the custom-house examination 
on the quay, book their luggage there for their destination (fee to the fac- 
chino of the dogana, 20 c). — Steamers to Leghorn, see p. 358; to Nice, 
Cannes, Naples, Marseilles, Tunis, etc., see p. 66. 

Hotels (comp. p. xviii ; most of the larger hotels are in noisy situations ; 
in the season, rooms should be ordered in advance). Grand Hotel do Paec 
(PI. b; G, 5), Via Ugo Foscolo, to the E. of Acquasola (p. 73) and not far 
from the E. Station, quiet, with pleasant garden (no lift); Grand Hotel 
Isotta (PI. a; F, 5), Via Roma 7; Grand Hotel de Genes (PI. f; E, 5), by 
the Teatro Carlo Felice. These three, in spite of the high charges (R. 3 l /2-5, 
L. 1, A. 1, B. l'/s, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 12-14, omn. I-I1/2 fr.) are not ab- 
solutely iirst-class in all points. — "Hotel de la Ville (PI. d ; D, 4), in 
thecal. Fieschi, R. 31/2-5, L. »/«, A. 1, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14, omn. 1 fr. ; 
'Hot. de Londres (PL h; C, 2), with lift, near the principal station, R., 
L., & A. 4-8, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr. ; Hotel des Etrangers 
(Rebecchino; PL 1, E 4), Via Cairoli 1, with lift, R. 3-5, L. 3/ 4 A. 3/,, B. 1, 
dej. 3, D.4V2, pens 9-14 fr., recently complained of. — Hotel Central, 
Via &. Sebastiano 8 (PL E, 5), R„ L., & A. 3-31/2, B. iy 4 , dej. with wine 
21/2. D. with wine 4, pens, from 81/2, omn. 3/4-I1/4 fr., well spoken of; Hotel 
be France (PL g; D, 5), B L., &. A. 2V2-31/2, B. 1'/,, dej. 3, D. incl. wine 4-/2, 
pens, from 8 fr. ; Hot. MiStropole, Piazza Fontane Morose R L & A 3 
1^11/4, dej. 3D incl. wine 4, pens. 8 fr., well spoken of; Hotel Smith 
(PL n, D5; English landlord), near the Exchange, Vico Denpffri R T, 

\ V ,/8 - 3V %? ' ■ 17 V. $ P\ D J n J L wine 3>, Pens. 8-9 fr 'Tell spoken 
of; JIilano (PL 1; C,2), ViaBalbi34, near the Palazzo Reale R T Si A 
3-5, B. l'A, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Concordia (PL n; F, 5), Via 


Geogr _Anst;van_ Warner &T)ebes Xeipzi^ . 

Theatre/:. GENOA. 15. Route. 65 

S. Giuseppe, opposite the Galleria Mazzini, R. from 2fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, 
E. V/i, dej. with wine 3, D. with wine 4'/2, omn. i fr. ; Italia, Via Carlo 
Felice U; R., L., & A. 3, pens. 91/2 fr. ; Aquila (PI. k; C, 2), Piazza Ac- 
quaverde, near the station, B., L., & A. from 2 fr., well spoken of; Liguria, 
Confidenza (PI. m ; F, 5), unpretending; Pens. Lovenskiold, Via del Pino 5, 
in the suburb of Foce, 6'/2-8 fr. — The 'Indicatore degli Alloggi', published 
on the 1st and 15th of each month, gives information as to lodgings, which 
may also he enquired for -at tobacconists' and newspaper offices. 

Cafes. ^Concordia, Via Garibaldi, opposite the Pal. Rosso (PI. E, 4; 
p. 75), with a garden, pleasant and cool; Alcazar, Piazza Cavour; "Italia, 
with a brilliantly lighted garden, open in summer only, at Acquasola 
(p. 73) ; music frequently in the evening at these three. 'Roma, Via Roma 
and Galleria Mazzini; Milano, Gall. Mazzini; "Teatro, on the groundfloor 
of the Teatro Carlo Felice, on the right ; Posta, Via Carlo Felice. 

Restaurants. 'Concordia, (see above), de'j. 3, D. 4fr., both; 
San Oottardo (formerly Labb), Via Carlo Felice 6, well spoken of; Teatro, 
see above, on the left; Labb, ViaSellai; Jensch, Piazza Corvetto (PI. G, 5); 
Costa, Via Carlo Felice 7, D. incl. wine- 3 fr. ; Cinotlo, Via Portoria 3, 
Raffaele (formerly Bona), Via S. Luca, well spoken of, both unpretending. 
— Beer: "Birreria Jensch, see above; "Gambrimts, Monsch, both in the Via S. 
Sebastiano; Klainguti, by the Teatro Carlo Felice; Munich beer at all these. 

Cabs (a tariff in each) in the Town, which includes the area shown 
in the plan, and the neighbourhood of the harbour (lighthouse) to the W. : 

One-horse cab 

Two-horse cab 

By day At night By day At night 

Per drive 1 — 1.50 1.50 2 — 

Per hour 2 - 2.50 2.50 3 — 

Each addit. 1/2 hr. . 1— 1.25 1.25 1.50 

Small articles of luggage free ; trunk 20 c. — Night-fares are reckoned from 
the time when the street-lamps are lighted. 

Electric Tramway from the Piazza Corvetto (PI. G, 5) to the Piazza 
Manin (PI. I, 4), 15 c. — Cable Tramway (Funicolare) from the square at 
the Portello (PI. F, 4) to the Corso Magenta (p. 79), 10 c. — Tramway Cars 
(comp. Plan) run from the Piazza Caricamento (PI. D, 5) by the Via 
Carlo Alberto to Sampierdarena (25 c. ; unpleasant drive), and thence in 
the one direction to Comigliano (30 c), Seslri Ponente (45 c), Multedo, 
Pegli (55 c), and Voltri, and in the other to Rivarolo (40 c), Bolzaneto 
(55 c), and Pontedecimo (80 c). — Omnibus from the Piazza Defeerari 
(PI. E, 6) to the two stations (10 c; to the principal station, 'Piazza 
Principe', via the Via Garibaldi and Via Balbi; some of the omnibuses 
go on to the Piazza Dinegro, p. 78); via, Piazza Corvetto to Caslellelto (PI. 
E, 3) on the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte ; via, Acquasola to S. Maria 
in Carignano (10 c.); to the Cimilero di Staglieno (25 c.) ; to S. Francesco 
d'Albaro ; to Sturla. Also from the Piazza Annunziata (PI. D, 3) to Bol- 
zaneto and from the Porta d'Aechi (PI. F, 6) to Quinto and Nervi everv 
20 min. (20, 30, 40 c. ; see pp. 79, 105), etc. 

Small Boats. For l-4pers. 2fr. per hour; best to enquire beforehand. 
— Steam launches, starting near the Banca S. Giorgio (PI. D, 5), to Sam- 
pierdarena and Sestri (p. 107); also for a visit to the' harbour (p. 69). 

Baths. At the "Palazzo Spinola, Salita S. Caterina, adjoining Bossola's 
music shop; others at Via delle Grazie 11, and Piazza Sarzano 51. — Sea 
Baths by the Molo Vecchio (PI. A, B, 5) ; by the Via di Circonvallazione 
a Mare (p. 79); also by the lighthouse (Lanterna; p. 78), but in July and 
August only, poorly fitted up. Swimmers had better bathe from a boat. 
Sea-bathing places on the Riviera, sec pp. ?0, 105. 

Theatres. Carlo Felice (PI. E, F, 5) , one of the largest in Italy, 
open in winter only; Politeama Genovese (PI. F, G, 4), near Villetta di 
Negro, open the whole year; Paganini (PI. F, 3), Politeama Mabgherita, 
Alfiebi, these three in summer only ; etc. — Band in the Acquasola Park 
(p. 73) three times a week in summer, 7-9 p.m., and Sun. (except during 
great heat), 3-5; in winter three times a week, 2-4. 

Shops. Booksellers: A. Donath, Via Luccoli 44, with circulating 

Baedeker. Italy_I. 10th Edit. 5 

66 Route 15. GENOA. Collecliom. 

library; L. Beuf, Via Cairoli 2; Libr. Sordo-Muti, Piazza Fontane Mo- 
rose. — Photographs: Alfred Noack, Vico del Filo 1, upstairs; Degoix, 
Via Cairoli 7; Lupi, Via Orefici 148. — Perfcmers: Stef. Frecceri, Via 
Cairoli 7; Vitale, Via S. Luca 84 and Via Carlo Felice 15. — Filigree 
Work : Forte, Via Orefici 155, and others in the same street ; Sivelli, Via 
Roma. — Alabaster and Marble : P. Capelli, Gall. Mazzini 5 ; CI. Pocchini, 
Via Cairoli 1. — Goods-Agents : K. Ruepprecht, at the back of S. Luca 
(also dealer in works of art) ; Weiss, Via Balbi. 

Post Office, Galleria Mazzini (PI. F, 5), open 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Tele- 
graph Office, Palazzo Ducale, Via Sellai (PI. E, 6). 

Bankers, Granet, Brown, A Co., Via Garibaldi 7; Sandoz, ViaLuccoli; 
Bingen, Piazza Campetto; Rud. Hofer, Piazza Campetto 8 (2nd floor) ; Banco 
Nazionale, Via S. Lorenzo 12; C. Pjister, Via S. Luca 2. 

Steamboats. The most important for tourists are those of the Navi- 
gazione Generale Italiana (Florio-Rubattino ; office Piazza Acquaverde), 
to all the chief ports of Italy and to the Levant. Comp. the Italian time- 
table (larger edition). — The French Compagnie de Navigation^ a Vapeur 
Fraissinel <ft Co. has two weekly steamers to Marseilles, one via Nice and 
Cannes, the other direct. — The North German Lloyd (agents, Leupold Fra- 
telli, Piazza S. Siro 10) maintains regular lines of steamers between Genoa 
and New York, Southampton (7 days), and Naples and Palermo, while the 
China and Australian steamers of this company touch at Genoa on the 
outward and home voyages. 

Consulates. British, ft A. Payton, Esq., Via Palestro 10; American, 
Hon. James Fletcher, Via Assarotti 36. 

Physicians: Dr. Breiting (speaks English), Via Mameli 33 A; Dr. Qiov. 
Ferrari, Via Assarotti 12; Dr. Zaslein, Via Mameli 31. — Protestant Hospital 
supported by the foreigners in Genoa (physician, Dr. Breiting). — Dentists: 
Mr. ft fl. Bright and Mr. S. ft Bright, Via SS. Giacomo e Filippo 35; 
Mr. ft T. Terry, Piazza Cavour 5; Dr. Mela, Via Roma 11. — Chemists: 
Farmacia Zerega (English prescriptions), Via Carlo Felice; Farmacia Anglo- 
Americana (Schnabel & Cobella), Via Cairoli 38; Moretta, Via Roma 10. 

English Churches. Church of the Holy Ghost (built by Street, in the 
Lombard style), Via Goito; services at 8.15, 11, and 5; chap., Rev. J. T. 
Christie, M. A. Church Seamen's Institute, Via Milano 26 (Mr. Christie); 
serv. Sun. and Thurs. 7.30 p.m. ; weekly concert on Sat. ; reading , writing, 
and recreation rooms open daily for seamen, 10-10. — Presbyterian Church, 
Via Peschiera 4 (Rev. Donald Miller, M. A.); service Genoa Har- 
bour Mission, in connection with the Brit. & For. Sailors' Society and the 
Amer. Seaman's Friend Society; serv. Sun. and Tues. at 7.30p.m. in the 
Sailors' Rest, 15 Via Milano (ftev. D. Miller and Capt. Clucas). Social 
entertainments Frid. at 7.30 p.m. (reading and recreation rooms, with elsc- 
fric light; visitors welcome). 

Collections and Galleries. 
Cathedral Treasury (p. 71), Mon. & Thurs. 1-4; i/ 2 fr. 
Palazzo Balbi-Senarega (p. 77), daily 9-4 (when the family is at home, 12-4). 
Palazzo Bianco (p. 75), daily, 11-4 from Oct. to March (April to Sept. 10-4), 

1/2 fr. ; Sun. and holidays free. 
Palazzo Durazzo- Pallavacini (p. 76), daily, 11-4. 
Palazzo Rosso (p. 75), daily, except holidays, 10-3; free on Mon., Thurs., 

and Sat., on other days fee. 

Principal Attractions. Walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the 
Cathedral (p. 70) to the Piazza Nuova with 8. Ambrogio (p 71) ■ ascend 
m,. 5- J ^ ar,a t n 1 ari y nan ° (P- 72) and return to the Piazza Fontane' Morose. 
Then through the Via Garibaldi (p. 74), and visit the Palazzi Rosso (p. 75) 
and Bianco (p. 75); the Monument of Columbus (p. 68), and the Palazzo 
Dona (p. 78); row in the harbour; in the early forenoon or towards even- 
ing visit the (p. 78) or the Yilhlta di 3; vr0 (p. 7 3) . drives round 
the : Via di Circonvallazwne a .Monte (p. 79) and the Via di Circonrallazione 
a Mare (p. 79), on the Nervi Road, or to the Campo Santo (d 711 • pvcnriinn 
to Pegli, including the Villa Pallavicini (p. 81; dosed on FHd'l — For 
climate of Genoa, see p. 63. ' h 

History. GENOA. 15. Route. 67 

Genoa, Italian Genuva, French Oenes, with 212,500 inhab. (in- 
cluding the suburbs), the seat of a university and of an archbishop, 
is the chief commercial town in Italy. Its situation, rising above 
the sea in a wide semicircle, and its numerous palaces, justly entitle 
it to the epithet of 'La Superba'. The principal streets are lighted 
with electricity. The town is divided into the 'sestieri' of Pre, Molo, 
Portoria, 8. Vincenzo, S. Teodoro, and Maddalena, and is surround- 
ed by extensive fortifications , dating from the beginning of the 
17th cent. , and recently strengthened. From the large lighthouse on 
the "W. side, where the barracks of S. Benigno afford quarters for 
10,000 men, a broad rampart runs up the hill at some distance from 
the town, past the Forte Begato (1620 ft.), to the Forte delio Sperone 
(1690 ft.), the highest point ; then descends past Forte Castellaccio 
(1250 ft.) to the mouth of the Bisagno, which falls into the sea to 
the E. of Genoa, a circuit of about 9^2 M. in all. The heights 
around the town are crowned with ten detached forts. 

The Harbour consists of a semicircular bay, about 4 M. in 
length, protected from the open sea by long and substantial piers. 
The Duke of Galliera (d. 1876) having presented 20 million francs 
for its improvement, it now includes an outer basin (Avamporto), a 
new harbour (Nuovo Porto) , and the old inner basin (Porto), 
provided with quays. Comp. the plan of the town and the map at 
p. 80. The harbour is annually entered and quitted by about 15,000 
vessels of which 6000 are steamers. The annual imports (coal, 
sugar, chemicals, iron, etc.) are valued at 364 million francs 
(14,600,000*.), the exports at 78 millions (3,120,000Z.). 

From the earliest times Genoa has been famous as a seaport, and it 
is believed to derive its name from the fact that the shape of the coast 
here resembles that of a knee (genu). The Roman form of its municipal 
government was maintained throughout the period of the barbarian in- 
vasions, when a new feudal nobility sprang up alongside of the native 
noblesse. The smaller towns on the Ligurian coast looked up to Genoa 
as their champion against the Saracens, who ravaged the country from 
Frassineto, and in 936 even plundered Genoa itself. In 1015 the Genoese 
made themselves masters of Corsica, and in 1119 they waged a victorious 
war against Pisa, then mistress of the Tyrrhenian Sea. From that date 
the rival cities were almost permanently at war down to 1284, when a 
terrible naval battle took place between them at Meloria, on which oc- 
casion the Genoese captured 29 Pisan galleys, and sank 7 others. From 
this disaster Pisa never recovered , and Genoa now obtained the supre- 
macy over the W. islands, Corsica, and nominally over Sardinia also. 
At a still earlier period Genoa had participated in the Crusades , and se- 
cured to herself a busy trade with the Levant. She also possessed settle- 
ments at Constantinople and in the Crimea, in Syria and Cyprus, at 
Tunis and Majorca. The rivalry of the Genoese and Venetians was a fruit- 
ful source of wars and feuds during the 12-14th centuries, which at length 
were terminated by a decisive victory gained by the latter in 1380. 

The internal history of the city was no less chequered than the ex- 
ternal. The party conflicts between the great families of the Doria and 
Spinola (Ghibellines) on one side, and the Grirnaldi and Fieschi (Guelphs) 
on the other , led to some extraordinary results. The defeated party 
used, at the expense of their own independence , to invoke the aid of 
some foreign prince , and accordingly we find that after the 14th cent, 
the kings of Naples and France , the counts of Monferrat , and the dukes 


68 Route 15. GENOA. Statue of Columbus. 

of Milan, were alternately masters of Genoa. Nor was this state of 
matters materially altered by the revolution of 1339, by which the ex- 
clusive sway of the nobility was overthrown, and a Doge invested with 
the supreme power. In the midst of all this confusion the only stable 
element was the mercantile Banco di S. Giorgio, which had acquired ex- 
tensive possessions, chiefly in Corsica, and would have eventually ab- 
sorbed the whole of the republic and converted it into a commercial 
aristocracy, had not Genoa lost its power of independent development by 
becoming involved in the wars of the great powers. Andrea Doria (p. 78), 
the admiral of Emperor Charles V., at length restored peace by the estab- 
lishment of a new oligarchic constitution (1528), and the unsuccessful con- 
spiracy of Fiesco in 1547 was one of the last instances of an attempt to 
make the supreme power dependent on unbridled personal ambition. But 
the power of Genoa was already on the wane. The Turks conquered 
its Oriental possessions one after another, and the city was subjected to 
severe humiliations by its powerful Italian rivals, as well as by the 
French, who took Genoa in 1684, and by the Imperial troops by whom 
Genoa was occupied for a few days in 1746. These last were expelled 
by a popular rising, begun by a stone thrown by Balilla, a lad of 15 years. 
In 1736 the ambition of Theodore de Neuhof, a Westphalian nobleman, 
occasioned great disquietude to the republic. He was created king by 
the Corsicans, who were subjects of Genoa, but the usurper was expelled 
with the aid of the French, who afterwards (1768) took possession of the 
island on their own behalf. After the battle of Marengo (1800) Genoa 
was taken by the French. In 1805 it was formally annexed to the Empire 
of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. 

The beauty of its situation and the reminiscences of its ancient 
glory render a visit to Genoa very attractive. To the student of art 
the Renaissance *Palaces of the Genoese nobility are objects of ex- 
treme interest, surpassing in number and magnificence those of any 
other city in Italy. Some of the smaller churches are of very ancient 
origin, though usually altered in the Gothic period. 

Many of the Genoese palaces were erected by Qaleazzo Alessi (a pupil 
of Michael Angelo, born at Perugia 1500, d. 1572) , whose style was fol- 
lowed by subsequent architects. In spite of occasional defects, the archi- 
tecture of the city is of an imposing and uniform character, and great 
ingenuity has been displayed in making the best of an unfavourable and 
limited site. The palaces moreover contain a considerable number of 
works of art, while Rubens, who resided at Genoa in 1606-8, and Van Dyck 
at a later period, have preserved the memory of many members of the 
noblesse. The native school of art, however, never rose to importance, 
and was far from being benefited by the zeal of its artists in painting fa- 
cades. The chief painters were Luca Cambiaso (1527-85), Bernardo Strozzi, 
surnamed II Cappuccino or Prete Genovese (1581-1644), Giov. Batt. Paggi, 
and Benedetto Castiglione. 

In front of the Principal Railway Station (PI. B. 2; p. 64), on 
the N.W. side of the town , extends the spacious Piazza Acqua- (PI. C, 2) , in the centre of which , embosomed in palm- 
trees, rises the marble Statue of Columbus (erected in 1862), who 
was probably born at 37 Vico Dritto Ponticello in 1446. The ped- 
estal is adorned with ships' prows. At the feet of the statue, which 
leans on an anchor, kneels the figure of America. The surround- 
ing allegorical figures represent Religion, Science, Strength, and 
Wisdom. Between these are reliefs from the history of Columbus. 
— Opposite is the Palazzo Farraggimvt, with a marble relief in 
the pediment representing scenes from the life of Columbus — 
Between this palace and the Hotel de Londres is the end of the 

S. Maria di Castello. GENOA. 15. Route. 69 

Via Balbi (pp. 76-78). — Behind the station, to the W., ate the 
Palazzo Doria and the streets leading to the Lighthouse (see p. 78). 

We descend the Via delle Mokachette (PI. C, 2), leading S. to 
the harbour. At the end of the street, on the right, rises the small 
Romanesque church of S. Giovanni Battista, with its two apses re- 
sulting from an alteration of facade (best light in the forenoon). 
On the tower is the head of the founder Guglielmo Acton , 1 180, 
in relief. To the E. of this point runs the Strada di Pre; to the 
S.W. is the Piazza dilla Comenda. 

Adjoining the Magazzini Municipali, the former Arsenale di 
Marina, is the Darsena (PL 0,3), in which Fiesco (p. 68) was drown- 
ed in 1547. We follow the busy Via Carlo Alberto (PI. 0, D, 
3, 4), which down to 1885 was separated from the harbour by a 
lofty arcaded wall with a marble platform. The street ends in the 
Piazza Caricambnto (PI. D, 4, 5), in which a bronze statue, by 
Rivalta, was erected in 1893 to Raffaele Rubattino (1809-72), the 
Genoese steamship-owner. On the S. side of the square is the build- 
ing of the former Bank of 8. Giorgio (p. 68), occupied until re- 
cently by theDogana. The large hall is embellished with 21 marble 
statues of men who have deserved well of the city, partly of the 
15th century. On the upper floor are the Archives. Farther on is 
the Porto Franco , or free harbour, with extensive bonded ware- 
houses (visitors admitted ; no smoking). — The Via Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. D, 5), to the E., leads S. to the Piazza Cavour, 
which is adjoined by the Molo Vecchio, the oldest pier, with the 
Porta del Molo (PI. C, 5), a gateway built in 1550 by Gal. Alessi. 

Those who wish to examine the fine harbour more closely should 
proceed to the small Female or lighthouse (PI. A, 5; no admission), at the 
end of the Molo Vecchio (closed at sunset), thence cross in a hoat (30-50c.) 
to the Ponte Parodi (PI. B, 3, 4), and skirt the shore to the N.W. to the 
Scalo Passeggieri (PI. B, 3), or emigrant depot (post and telegraph office). 
Large ocean steamers frequently lie here and may generally be inspected 
by strangers. Thence we proceed to the W., crossing the metals of the 
railway between the harbour and the principal station, to the Via Milano, 
whence we may take the tramway to the large Lighthouse (p. 78), command- 
ing the best general survey of the harbour ; or we may return in the oppo- 
site direction to the Piazza Caricamen to orthePiazzadellaDarsena(seep.TO). 

The Via S. Lorenzo, running E. from the N. end of the Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele (see above) , leads straight to the cathedral and 
S. Ambrogio (see pp. 70, 71). 

Near the S. end of the Via Vittorio Emanuele, in a small side-street 
to the E., is the church of S.Giorgio (PI. D, 6), a baroque structure with 
a dome. Adjoining it is a charming little church in the same style, by 
Borromini. Farther on is the small Piazza Cattaneo, with the palace of 
that name, a room on the second floor of which contains eight portraits by 
Van Dyck. The Via delle Grazie leads hence to the Gothic church of £. 
Cosmo, which contains a Florentine Madonna of the 14th cent, (left of the 
high-altar). — Continuing to ascend beyond S. Cosmo, we reach the church 
of Sta. Maria di Castello (PI. D, 6) , on the site of the Roman castle. 
Above the portal is an ancient architrave; ten of the shafts of the columns 
in the interior are also ancient. In the first chapel on the left is a Roman 
sarcophagus, used as an altar; the third has an Annunciation by Gio- 
vanni Mazone of Alessandria (15th cent.) ; the last chapel contains a 

70 Route 15. GENOA. S. Lorenzo. 

marble door with Renaissance sculptures. The choir was added in the 
15th century. In the transept is a Madonna by Justus cfAllamagna, 1451 
(under glass). 

The following route avoids the noisy and crowded streets near 
the harbour. From the Piazza della Darsena (PI. D, 3 ; p. 69), 
whence the Via delle Fontane leads to the left to the Annunziata 
(p. 76), we pass through the fine Gothic Porta de' Vacca, with its 
mediaeval sculptures and towers of the 16th cent., to the Via del 
Campo (PI. I>, 4). [From the Piazza Fossatello (PL D, 4) the Via 
Lomellina, with the house in which Mazzini was bom, leads to the 
left to the Annunziata (p. 76).] Then through the Via di Fossatello 
and the Via S. Luca to the Piazza Banchi, with the Exchange 
(Loggia de' Banchi, Borsa; PI. D, 5), erected at the end of the 
16th cent, from plans by Gal. Alessi, and adorned with a marble 
figure of Cavour by Vine. Vela. [In a side-street to the left of the 
Via S. Luca is the old cathedral of S. Siro (PL D, E, 4), rebuilt 
about 1580, with facade of 1830, containing statues by Taddeo and 
frescoes by Oiov. Batt. Carlone.] — The narrow Via Obefici (PL D, 
E, 5), with numerous goldsmiths' shops (a door on the right is adorned 
with an Adoration of the Magi in relief, 15th cent.), and then the 
Via Luccoli, lead to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose (p. 73). 

A little to the E. of the Via Oreflci is the church of S. Maria delle 
Vigne (PI. E, 5), containing a wooden crucifix with painted statues of the 
Virgin and St. John by Maragliano, three Gothic figures above the side- 
portal on the right, and a tower of the 13th century. On the left is a ruined 
cloister of the 11th century. In the piazza is the Palazzo de Amicis, of 
the 16th century. 

To the S. of the Exchange the Via S. Pietro della Porta, pass- 
ing the curious church of S. Pietro de' Banchi (1583), leads to the 
Piazza S. Lorenzo, in which are the Banca Nazionale (PL D, 5), 
and the cathedral of — 

*S. Lorenzo (PL E, 6), erected in 1100 on the site of an older 
church, and afterwards so much altered that it now presents three 
distinct styles, Romanesque, French Gothic, and Renaissance. The 
lower part of the facade, which consists of alternate courses of black 
and white marble, was constructed in the 13th cent, in imitation of 
the French churches ; the two lower of the recumbent lions which 
adorn it on the right and left of the steps are modern. Only one 
of the towers is completed. The sculptures of the principal portal 
date from the end of the 13th century. The Romanesque entrances 
to the aisles are richly decorated with sculptures of the 12th cent, 
with antique ornamentation on the entablature and capitals. A 
small oriel of 1402, formerly belonging to the Hospital of St. John, 
has been built into the right aisle. 

The Interior, constructed in 1307, is borne by the columns of the 
earlier church. Beyond the massive substructure of the towers which 
forms a kind of atrium, lies the nave with its aisles, covered with cvl'indrical 
vaulting and a dome (which last, was constructed by Alessi in 1567) and 
borne by sixteen Corinthian columns of coloured marble and four mers 
above which is another series of columns alternating with piers On the 
right, over the second side-portal, is the monument of Cardinal Lu'caFieschl 

S. Ambrogio. GENOA. 75. Route. 71 

(d. 1336) by Oiov. di Balduccio of Pisa. In the chapel to the right of the 
choir, a "Crucifixion with saints and angels (covered), the masterpiece of Fed. 
Baroccio, the statues by P. Francavilla. In the choir, handsome stalls with in- 
laid-work. In the chapel to the left of the choir six pictures and a statue of 
Fides by L. Cambiaso. In the left aisle, seven statues by Gugl. delta Porta. — 
The second chapel to the left of the entrance, that of "S. Giovanni Battista, 
ereoted in 1451-96, contains in a stone area of the 13th cent, (below the al- 
tar) relics of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine during the Crusades. 
The six statues at the sides and the reliefs above them are by Matteo Ci- 
vitali (p. 375); the Madonna and John the Baptist by Andrea Sansovino (1503) ; 
the canopy and the other sculptures by Oiacomo and Guglielmo delta Porta 
(1532). The external decoration of the chapel is in the Gothic style, with 
admirable reliefs above (ladies not admitted ; best light in the afternoon). 
— In the sacristy is the Cathedral Treasobt (adm., p. 66). Among the 
relics here are a silver shrine for the Procession of Corpus Domini, ex- 
ecuted in 1553-1611 by Franc. Rocchi of Milan and other artists; and (to 
the left) a cross from Ephesus, captured at Phocsea in 1308. To the right is 
the Sacro Catino, the vessel out of which the Saviour and his disciples are said 
to have partaken of the paschal lamb, and in which Joseph of Arimathea is 
said to have caught some drops of the blood of the Crucified (a fine glass 
vessel, captured by the Genoese at Cesarea in 1101 and supposed to be 
made of a large emerald, until it was broken at Paris, whither it had been 
carried by Napoleon I.). The setting dates from 1827. Beneath is a silver 
altar-front by the German goldsmith Melchior Siiss (1599); opposite is a 
silver shrine for the procession on Ash Wednesday, by Terario di Daniele 
(1437); a casket for the relics of John the Baptist, probably a Florentine 
work of the end of the 16th century. On the third wall are two choir 
vestments (15th and 16th cent.) and costly vessels; beneath is a modern 
altar-front, with a copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper (1892). 

On the left of the cathedral are Romanesque cloisters of the 
12th century. — Farther on, in the Piazza Nuova, is S. Ambrogio 
(PI. E, 6), a church of the Jesuits, of the elose of the 16th cent., 
profusely decorated. 

3rd Altar on right : Assumption by Guido Rent (covered). High-altar- 
piece, Presentation in the Temple, by Rubens. The four black monolith 
columns are from Porto Venere (p. 109). First chapel on left, Martyrdom 
of St. Andrew, by Semino the Elder. Third Altar on left : "Rubens, St. Ignatius 
driving out an evil spirit (ca. 1620; covered). 

The house Vico dei Notari No. 1, to the right of the church, has 
a fine Renaissance portal. In the Piazza Nuova is also situated the 
Palazzo Ducale (PI. E, 6), the grand old residence of the doges, 
originally a building of the 13th cent., to which the tower on the 
left belonged, but completely remodelled by Rocco Pennone in the 
16th cent, (fine staircase), and modernised after a fire in 1777. Facade 
by Simone Cantoni. It now contains the telegraph office, law-courts, 
and police and government offices. 

This is the best starting-point for a visit to the church of S. 
Maria in Carignano, situated on one of the highest points at the S.E. 
end of the city (omnibus, see p. 65). Opposite the Palazzo Ducale 
we follow the Salita Pollajuoli to the Piazza Ferretto and the ancient 
church of S. Donato. (Portal adorned with entablature and col- 
umns in the antique style like the Cathedral. Campanile also Ro- 
manesque. In the interior a few ancient columns; also, to the left, 
an Adoration of the Magi, a fine altar-piece by the Lower Rhenish 

72 Route 15. GENOA. S. Maria in Carignano. 

Master of the Death of the Virgin.) We then ascend the Stradone 
Agostino (passing S. Agostino, with ruined facade of the 13th cent.), 
and cross the Piazza Sarzano to the left to the Ponte Carignano, 
which spans a street 100 ft. below. 

*S. Maria in Carignano (PI. E, 8; 174 ft. above the sea), 
begun by Galeazzo Alessi in 1552, but not completed till 1603, is 
a smaller edition of the plan adopted by Michael Angelo and Bra- 
mante for St. Peter's at Rome. Here, however, a square ground- 
plan takes the place of the Greek cross of St. Peter's, and small 
lanterns represent the minor domes. Principal portal, 18th century. 

Interior. Second altar 1o the right, Maratla, SS. Blasius and Sebastian; 
4th altar, Franc. Vanni, Communion of Mary Magdalen; 1st altar to the 
left, Guercino, St. Francis ; 3rd altar, Cambiaso, Entombment. Baroque 
statues below the dome by Puget (SS. Sebastian and Alessandro Sauli), 
Parodi (St. John), and David (St. Bartholomew). 

The "View from the highest gallery of the dome (370 ft. above the 
sea; 119 steps to the first gallery, thence to the top 130; easy and well- 
lighted staircase) embraces the city, harbour, and fortifications, the well- 
peopled coast (W. the Riviera di Ponente, E. the Eiviera di Levante), and 
on the S. the vast, ever-varying expanse of the Mediterranean. (Sacristan 
25 c ; his attendance for the ascent unnecessary; best light in the morning.) 

The Via Rivoli, on the S. side of the church, leads to the Via di 
Circonvallazione a Mare (see p. 79). — We follow the Via Nino 
Bixio to the S.E. to the Piazza Bixio (PI. F, 8), among the gardens 
of which rises a large bronze statue of General Nino Bixio, by Pazzi 
(1890). The broad Via Corsica, which leads past this square, also 
debouches at its S.W. end on the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare. 
In the opposite direction we proceed via the Piazza Galeazzo Alessi 
to the ramparts of the former inner fortifications : the Mura di 
8. Chiara (PI. F, G, 7, 8), commanding fine views, and its N. con- 
tinuation the Mura di S. Stefano, which end at Acquasola (p. 73). 

On a terrace beneath the walls, to the left, near the Porta d'Archi, 
is S. Stefano (PI. F, G, 6), a Gothic church (14th cent.), with a 
Romanesque tower dating from a previous building. Interior mod- 
ernised. The cantoria (choir-gallery) on the entrance-wall dates 
from 1499. Above the high-altar the *Stoning of Stephen by Giulio 
Romano, one of his best works (1523 ; covered). 

In the neighbouring Via Bosco is the church of S. Caterina (PI. G,6), 
with a fine portal (1521); adjoining it is the Ospedale di Pammatone, in 
front of which is a fountain with a bronze statue of the boy Balilla (p. 68) 
by Oiani. 

From the Porta d'Archi(see above) theViaVenti Settembre (form- 
erly Via Giulia; PI. F, G, H, 6, 7) runs to the S.E. to the Bisagno 
Bridge, at the end of the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare (p. 79), 
and thence goes on to S. Francesco d'Albaro and Nervi (p. 105); in 
the opposite direction it leads to the Piazza Deferrari (see below). 

From the Piazza Nuova the Via Sellai leads to the left to the 
Piazza Dbpkruaei (PI. E, 5, 6; with palace of thatname, 18th cent, 
on the left), formerly Piazza S. Domenico (80ft. above the sea) In 

Villetta di Negro. GENOA. 75. Route. 73 

1893 a large Equestrian Statue of Oaribaldi, by Aug. Rivalta, was 
unveiled here. This piazza is the starting-point of most of the om- 
nibuses (p. 65). 

The LSalita di S. Matteo, the second side-street to the left, leads hence 
to the small Gothic church of S. Matteo (PI. E, 5 ; 1278) , containing 
many memorials of the Doria family, the facade being covered with in- 
scriptions in their honour. The interior was altered in 1530 by the 
Florentine Oiov. Angelico Montorsoli, who was invited to Genoa by An- 
drea Doria , and who, with his assistants, executed the whole of the 
sculptures which adorn the church. The balustrade of the organ-loft is 
particularly fine. Above the high-altar is Doria's sword, and his tomb is 
in the chapel below. To the left of the church are handsome cloisters 
with double columns in the Transition style, 1308-10, with 17 ancient in- 
scriptions relating to the Dorias, and remains of a statue of Andrea Doria, 
which was mutilated during the Revolution in 1797. An ancient sarco- 
phagus-relief, with an inscription in honour of Lamba Doria , who de- 
feated the Venetians at Curzola in 1297, is built into the right side of the 
facade. — The little piazza in front of the church is surrounded with 
Palaces of the Doria Family; one nearly opposite, the lower half of which 
is covered with black and yellow marble, bears the inscription, 'Senat. 
Cons. Andreae de Oria, patriae liberatori munus publicum' (1528). — No. 13, 
to the left of S. Matteo, is the Palazzo Centurione, with a colonnaded court 
of the early Renaissance. 

In the Piazza Deferrari, on the right, is the Teatro Carlo Felice 
(PI. E, F, 5; see p. 65). Adjacent is the Accademia dellb Belle 
Arti (PI. E, F, 6), on the first floor of which is the Biblioteca Civica 
(about 40,000 vols. ; always accessible) ; on the second floor a col- 
lection of casts and a few paintings. — The Via Venti Settembre 
leads from the Academy to the Porta d'Archi (p. 72). 

To the right the Via Roma, to the left the Via Carlo Felice, lead 
N.E. from the Piazza Deferrari. The Via Roma (PI. F, 5), cutting 
off a corner of the interesting old Palazzo Spinola, now the Pre- 
fettura (adjoining which, on the right, is the Galleria Mazzini), soon 
reaches the Piazza Corvetto , where a large bronze equestrian 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. was erected in 1886, from Barzaghi's 
designs. On an eminence adjoining the piazza on the right is the 
little park of Acquasola (PI. G, 5, 6 ; 135 ft.), laid out on part of the 
old ramparts of the town in 1837 (band, see p. 65). To the left, 
behind the marble Statue of Mazzini, by Costa (with allegorical 
figures of Thought and Action on the pedestal), lies the — 

*Villetta di Negro (PI. F, 4), the' property of the city, and 
open to the public, with a fine and well-kept garden, fountains, a 
small museum of Natural History (open on Sundays) , and an in- 
cipient Zoological Garden. Winding promenades ascend from the 
entrance, near which is a marble bust of Aurelio Saffi (1891), to a 
bastion about 160 ft. above Acquasola, which affords a noble survey 
of city, harbour, and environs. 

The Via Roma is continued by the Via Assarotti, leading to 
the high-lying Piazza Manin (p. 79). Electric tramway, see p. 65. 

On the left side of Via Carlo Felice (PI. F, 5), No. 12, is the 
Palazzo Pallavicini, now belonging to the Durazzo family (p. 76). 
We next come to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose (PI. F, 4, 5). 

74 Route 75. GENOA. Pal. Municipale. 

No. 17 in this piazza is the Pal. delta Casa, originally Spinola, 
(15th cent., but restored in the 17th), adorned with five statues in 
niches ; No. 27 is the Pal. Lod. Stef. Pallavicini, sumptuously fitted 
up in modern taste. 

At the Piazza Fontane Morose begins a broad line of 16th cent, 
streets, extending to the Piazza Acquaverde (p. 68), under the names 
of Via Oar ibaldi (formerly Nuova), Via Cairoli (formerly Nuovissima), 
and Via Balbi. In these streets, which form one of the chief ar- 
teries of traffic, are the most important palaces and several churches. 
Some of the former should be visited for the sake of their noble 
staircases, one of the sights of Genoa. On each side of these streets 
a labyrinth of lanes, occupied by the lower classes, descend to the 
harbour, and ascend the hill, also presenting points of interest. 

The first of these main streets , *Via Garibaldi (PI. E, 4), is 
flanked with a succession of palaces. On the right, No. 1, Palazzo 
Ces. Cambiaso, by Gal. Alessi. On the left, No. 2, Pal. Gambaro, 
formerly Cambiaso. Right, No. 3, Pal. Parodi, erected in 1567-81 
by Gal. Alessi for Franco Lercaro, containing frescoes by Luca Cam- 
biaso and others. Left, No. 4, Pal. Cataldi, formerly Carega, 
erected about 1560 by Giov. Batt. Castello. Right, No. 5, *Pal. 
Spinola, by Gal. Alessi, containing pictures of the Genoese school, 
a portrait of Cambiaso by himself, a Madonna by Luini, an eques- 
trian portrait and a Madonna by Van Dyck. Left, No. 6, Pal. 
Giorgio Doria (not always open), by Alessi, adorned with frescoes 
by Luca Cambiaso and other pictures (Castiglione , Shepherd and 
shepherdess; Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady; P. Veronese, Susanna). 

Left, No. 10, Pal. Adorno (accessible by introduction only), also 
by Gal. Alessi , contains several good pictures : Rubens, Hercules 
and Dejanira ; three small pictures attributed to Mantegna, though 
more in the style of S. Botticelli (Triumph of Amor, of Jugurtha, 
of Judith; comp. p. 31, No. 369); Cambiaso, Madonna and saints; 
Clouet, Portraits of four children; Piola, Frieze with children; 
Perino del Vaga, Nativity of Mary. 

Left, No. 12, Pal. Serra, by Alessi; interior rebuilt by DeWailly 
(d. 1798) and Tagliafico, with a magnificent hall. 

Right, No. 9, Palazzo Municipale (PI. E, 4), formerly Doria 
Tursi, by Roeeo Lurago (16th cent.), has a handsome staircase and 
court, skilfully adapted to its sloping site. 

The Vestibule is adorned with five frescoes from the life of the Doge 
Grimaldi, the Court with a marble statue of Mazzini, and the Stair- 
case with a statue of Cataneo Pinelli. — In the large Council Chamber 
on the upper floor are mosaic portraits of Columbus and Marco Polo. In 

of Columbus (the originals are in the pedestal of his bust in the Sala 
della Giunta); large bronze tablet of B. C. 117, recording the judgment 
ot Roman arbiters in a dispute between Genoa and I neiehbourine 
castle. A cabinet to the left contains Paganinrs violin. In the loezia to 
the left is a I'.acchic sarcophagus-relief from the tomb of Franc Spinola 

Pal. Rosso. GENOA. 15. Route. 75 

Left, No. 18, *Palazzo Kosso (PL E, 4), by Alessi, so named 
from its red colour, formerly the property of tlie Brignole - Sale 
family, was presented to the city of Genoa in 1874, along with its 
valuable contents , library , and Picture Gallery (adm. , see p. 66), 
by the Marchesa Maria Brignole-Sale, Duchess of Galliera (d. 1889), 

and her son Filippo. 

Ascending the staircase to the third story, we pass through an Anti- 
sala into the Camera delle Aeti Ltberali, named like the following 
rooms, after the ceiling- paintings (by Carlone, Parodi, Deferrari, and 
others), and containing three portraits of Doges of the Brignole family 
(17- 18th cent.). The ceiling -paintings are sometimes continued by the 
relief-work of the cornices. — Small Room (Alcova): Rigavd, Lady and 
gentleman of the Brignole family. — III. Stanza della Giovento. Over 
the door: Carletto Calidri, Martyrdom of St. Justina. Adjacent, to the 
right: Guercino, Cleopatra; B. Strozzi, HI Cappuccino", Charity (after Cam- 
biasoj; L. Cambiaso, Holy Family (injured); B. Strozzi, Cook with poultry; 
A. del Sario, Holy Family (copy). — IV. Sala Grande, with ceiling dec- 
orated with the armorial bearings of the family. Exit- wall: Guidobono 
di Savon a , Lot and his daughters ; Valerio Castello, Rape of the Sabines. 
Entrance-wall: Guidobono, Lot in captivity; D. Piola, Sun-chariot of Apollo; 
Guidobono, Abraham dismissing Hagar. — V. Stanza della Primavera : 
Style of Paris Bordone, Venetian woman; A. Dilrer, Portrait (1506; ruin- 
ed); Moretto(1), Scholar with book; "Van Dyclc, Marchese Antonio Giulio 
Brignole-Sale on horseback; Titian (school-piece), Philip II. of Spain. 
Exit-wall: Van Dyck, Prince of Orange, Portrait of a father and son. On 
the entrance-wall: B. Strozzi, Flute-player; Van Dyck, Marchesa Paola 
Brignole-Sale; Van Dyck, Bearing of the Cross; "Jac. Bassano, Portrait of 
father and son ; 'Paris Bordone, Portrait. — VI. Stanza d'Estate : Ouer- 
cino, Suicide of Cato ; Luca Giordano, Clorinda liberating Olintho and So- 
phronia (from Tasso); L. Carracci, Annunciation; Guercino, Christ driving 
out the money-changers ; B. Strozzi, St. Paul ; Lanfranco, Bearing of the 
Cross ; Caravaggio, Raising of Lazarus ; Guido Reni, St. Sebastian (early 
copy). — VII. Stanza d'Autunno : Bonifazio J I., Adoration of the Magi ; 
Bassano, Adoration of the Child; adjoining, Guido Reni, Half-figures of 
Christ and the Madonna; "Guercino, Madonna enthroned, with saints; Ve- 
netian School (attributed to Bellini), Portrait of Franc. Philetus; G. Reni, 
St. Mark. — VIII. Stanza dell' Inverno: Rubens (?), Portrait of an old 
man ; School of Leonardo da Vinci, John the Baptist (original in the Louvre) ; 
Paris Bordone, Holy Family with SS. Jerome and Catharine (one of the 
master's chief works but much injured); Carlo Maratta, Repose during the 
flight to Egypt; "Style of P. Veronese, Judith and Holofernes; Murillo (?), 
Holy Family ; P. Bordone (?), Half-length of an old man ; Varotari (Pado- 
vanino), Magdalen. — IX. Stanza della Vita dell' Uomo : Van Dyck, 
Portrait; P. Veronese (?), Venetian lady; Teniers, Peasants carousing, two 
pictures; Van Dyck, Marchesa Geronima Brignole-Sale with her daughter 
(retouched throughout). 

No. 13, opposite Pal. Eosso, and named 'white' by way of con- 
trast, is the Palazzo Bianco (PI. E, 4), erected in 1565-69, also 
for a long period the property of the Brignole-Sale family, but be- 
queathed in 1889 with numerous works of art to the city by the 
Duchess of Galliera (see above), and since 1893 converted into a 
museum known as the *Oalleria Brignole Sale -Deferrari (adm., 
see p. 66). 

TheMuseum includes a collection of majolica and porcelain presented by 
Mr. Yeats-Brown, the former British consul; aTt-collections bequeathed by 
Prince Odone and others; the greater number of the art treasures formerly 
preserved in the Arcademia (p. 73) ; and a number of statues (Canova, 
Mary Magdalen) and good paintings formerly in the possession of the 

76 Route 15. GENOA. Pal. Marc. Durazzo. 

Duchess of Galliera. These paintings include: ''Gerard David (not Mem- 
ling), Madonna; Talma Vecchio , Madonna, with John the Baptist and 
Mary Magdalen; Sassoferrato , Madonna; Guido Reni, Four sibyls; Mu- 
rillo(1), Flight into Egypt; Zurburan (?) , SS. Ursula and Euphemia; 
"Rubens, Bacchanal; Van Dyck, The tribute-money; /. ran Ruysdael, 
Landscape; A. van der Neer, Landscape by moonlight; D. Teniers the 
Younger, Chess-players. 

Crossing the small piazza in front of these palaces, we enter 
the Via Caiboli (PI. E, D, 4). At the end of this street, No. 13, on 
the left, is the *Palazzo Balbi (by Greg. Petondi, 18th cent.), through 
which a fine view is obtained of the lower-lying Via Lomellina. — 
On the height , obliquely opposite , is the Pal. Centurioni, with 
marble portal, containing several pictures. We then cross the 
Piazza Zecca to the — 

Piazza dell' Annunziata (PI. D, 3), with the former Capuchin 
church of *SS. Annunziata, erected by Oiac. della Porta in 1587. 
The portal is borne by marble columns ; brick facade otherwise un- 
finished. It is a well-proportioned basilica with a dome; the vault- 
ing rests on twelve fluted and inlaid columns of marble. This is 
the most sumptuous church in Genoa. 

In the nave are frescoes by the Carloni. In the left transept the 
altar-piece is a wooden group of the Communion of St. Pasquale, by 
Maragliano (1723). The sacristy contains a Descent from the Cross, by 
Maragliano (1726); the colouring modern. 

Carriage-roads and footpaths ascend from the Piazza Annun- 
ziata to the (5 min.) Albergo dei Poveri on the Via di Circonval- 
lazione a Monte (p. 79). 

In the handsome Via Balbi (PI. D, C, 3, 2), on the right, No. 1, 
is the *Palazzo Marcello Durazzo, formerly della Scala, built 
by Gal. Alessi, with a handsome facade , fine vestibule , and a 
superb staircase (left) added by Andrea Tagliafico at the end of 
the 18th century. On the first floor is the *Oalleria Durazzo- Palla- 
vicini (adm., p. 66 ; usually Rooms I-VII only are shown ; H%-\. fr.). 

The Antisala contains busts of the Durazzo -Pallavicini family. — 
II. Room. Left: Guercino, Mucius Scsevola before Porsenna; Van Dyck, 
Portrait of a man; "Rubens, Silenus with Bacchantes (ca. 1608); Lucas 
van Leyden (or rather School of Memling), Descent from the Cross ; An. 
Carracci, Magdalen; "Van Dyck (?), James I. of Great Britain with his 
family; Dilrer (more probably of Italian origin), Madonna, the Child, and 
John the Baptist. — III. Room. Procaccini, The Woman taken in adultery; 
Strozzi, Portrait of a bishop; Guercino, The tribute-money; Titian, Magda- 
len (school-piece); Zanchi, Jephtha's daughter. — IV. Room. L. Carracci, 
Scourging of Christ; School of Andrea del Sarto, Madonna and Child, a 
round picture; Guido Rent, Carita Romana ; "Paolo Veronese, Marriage of 
St. Catharine; Guido Reni, St. Jerome, "Vestal Virgin; Rubens, Portrait, 
a round picture ; Guido Reni, Cleopatra ; Tintoretto, Portrait of Marchese 
Agostino Durazzo. Admirable porcelain vases in the centre of the 
room. — V. Principal Room. Paintings relating to the myth of Achilles 
by unimportant Genoese masters. Beautiful Chinese porcelain. — VI. Room. 
Domenichino, Risen Christ appearing to his mother; "Van Dyck, Boy in 
white satin; above it, Van Dyck, Young Tobias; Domenichino, Venus mourn- 
ing the death of Adonis ; Van Dyck, Three children with a dog ; "Rubens, 
Philip IV. of Spain, full length; Ribera, Heraclitus (weeping philosopher); 
Ribera, Democritus (laughing philosopher); Van Dyck, Lady with two 
children; Titian ('!), Ceres with Bacchus, nympli , and Cupid. — 

Pal. Balbi-Senareya. GENOA. 15. Route. 77 

VII. Room. Unimportant. — VIII. Room. Fr. Pourbus, Garden of Flora; 
Flemish School of 15th cent., Madonna and Child with St. Francis and the 
donors; /. Brueghel, Landscape with peasants; "Butch Master of 15th cent., 
Pieta. — IX. Boom. German School (attributed to Lombard Sch.), Cruci- 
fixion, with saints; Rubens, Ambrogio Spinola. — The Library contains 
7000 vols., including many specimens of early printing. 

On the left side, No. 4, isthe*PalazzoBalbi-Senarega(Pl. D, 3), 
begun early in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco, and enlarged by Pier 
Ant. Corradi. It still belongs to the family who built it, and after 
whom the street is named. The superb court, with its Doric 
colonnades, affords a glimpse of the orangery. The Picture Gallery 
on the first floor deserves a visit (admission, p. 66; V2-I fr-)- 

I. Room, adorned like the others with ceiling-paintings by Genoese 
artists. Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback; Bern. Strozzi, 
Joseph interpreting the dream. — II. Room, to the left: Titian, Portrait; 
Rubens, Portrait; Van Dyck, Holy Family; Garofalo, Holy Family; Filip- 
pino Lippi (more probably Botticelli), Communion of St. Jerome; Dutch 
School, Crucifixion; Ag. Carracci, Mary Magdalen; Perino del Vaga, Holy 
Family, four Figures of Children (on different walls). — We return to 
R. I and proceed straight on to the III. Room : 'Rubens, Infant Christ and 
John the Baptist; Guido Reni, Lucretia, Cleopatra. "Titian, Madonna with 
SS. Catharine, Dominic, and donors : 'charming picture (about 1520), thrown 
out of focus by abrasion, washing, and repainting; but still pleasing on ac- 
count of the grace of the attitudes and the beauty of the landscape' (Crowe 
& Cavalcaselle). Gaud. Ferrari, Holy Family; Michael Angelotf), Geth- 
semane; Van Dyck, Madonna with the pomegranate (della Melagrana); 
A. Carracci, St. Catharine. — IV. Room. Three 'Portraits of the Balbi family 
by Van Dyck (in the equestrian piece the head of Philip IV. is said to have 
been substituted by Velazquez for that of the Balbi, who had been ban- 
ished). — V. Room. Caravaggio, Conversion of St. Paul, trivial in con- 
ception, but masterly in execution; portraits by Tintoretto (?), Bronzino, 
and Allori; then, Lower Rhenish Master of the Death of the Virgin, Holy 
Family and Adoration of the Magi; Guido Reni, St. Jerome. — VI. Room. 
Small pictures by Andrea Schiavone; Jac. Bassano, Market. 

On the right side of the street, No. 5, is the *Palazzo dell' 
Universita (PI. D, 3), begun as a Jesuit college by Bart. Bianco in 
1623, and erected into a university in 1812. The *Court and stair- 
case are probably the finest at Genoa. The second floor contains a 
library, a natural history museum, and an aula with six allegorical 
bronze statues and reliefs by Giovanni da Bologna. A staircase 
leads hence to the high-lying Botanical Garden of the University 
(ring at the iron gate). 

On the left, No. 6, Pal. Durazzo, with colonnaded court. Right, 
S. Carlo, with sculptures by Algardi (1650). 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Keale (PL C, 3), erected in the 17th 
cent, by the Lombard architects Franc. Cantone and Giov. Ang. 
Falcone for the Durazzo family , and extended at the beginning of 
the 18th by Carlo Fontana of Rome. It was purchased by the royal 
family in 1815, and restored in 1842. Fine view from the terrace. 
The palace contains handsome staircases and balconies , and is 
sumptuously furnished (shown daily , when the royal family is ab- 
sent). The pictures and antiquities are of no great value. 

Ante-Chamber : Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on the right : Van 
•Dyck, Portrait of Marchesa Durazzo; good portrait of the Lombard School, 

78 Route 15. GENOA. Palazzo Doria. 

attributed to Leon, da Vinci ; Perino del Vaga , Holy Family. To the 
right, a handsome gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and 
modern statues : on the right, Apollo and Apollino, on the left, Mercury ; 
at the end, Rape of Proserpine by Schiaffino. On the left, Crucifixion by 
Van Dyck ; Adulteress, Moretto; Sibyl, Quercino. In the throne-room two 
large pictures by Luca Giordano. — *View of town and harbour from the 

In the vicinity is the Piazza Acquaverde, near the station, with 
the monument of Columbus (see p. 68). 

The Piazza del Principe (PI. B, 2), to the W. of the station, 
commands a good view of part of the old fortifications. No. 4 in the 
piazza is the long Palaaeo Doria (PI. A, 2), presented in 1522 to 
Andrea Doria, 'padre della patria' (d. 1560, at the age of 92). It 
was remodelled in 1529 from designs by Qiov. Ang. Montorsoli, 
and adorned with frescoes by Perino del Vaga, a pupil of Raphael. 

The long Latin inscription on the side next the street records that 
Andrea d'Oria, admiral of the Papal, Imperial, French, and native fleets, 
in order to close his eventful career in honourable repose , caused the 
palace to be rebuilt for himself and his successors. His praises were 
thus sung by Ariosto: 'questo e quel Doria, che fa dai pirati sicuro il 
vostro mar per tutti i lati\ — The entrance is by the last door to the 
right, in the court. — The finest of the Fkescoes by Perino del Vaga 
(restored in 1845), which often recall the paintings of Raphael, are the 
scenes from Roman history on the ceiling, vaulting, and lunettes of the great 
entrance-hall (with reliefs by Montorsoli); a corridor on the first floor, 
with portraits of the Doria family, charmingly decorated with stucco and 
painted ornaments in the style of Raphael's loggie in the Vatican; a saloon 
with a large ceiling - painting, Jupiter overthrowing the Titans (superb 
chimney-piece) ; and a side-room with a fresco of the Carita Romana. — 
The remaining rooms are let and are quite inaccessible. The elder branch 
of the Doria family, to which the palace belongs, has allied itself with 
the Pamphili family, and generally resides at Rome. 

The court contains a large arcaded Loggia and gardens. The 
gardens on the hill opposite, with a statue of Hercules ('IlOigante') 
in a niche, also belong to the estate. 

The Via S. Benedetto, beside the palace, and the Via Milano 
(formerly S. Teodoro), farther on, lead past the Sailors' Best (p. 66) 
and the large new quays (comp. p. 67) to the Piazza Dinegro (om- 
nibus, p. 65). No. 41 in this piazza is the Palazzo dello Sco- 
glietto, the property of Sign. Vitale Rosazza, the charming gar- 
dens of which command a fine view (gardener 1 fr.). Thence the 
Strada della Lanterna leads to the lighthouse and the suburb of 
S. Pier d'Arena (p. 80). 

On the rocky headland separating Genoa from S. Pier d'Arena 
rises the large Lighthouse {Lanterna; 380 ft.), with its dazzling 
reflectors showing a light visible for 20 miles. Visitors may go by 
the S. Pier d'Arena tramway (p. 65) to the tunnel. The tower 
(353 marble steps) may be ascended and the apparatus inspected 
(fee 1 fr.); but the platform at its foot commands as good a view. 
Best light in the evening. 

The '-View embraces the town and extensive harbour of Genoa with 
the amphitheatre of mountains behind; to the E. the Riviera di Levante 
is visible as far as the picturesque promontory of Portoiino: to the W, 

Campo Santo. GENOA. 15. Route. 79 

are s een the coast-villages on the Riviera di Poncnte from S. Pier d'Arena 
to Savona, the headland of Noli, and the Capo delle Mele, while in the 
distance are the usually snow-capped peaks of the Lignrian Alps. 

The *Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, a magnificent route laid 
out since 1876 on the hills at the back of the town, offers a beautiful 
walk or drive (p. 66). It begins on the E. at the Piazza Manin 
(PI. I, 4 ; 330 ft. above the sea), skirts the hillside in long wind- 
ings, under various names (Corso Solferino, Corso Magenta, Corso 
Paganini, Corso CarbonaraJ, and leads to the Albergo dei Poveri 
(PI. D, E, 1 ; 320 ft.), a poor-house founded in the 17th cent., and 
last extended in 1835, accommodating 1300 persons. Above the 
Corso Carbonara is the Trattoriadei Caeciatori (PI. E, 1), with garden 
and fine view. — From the Albergo dei Poveri the road descends to 
the Piazza deli 1 Annunziata (PI. D, 3 ; p. 76). 

A cable-tramway is contemplated, to run from the Piazza Zecca (p. 76) 
to the loftily situated Forte Castellaccio (1253 ft.), crossing the Via di 
Circonvallazione a Monte not far from the Albergo dei Poveri. The site 
of the proposed upper terminus of the line (1150 ft.), a little below the 
fort, commands a beautiful view of Genoa and the sea. Close by, also 
finely situated, is the new Hotel-Pension Rigi. — Cable Railway to the Corso 
Magenta, see p. 65. 

The Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, completed in 1893, is an- 
other fine street, also with various names for its different sections 
( Via Odone, Mura di S. Margherita, Corso Aurelio Sajfi). It begins 
at the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 6), passes the docks now in course of 
construction, then, gradually ascending, skirts the sea beneath the 
hill crowned by the church of S. Maria in Carignano (p. 72), and 
finally debouches on the high-road (see below) to S. Francesco d'Al- 
baro and Nervi, near the former Porta Pila (PI. H, 7), on the right 
bank of the Bisagno. 

The "Campo Santo (Cimitero di Slaglieno, open from 10 a.m.; cab there 
and back 5, with two horses 7 fr.; omnibus, p. 65; comp. Map), laid out 
in 1867 on the slope of the valley of the Bisagno, l>/2 M. from the town, 
is reached from the Piazza Deferrari (p. 72) by the Via Venti Settembre, 
Via S. Vincenzo, and Porta Romana (PI. H, 6, 7). The fine monuments 
and the general arrangement of the cemetery are interesting, as also 
the rotunda in the upper row, the internal gallery of which is borne by 
monolithic columns of black marble. At the upper end of the cemetery, 
on our right, when our backs are turned to the river, is the tomb of 
Giuseppe Mazzini (d. 1872). — On one side we observe a conduit and 
aqueduct belonging to the water- works of the city. 

Excursions. To the W. to Pegli ("Villa Pallavicini), by railway, see 
p. 80, or in iy 4 hr. by carriage (there and back 10, with two horses 
15 fr.); tramway every lOmin., comp., p. 65. — To the E. the Nervi Road 
leads first to S. Francesco d'Aliaro (omn., p. 65), near which are the "Villa 
Cambiaso (1557) and the Villa Paradise Then follow Sturla (near which 
a small monument marks the point of embarkation of 1000 Garibaldians 
for Marsala in 1860), Quarto, and Quinto, stations of the ordinary trains 
from the E. Station to Pisa (comp. pp. 64, 104 ; several sea-bathing resorts 
on the way). Fine views of Nervi and the Rivieras. Nervi (p. 105) is 
reached in 2>/2 hrs. (omn., p. 65). — To Ruta or to S. Margherita (by rail), 
and thence to Portoflno, see p. 104. 


16. From Genoa to Ventimiglia, 

94 M. Railway in 41/2-6 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, lift. 95, 17 ft. 70 c. ; ex- 
press 23 fr. 15, 16 fr. 30 c). 

The Riviera (p. 63), the narrow sea-border of Liguria, divided by Genoa 
into an eastern (Riviera di Levante ; p. 104) and a larger western half 
(Riviera di Ponente), which belongs to France from Ventimiglia westwards, 
is one of the most picturesque regions of Italy. It affords a delightful 
variety of landscapes, bold and lofty promontories alternating with wooded 
hills, and richly cultivated plains near the coast. At places the road 
passes precipitous and frowning cliffs, washed by the surf of the Mediter- 
ranean, while the summits are crowned with the venerable ruins of 
towers erected in bygone ages for protection against pirates. At other 
places extensive plantations of olives , with their grotesque and gnarled 
stems, bright green pine-forests, and luxuriant growths of figs, vines, 
citrons, oranges, oleanders, myrtles, and aloes meet the view, and even 
palms are occasionally seen. Many of the towns are charmingly situated 
in fertile spots or on picturesque hills; others, commanded by ancient 
strongholds, are perched like nests among the rocks. Little churches and 
chapels peering from the sombre foliage of cypresses, and gigantic grey 
pinnacles of rock frowning upon the smiling plains, frequently enhance 
the charms of the scenery, while the vast expanse of the Mediterranean, 
with its ever-varying hues, forms one of the chief attractions. At one 
time the sea is bathed in a flood of sunshine, at another its beautiful blue 
colour arrests the eye ; or while the shore immediately below the spectator 
is lashed with wild breakers, the snowy crests of the waves are gradually 
softened to view in the purple distance. On some parts of the route, especi- 
ally between Savona and Loano (p. 82), and between San Remo and Nice 
(p. 95), many travellers will prefer to quit the railway with its tiresome 
succession of tunnels in order to enjoy a drive on the picturesque road, 
while none should omit the Route de la Comiche (p. 92) from Mentone to Nice. 

During the present century the Riviera has suffered from Earthquakes 
in 1818, 1831, 1854, and 1887. On the last occasion repeated shocks were 
felt between Feb. 23rd and the middle of March in the district between 
Nice and Savona. The increasing intervals between the outbreaks, the 
last being 33 years (1854-1887), render a speedy recurrence of the dis- 
turbances very unlikely. 

The railway skirts the coast, and runs parallel with the high- 
road as far as Savona. The numerous promontories are penetrated 
by tunnels. — 1 [ / 2 M. S. Pier d' Arena or Sampierdarena, the W. 
suburb of Genoa, projecting far into the sea, has 19,500 inhab., and 
numerous palaces and gardens, including the Pal. Spinola and the 
Pal. Scassi (formerly Imperiali), the latter with a fine garden, both 
probably by Gal. Alessi. The church of S. Maria delta Cella con- 
tains frescoes of the Genoese school. Large sugar-refinery. — Tram- 
way to Genoa, see p. 65. 

3 M. Cornigliano-Ligure (Grand Hotel Villa Rachel), with nu- 
merous villas (V. Raggia, finely situated on the coast), adapted for 
a prolonged visit in April and May (Engl. Ch. Serv.). 

472 M. Sestri-Ponente {Alb. # Ristor. delta Grotta, R. from 2, 
pens., incl. wine, from 7fr.), with 11,000 inhab., also has a number 
of villas (V- Rossi, with flue garden ), a church adorned with fres- 
coes, manufactories, and wharves (tramway, see p. 65). 

6 M. Pegli. — Hotels. : '(1kand Hotel <fe Pension he la MitDiTEK- 
KANftE, in the Palazzo Lnmullini, with fine garden, R. 2'/ 2 -5 L »/i A 1 
B. l'/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, sea-hath '/», pens. 9-12 fr. ; Git. Hotel Pegli', 

i\v.Ciriziai>0, id 







Kfv • Porto 
[■sir jF ° 7 ' "^ 

JtBiw^nilSgnU Porto M MMPTTf 

i^«^^J~*^^N 1' <Tr0 
Capo delFuro 

Scala. dl 1:100.000 


Abbrexiazioni ". C.Ca J sa>,rjTarte l Mtul?:M'?'Madoim4V. 
MM>rUe, RJth, S. San, T.TorraiU, y^VtBaj. 


GeographJbu.-tatt von 

"Wagner 8- Debet, Leipzig. 

to Ventimiglin. SAVONA. 16. Route. 81 

these two on the coast; Hotel be la Ville, opposite the station, R., L., 
<fc A. from 2, B. l'/z, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. incl. wine from 7 fr. — "Trat- 
toria Colombo, unpretending. — Physicians, see under Genoa, p. 66 ; also 
Dr. Wagner. — Engliih Church (St. John), with services in winter. — Tram- 
way to Genoa, see p. 60. 

Pegli, with 3700 inhab., a much visited summer sea-bathing 
place, is a pleasant transition-station for travellers on their way to 
or from the warmer wintering-places on the Riviera and is even 
visited as a winter-station itself. Numerous beautiful walks in the 
wooded valleys and on the hill-slopes lend a peculiar charm to 
Pegli, as compared with places on the Riviera, better protected by 
the mountains but more hemmed in. The new and still unfinished 
Passeggiata dei Villini, in the grounds of the former Villa Elena, may 
be specially mentioned. Among the villas are the VillaRostan, with 
grounds in the English style, Villa Pignone, Villa Doria (permessi 
in the Pal. Doria in Genoa), and the *Villa Pallavicini, a favourite 
object for an excursion from Genoa (comp. p. 79 ; adm. daily, ex- 
cept Frid., 10-3; fee 1 fr., for a paTty 2fr.). Visitors should insist 
upon proceeding to the highest point for the sake of the view. 

The villa is on our left as we leave the station. The visit takes 
2 hours. The grounds extending along the slopes of the coast display a 
profusion of luxuriant vegetation and afford delightful prospects of Genoa, 
the sea, coast, and mountains. On the highest point stands a castle in 
the mediaeval style with a tower ("View). Around it are indications of 
a simulated siege: mausoleum of the fallen commandant, ruin-strewn 
burial-place of his heroes. Farther on is a stalactite grotto with a sub- 
terranean piece of water; under the bridge a striking glimpse of the 
lighthouse of Genoa and the sea. There are also summer-houses in 
the Pompeian , Turkish , and Chinese styles , an obelisk , fountains , etc. 
The gardens contain fine examples of the coffee, vanilla, cinnamon, pepper, 
and camphor plants, sugar-canes, palms, cedars, magnolias, and azaleas. 

7*/2 M. Prh, a ship-building place ; 8Y2 M. Voltri[A\b. Svizzero), 
a town with 6400 inhab., at the mouth of the Ceruso, near which is 
the Villa Brignole-Sale. 

Numerous tunnels and bridges. 13 M. Arenzano, a retired 
and sheltered spot, with the line park of Marchesa Pallavicini; 
beautiful retrospect towards Genoa. — 15i/ 2 M. Cogoleto, erroneously 
described as the birthplace of Columbus (p. 68), to whom a mon- 
ument was erected here in 1888 ; the supposed birth-house bears 
several inscriptions. 

20 M. Varazze , with 3600 inhab. , is a busy ship - building 
place. The coast on both sides of it is rocky. Numerous cuttings 
and tunnels. — 22 M. Celle; 24'/2 M. Albissola, at the mouth of 
the Sansobbia, where pottery is largely manufactured. 

27 M. Savona (Rail. Restaurant ; Alb. Svizzero, R. 2 1 / 2 , L - 1 fr- ; 
Roma, both well spoken of; Italia), a town with 19,100 inhab., is 
charmingly situated amidst lemon and orange gardens. Busy harbour, 
commanded by a fort. The Cathedral (of 1604) contains several good 
pictures. The handsome theatre, erected in 1853, is dedicated to 
the poet Chiabrera (1552-1637), a native of the place. The oratory 
of S. Maria di Castello has a large altar-piece by Foppa and Bre'a 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 6 

82 Route 16. ALASSIO. From Genoa 

(1489). There is a small picture-gallery in the Ospedale Civico 
(adm. Sun. and Thurs., 10-4). The church of Madonna degliAngcli 
affords a fine view of the town. Savona -was the birthplace of the 
great popes SixtusIV., to whom a marble statue by Gius. Dini was 
erected here in 1888 , and Julius II. (della Rovere). A Church 
Seamen's Institute for British sailors was opened here in 1891 (Rev. 
J. T. Christie of Genoa; serv. on Sun. andTues., concert on Wed.). 
Sanluario, see p. 56. From Savona to Turin, see pp. 56-55; to Alet- 
tandria, see p. 54. 

30^2 M. Vado. On this side of (32 M.) Bergeggi we obtain a 
*Retrospect of the Riviera as far as Genoa. Then a tunnel and gal- 
leries, through the arches of which are seen the sea and the islet 
of Bergeggi. The construction of the line was difficult here ; the 
tunnels become longer. 34 M. Spotorno ; 36 M. Noli, a little town 
embosomed in olive-groves, with the ruins of a castle. 

42 M. Finalmarina (Albergo Garibaldi, poor) is the seaport and 
principal part of Finale , which consists of three different villages ; 
it contains a cathedral by Bernini, with double columns of white 
marble , a dome , and rich gilding. To the left lies Finalborgo, 
the oldest part, with a castle; and towards the E. is Finalpia. 
In the neighbourhood are interesting caverns, with prehistoric re- 
mains. Finalmarina and several of the following places suffered 
severely from the earthquake of February, 1887, the ruins caused 
by which are still traceable. 

43 M. Borgio Verezzi (Grand Hotel Beaurivage, R. 2-3, L. !/2> 
A. !/2> B. 172! dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6-9 fr.) , rising in favour as a 
winter-resort. — 45 M. Pietraligure ; Hl^l^ M. Loano, with a ruined 
castle. To the right of the line are two suppressed monasteries, of 
which Monte Carmelo , the higher, erected by the Dorias in 1609, 
commands a fine view. The large twelve-sided church of the village 
was also erected by the Dorias. — 48 M. Borghetto S. Spirito. Beyond 
(49'/2 M-) Ceriale, with its market-gardens, the mountains recede. 

52i/ 2 M. Albenga (Albergo Reale, Vittoria, both Italian), the Al- 
bium Ingaunum of the Romans, an ancient town (3100 inhab.) and 
episcopal see, 1 M. to the W. of the station. Between the station and 
the town are extensive remains of a Roman bridge (Ponte Lungo). 
Several chateaux of the old noblesse with lofty towers, and the 
cathedral with towers and elegant facade, are all of brick. — To 
the left lies the rocky island of Gallinaria, crowned with a tower. 

The train quits the coast and traverses olive-groves, vineyards, 
and orchards. It crosses the Centa and skirts the promontory of 
S. Croce. Several tunnels. 

57 M. Alassio. — Hotels. "Grand Hotel Alassio, on the shore, R. 
21/2, L. 1/5. A. »/j, B. H/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4</ 2 , pens. 7-9 fr. ; Hotel Suisse, 
pens. 7-8 tr. ; Hot. de la MumTEitKANftE, with large orangery also on 
the shore, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot. -Pension dks Anglais, pens. 5-6' fr well 
spoken of. — English Church. "' 

Alassio, a seaport with 3800 inhab., is frequented in summer as a 

to Ventimiglia. SAN REMO. 16. Route. 83 

bathing-place, and in winter as a health-resort, especially by Eng- 
lish visitors. The orange-gardens contain numerous palm-trees. 

58 M. Laigueglia; beautiful retrospect of the wild Capo S. 
Croce. The train penetrates the Capo delle Mele by means of a long 
tunnel. 60y 2 M. Andora Marina. Several tunnels. 63y 2 M. Cervo, 
picturesquely situated on the slope. 64 M. Diano Marina (Gr.-H6t. 
Paradis, with sea-baths), in a fertile plain, was the central point 
of the great earthquake of February, 1887, but has since then 
been largely rebuilt (2000 inhab.) and is now a winter-resort. To 
the right, inland, is Diano Castello. — The train enters a more 
extensive plain, in which Oneglia and Porto Maurizio are situated. 

6872 M. Oneglia (Rail. Restaurant; Victoria, well spoken of; 
Alb. del Vapore), with 7300 inhab. and a shallow harbour, carries 
on a busy trade in olive-oil. The prison near the station resembles 
a church. 

From Oneglia to Ormea, via the Col di Mava, see p. 56. 

The train crosses the broad and stony bed of the Impero, which 
the road crosses to the left by a suspension-bridge. — 70 M. Porto 
Maurizio (Hotel de France), with 6600 inhab. and a good harbour, 
is most picturesquely situated on a promontory amidst dense olive- 
groves. Olive-oil is the staple commodity 1 , the finest kinds being 
produced here and at Oneglia. 

73 M. S. Lorenzo. The low, massive towers which rise at inter- 
vals along the coast to the right of the line, some of them con- 
verted into dwelling-houses, were erected for defence against the 
Saracens in the 9th and 10th centuries. — 77y 2 M. 8. Stefano- 
Rivaligure. To the right on the hill is the fortified S. Stefano, 
beyond which we enter the broad Vol Taggia. The train crosses 
the Taggia, beyond which is (79i/ 2 M.) the station of that name 
(the village lies 3 M. up the valley). Beyond a short tunnel a 
valley on the right affords a charming view of Bussana, romantically 
perched on a rock. The ruins of this village, which was completely 
shattered by the earthquake of 1887, are worth visiting (key of the 
ruined church at Bussana Nuova, I1/2 M. lower down). The village 
opposite is Poggio, which first becomes visible. Then a tunnel 
under the Capo Verde. 

847 4 M. San Eemo. — Hotels & Pensions. Ore the W. Side of the 
Town, near the Cono Meizogiorno: *Ge. Hot. Eotal (PI. e; B, 4), R. 3-8, 
L. 3/ 4 , A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens, from 9 fr. ; "Bellevue (PI. d; 
B,4), good cuisine, E., L., & A. 3-7, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-15 fr. ; 
Gk. Hot des Anglais (PI. b ; B, 4), with lift and electric light ; «Gr. Hot. 
de Londkes (PI. c; A, 4), all frequented by the English; "West End Ho- 
tel (PI. g; B, 4), with lift and pretty garden, R. 21/2-8, L. 1, A. 1, B. V/ 2 , 
dej. 3>/2, D. 5, pens. 10-18 fr. ; Gk. Hot. des Iles Britanniques (PI. n; 
A, 4), close to the sea, R., L., & A. 43/4-8V2, B. l>/ 2 , dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 
11-15 fr. ; Eden Hotel (PI. 1; A, 4), Corso dell' Imperatrice, frequented 
by the English. All these are of the first class. 'Pension Trapp (PI. h; 
A, 4), unpretending, pens. 10 fr.; Hot.-Pens. Paradis (PI. f; B, 4); Hot.- 
Pens. Bristol (PI. i; B, 4), R., L., & A. 21/2-5, B. l'/i, dej. 21/2, D. 4, 
pens. 7-10 fr. ; Hot. dd Pavillon (PI. k; A, 4), moderate; Hot. de la 


84 Route 16. SAN REMO. From Genoa 

Reine , plain, adjoining the Giardino Pubblico. — In the Via Berigo, in 
an elevated situation: Hot.-Pens. Belvedere (PI. B, 3); Pens. Bella- 
vista (PL m; B, 3), English. — Near the Station and in the Lower Town: 
Hot. d'Europe et de la Paix (PI. a; C, 4), open situation, R., L., & A. 
3-6, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 772-IO1/2 fr. ; Hotel Metropole & Terminus 
(PI. C, 4), pens, from 7 fr. ; "Hotel dd Commerce (PI. q; C, 3), with cafe"- 
restaurant and small garden, recommended to tourists, R., L., & A. 3, 
B. 1, dej. incl. wine 3, D. incl. wine 4 fr.; Hotel National, well spoken 
of, moderate. — On the B. Side of the Town: *Gr. Hotel de Nice (PI. t; 
E, 2), in a sheltered situation, with lift, R. 21/2-5, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. I1/2, dej. 
31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; Hotel Mediterranee (PI. w; F,2), R. 2-5, L. 1/2, 
A. 3 / 4 , B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; opposite, Grand Hotel, new; 
*Gr. Hotel Victoria (PI. x; F, 2), R. 3-6, L. »/ 4 , A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3i/ 2 , 
D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr. ; the last three are of the first class and have large 
gardens. "Pens. Villa Lindenhof (PI. F, 2), near the sea, B. I1/2, dej. 
21/2, D. 4, pens. 9-14 fr., well spoken of; Pens. Zahn, Corso Garibaldi 2 
(PI. E, 2); Hot.-Pens. Sdisse (PI. u ; E, 2), unpretending; Hotel de Rome 
(PI. v; F, 2), small, R. 2i/ 2 -4, L. 3 / 4 , A. %, B. I1/2, dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 4, pens. 
8-10 fr., well spoken of. 

Apartments. Suites of apartments, which are coming more and more 
into favour , are to be found in the Via Vittorio Emanuele , Corso dell' 
Imperatrice, Via Feraldi, Corso Garibaldi, Via Umberto, and Via Roma. 
Those in the interior of the town are less desirable, owing to the coldness 
of the streets. Villas abound; rent for the winter 1800-12,000 fr., in- 
cluding furniture and other requisites (distinct bargain necessary). A 
lower rent than that advertised is sometimes taken. Situation important 
where invalids are concerned; a S. aspect is essential. Lists of apartments 
and villas atj/r. Congreve's, Via Vitt. Emanuele 16, &ni at the Agence Benecte, 
Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cafes-Restaurants. "Commerce, see above; 'Europien, Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele (Munich beer); Me'tropole; Roma, Via Roma; Cavour , Via Vitt. 
Emanuele, etc. — Confectioner. Eckenberg, facing the Giardino Pubblico. 

Reading Room at the Circolo Internazionale ; subscription for the winter 
50, per quarter 30, per month 12 fr. 

Music in the Giar. Pubblico on Sun., Tues., & Thurs. at 2.30 p.m. — 
Operas at the Teatro Principe Amedeo (PI. D, 3) from 1st Jan. to Easter; 
operettas and comedies at the Politeama Ernesto Rossi, Via Gioberti. 

Carriages. Drive in the lower town 1 fr. , with two horses i 1 /* fr. (at 
night I1/2 or 2 fr.) ; per hour 2 or 3 fr. (at night 3 or 4 fr.) ; if luggage 
over 40 lbs., each box '/j fr.; one-horse carr. to Mentone 30fr. — Donkey per 
day 5 , half-day 3fr., and gratuity. — Boat per hour for 1 person 1 fr., for 
several 2 fr. and fee. 

Omnibus through the town every 1/2 hr. (10 c.) ; from the Piazza Co- 
lombo to Taggia hourly from 10 to 5 (1/2 fr.), to Badalucco at 6.30 a.m. 
and 2 p.m. (I1/2 fr.), to Ceriana at 2 p.m. (1 fr.), to Ospedaletti at 7 and 
10.30 a.m. and 1.30 and 5 p.m. (30 c), to Bordighera at 7.30 and 10.45 a.m. 
and 1.30 and 4 p.m. (60 c), to Camporoiso and Dolceacqua at 3 p.m. (l'/j fr.). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Roma, in the CasaPiccone; 
open 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

Bankers. Asquasciati, Rubino, and Mombello, Debraud, d- Co., all in 
the Via Vitt. Emanuele; Fratelli Marsaglia, Via Roma; Fornari, Corso 

Shops. Gandolfo, bookseller, with lending library, Via Vitt. Emanuele 
21. — Among the specialties of the place are inlaid wood (Anfossi, Si Leva, 
Via Vitt. Emanuele) and the perfumes manufactured by Ajcardi. 

Physicians. English, Drs. Freeman, Foster, and Kay - Shuttleworih; 
German, Drs. Goltz, De Ponte, Secchi, Rieth, Watzoldl, Ostrowitz, and Von 
C/ielloirski ; Italian, Drs. Bobone, Martinueci, Ameglio, and A nsahti Den- 
tists- Terry (Amer.), Villa Bracco 6; Martini, Via della Posta. — Chemists. 
Sf; ire, Via Vittorio Emanuele 17; Pharnuicie Internationale (Calvi) at the 
1 orner of Via Vitt. Emanuele and Via Feraldi; Wiedemann Via Vitt. 
Emanuele 10, undertakes chemical and microscopical analyses'; Panizzi (a 
good botanist) , Via Palazzo ; Jourdan, cor. of Via Palazzo and Via Prin- 

to Ventimiglia. SAN REMO. 16. Route. 85 

cipe Amedeo. — Sanatorium (Dr. von G'heltowski) , beside the West End 
Hotel, enlarged and refurnished, pens. incl. rooms and medical attend- 
ance 10-15 fr. — German Hospital, in the Villa Maddalena, Via Peirogallo 
(PI. D K ; F, 1). — Baths in the Staoilimento dei Bagni, Passeggiata Im- 
peratore, and in the Via Privata. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. John Congreve, Via Vitt. Emanuele 16. — 
U.S. Consular Agent, Signor Alberto Ameglio, Villa Bracco. 

English Churches. St. John the Baptist's, Via Carli. — All Sainis\ Corso 
dell' Imperatrice. — Scottish and American Church (Presbyterian Service), 
Corso dell' Imperatrice 4. 

Climate. San Remo i« sheltered by an unbroken semicircular hill rising 
from the Capo Nero by the Piano Carparo (3000 ft.) to its culminating points 
in the Monte Caggio (3575 ft.) and Monte Bignone (4260 ft.), and descend- 
ing thence to the Capo Verde, its summit being nowhere more than 4 M. 
distant in a straight line. The N. winds are therefore entirely excluded 
from this favoured spot, especially as a double range of Alps rises behind 
the town a little farther back, while the force of the E. and W. winds 
is much broken. Violent E. winds, however, frequently occur at the end 
of February and the beginning of March, and the 'Mistral' is also an un- 
welcome visitor at this season. Heavy rains are not uncommon between 
the middle of October and the middle of November, but December and 
January are usually calm and sunny. — To consumptive and bronchial 
patients the E. bay is recommended on account of its sheltered situation 
and humid atmosphere, while sufferers from nervous and liver complaints 
will find the dry and stimulating air of the W. bay more beneficial. An 
aqueduct, completed in 1885, supplies San Eemo with good drinking-water. 

San Eemo , although apparently a small place, contains 18,500 
inhab. , densely crowded in the older parts of the town, which 
consist of a curious labyrinth of narrow but clean lanes , flights of 
steps, archways, lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. 
The arches which connect the houses high above the streets are 
intended to give them stability in case of earthquakes. Vines are 
frequently seen clambering up the houses and putting forth their 
tendrils and leaves on the topmost stories. The town, once fortified, 
stands on a hill between two short valleys, and the houses rising 
one above another receive light and air from the back only. Casti- 
gliuoli, a smaller quarter on the W. side, is similarly situated. 

The E. part of the town terminates in a height approached by 
broad roads shaded by cypresses , which command charming views 
of the bay and mountains , and is crowned with the white dome- 
covered church of Madonna della Costa (PI. C, 1, 2), in front of which 
there is a large hospital. On a more prominent point, in the grounds 
of the Villa Carbone (PI. C, D, 2), rises a low octagonal tower (fee 
*/2 fr0> which affords an excellent survey of the situation. Corsica 
is visible in the distance to the S. 

Another walk may be taken to the "W. mole of the small harbour, 
which is defended by the fort of S. Tecla (PI. D, 3, 4), erected by 
the Genoese, now a prison. A survey from the upper platform of the 
Molo will convey an idea of the sheltered position of San Remo, which 
renders the climate as genial as that of Mentone and has brought 
it into notice as a health-resort (see above). In the rich vegetation 
of the bay the olive predominates, while the hills above are chiefly 
clothed with pines. From amidst the olive-groves peep a number 

86 Route 16. OSPEDALETTI. From Genoa 

of country-houses and little churches, the highest being at S. Bo- 
molo (2580 ft.) at the foot of the Bignone, where summer visitors 
seek refuge from the heat. Majestic palms adorn the town. 

Walks numerous and beautiful. Some of the roads are new and ex- 
cellent. Near the station are the Giardino Pubblico (PI. C, 3), containing palms, 
eucalypti, etc., and the Corso Imperatrice (Mezzogiorno ; PI. B, C, 4), planted 
with palms and pepper-trees, and terminating towards the W. in the Qiardino 
delV Imperatrice (PL A, B, 4), which was laid out under the auspices of 
the late Empress of Russia (d. 1880). — A delightful drive (tariff, see p. 84) 
is afforded by the "Via Berigo (PI. A, B, 3), which ascends to the N.W. 
from the Corso Ponente (PI. A, 4). We may then descend to the Giar- 
dino Pubblico (see above), or we may follow the new road leading to 
the N. from the 'rondel', which runs past the Madonna del Borgo (PI. 
B, 1) to the Madonna della Costa (p. 85). Hence we follow the circuitous 
and well sheltered Via Barragallo (PI. D, 1, 2), returning to the town by 
the Via di Francia (see below). — Other sheltered roads are the E. prome- 
nade, the Passeggiata Imperatore Federico (PI. E, F, 2), the Via di Francia 
(PI. D, E, 2), the elevated Via Peirogallo (PI. E, F, 2, 1), with the German 
Hospital (p. 85), and the new Corso di Levante (PI. E, F, 2). On the last- 
named, towards the Via Peirogallo, and opposite the Hotel M^diterranee, 
stands the Villa Zirio, where the suffering Crown Prince Frederick re- 
sided from 3rd Nov., 1887, to 10th March, 1888 (no admission). 

Excursions. A beautiful and easily reached point of view is the "Ma- 
donna della Quardia (370 ft.) on Capo Verde (best view in the morning ; 
carr. with one horse 7, with two horses 10 fr.). Roads lead hence to Bus- 
scma and to Taggia (p. 83; omn., see p. 81), Badalucco, Montallo, and Triora. 
The return may be made by Poggio. — To S. Romolo (2580 ft.), a donkey-ride 
of 3 hrs. (6 fr.). About 2 hrs. higher rises Monte Bignone (4260 ft. ; panorama 
of the sea to the S., and the Maritime Alps to the N.). — A good road leads 
to Ceriana (omn., see p. 8i). — To Coldirodi (830 ft. ; see below) by Ospeda- 
letti 2 hrs. ; or direct, by a very ancient road, 1 hr. — To the prettily 
situated Verezzo, with the churches of S. Donato and S. Antonio, by a 
new road through the charming valley of S. Martina in 2>/2 hrs. — To 
S. Pietro, 2 hrs. — Via Ospedaletti to (2'/2 hrs.) Bordighera (omn., see 
p. 81). — Via Bordighera to Dolceacqua and Isolabona (p. 87; omn., see 
p. 84) ; the return may be made by Bajardo and Ceriana (see above). 

The train passes through a tunnel under Capo Nero, while the 
road winds round the promontory high above the sea. 

87 1 j 2 M. Ospedaletti. — Hotels. 'Hotel de la Reine, with lift 
and steam-heating, R. 4-8, L. 3/ 4 , A. 1, B. li/ 2 , dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 8 16 fr.; 
Hot. Suisse, also with steam-heating, R. 2'/.-4, L i/ 2 , A. 72, B. I72, dej. 
3, D. 4, pens. 7-9 fr. ; -Hot. - Pens, de Rhodes, R. 2-3, dej. 2'/-2, D. 3, 
pens, from 6 fr., unpretending. — Also Private Apartments. — English 
Church Service in winter. — Physician, Dr. Enderlin. — Omnibus to San 
Remo and Bordighera, see p. 84. 

Ospedaletti, in a sheltered and most favourable situation, with 
walks free from dust, has recently been converted into a winter- 
resort at great expense. This is the station for the loftily-situated 
(1 hr.) Coldirodi (830 ft.), the town-hall of which contains a picture- 
gallery. — A view is now soon obtained of the palm-groves of — 

91 M. Bordighera. — Hotels and Pensions (most closed during the 
summer). On the Strada Romana (see p. 87) : "Grand Hotel Angst, in 
a sheltered situation, with garden and good view, R 2-5 L 3 / 4 A */< B 
I1/2, dej. 3i/j, D. 5. pens. 10-15 fr. ; Hotel Belvedere, 'well situated,' R.! 
L., & A. 3-5, B. I1/4, dej. 31/2, IX 4, pens. 7-12 fr. ; Hotel de Londres ; 
"Pens. Constantia (formerly Hit. Westminster), pens. 6-9 fr • *H6tel 
Bella Vista, with fine view, R., L., & A. from 3, B. li/ 2 dej'. 2V2 D 
3'/2-4, pens. 7-10 fr. — Lower down, on the road: "Hotel d^Anoleterre' 

to Ventimiglia. BORDIGHERA. 16. Route. 87 

R., L., & A. 31/2-6, B. H/21 d ej- 3, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fi\; Hot. Lozeuok, 
with a large garden, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 9-10 fi-.; Gr. Hotel des 
Iles Britanniques & Victokia, a little back from the road; Hot. Wind- 
sor & Beaukwage; Pens. desOliviers; Pens. Jolie ; Pens. Canzi, pens 
with wine 6 fr. — Caffe-Rislorante Ligure. — List of Private Apartments 
in the Agence des Elrcmgers and at Mr. Berry's, Casa Balestra, Via Vitt. 

Physicians: Dr. Goodchild (English), Dr. Agnelti, Dr. Christeller, Dr 
Herschel, etc. 

English Church : All Saints', Via Bischoffsheim, services at 8, 10.30, 
and 3; chaplain, Rev. Arthur T. Barnett, M.A., Via Bischoffsheim. 

Post Office, Via Vittorio Emanuele, open 8.30-12 and 3.30-7.30. — 
Telegraph Office, Via Vitt. Emanuele and at the station (open 9-12 and 
2^7, Sun. 9-11 and 4-5). 

Beading Boom (Biblioleca Internazionale), open on week-days (Mon. 
excepted) 10.30-11.30, Sun. 2-3.30; also at the new Museum (see below). — 
Bankers: FrateUi Asquctsciati; Hamilton; Banco, di Bordighera. — Theatre: 
Ruffini, Via Margherita (operettas and comedies). 

Omnibus to Ospedaletti and San Remo, see p. 84. 

Climate. The strangers' quarter is formed by the Strada Romana, now 
converted into a wide and dust-free promenade running along the slope 
through groves of pine and olive. It is fairly sheltered, especially towards 
its E. end. The temperature is similar to that of Mentone. The humidity 
is low near the sea , owing to the dry coast-winds, but increases as we 
approach the wooded hills. The number of rainy days is even less than 
at San Remo. The quarter adjoining the sea was strongly affected by the 
earthquake of 1887 and is too exposed for invalids. 

The little town (1800 inhab.) consists of a new lower and an 
old upper quarter. The former, with the railway-station, hotels, 
and straight streets , extends along the shore ; the latter stands on 
the higher ground of the promontory. From the main road in the 
lower quarter several cross-roads ascend to the Strada Romana (the 
ancient Via Amelia), running parallel with it. A magnificent *View 
is obtained from the stone benches on the top of the promontory of 
Ampeglio, a little to the S. of the Hotel Bella Vista, and from the 
terrace a little higher up. To the left the bay of Ospedaletti ; to the 
right Ventimiglia , Mentone , Cap Martin , Monaco , the Monts 
Este'rels , and the snow-flecked Alpes Maritimes. Bordighera is 
famous for its date-palms (Phoenix dactylifera), but the fruit sel- 
dom ripens sufficiently to be edible. Among the attractions are the 
Museum and Reading Room recently built by an English resident 
(containing a unique collection of the flora of the Riviera, about 
4000 specimens, and a free library of 3500 books, mostly English), 
the Bordighera Lawn Tennis Club , the Garden of Hr. Winter , to 
the E. of the town (his shop on the W. side contains an exhibition 
of plaited palm-branches), and the Villa Gamier (or Palazzino des 
Palmiers , property of the French architect Charles Gamier) , both 
with beautiful palms. 

Walks. To the Torre dei Mostazzini, a good view-point (key kept at 
the Hot. Angst); to the Val del Borghetto and along the conduit to the 
Roman aqueduct; to the Scheffel Palms, on the beach to the E. 

Excursions through the Val Nervia to (6 M.) Dolceacqua, with the an- 
cestral castle of the Dorias of Genoa, and via Isolabona to (6 M.) Pigna; 
to (3 M.) Vallebona via, Borghetto; from Old Bordighera by foot and bridle 
paths through beautiful olive-groves to ( 3 /4 hr.) Sasso; and to the celebrated 
gardens of Mr. Thomas Hanbury at La Mortola, li/« hr/s drive (p. 88). 

88 Route 17. MBNTONE. Hotels. 

To the right of the line we pass the Protestant school of Valle- 
crosia (shown to visitors on Mon., Wed., & Thurs.). Crossing the 
Neroia, we obtain a glimpse of the Maritime Alps. The line crosses 
the road ; on the left are scanty remains of a Roman theatre and the 
burial-ground of the recently discovered Nervi. 

94 M. Ventimiglia, Fr. Vintimille (Rail. Restaurant; Hotel 
de I'Europe, well spoken of; *H6tel Suisse, modest). The town, 
an Italian frontier- fortress, with 4200 inhab., lies picturesquely 
on a hill beyond the Roja , whose broad stony bed the line crosses 
farther on. In the Municipio a small collection of Roman antiquities 
from Nervi (see above). The church of S. Michele is interesting; 
the columns of its vaulted crypt bear Roman inscriptions. Fine 
view of the Roja valley through the Porta Romana. 

A Branch Railway is being made from Ventimiglia to Limone (for Cuneo 
and Turin; see p. 50); and until it is opened a Diligence runs twice 
daily to (17 M.) Gicmdola (comp. p. 52). 

17. The French Coast from Ventimiglia to Cannes. 

41 M. Railway in 2'/a-3 lirs. (fares 7 fr. 75, 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 45 c); to 
Nice, 22 M. , in H/z-l 3 /* hr. (fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 40 c.). — Comp. 
Baedeker's Southern, France. 

Ventimiglia, where carriages are changed and a long detention 
takes place on account of the custom-house examination, is de- 
scribed above. — The train penetrates a tunnel and emerges on the 
sea. The view, however, is limited. 

[The High Road is much more attractive than the railway and 
commands finer views. The highest point is defended by forts. 
On a hill to the right are the ruins of a Roman castle. Farther on 
is Mortola, with its church, finely situated on a rocky promontory. 
A visit may be paid here to Mr. Hanbury's beautiful garden (adm. 
1 fr.), with its tropical vegetation, a favourite point for an excursion 
from Mentone , especially in Feb. and March , when the anemones 
are in bloom (fine view). — Beyond Mortola we skirt a gorge and 
then ascend, soon reaching the Italian custom-house (dogana). To 
the right, above, lies Orimaldi (p. 91). Numerous charming villas 
and gardens are passed. The vegetation is of a rich southern 
character. The bridge (Pont St. Louis) over the deep rocky ravine 
marks the French frontier.] 

7 M. Mentone. — Arrival. Mentone has two railway-stations, Men- 
ton-Garavan and Menton-Condamine, for the E. and W. bays respectively. 

Hotels and Pensions. The larger hotels have hydraulic lifts and 
heated corridors and staircases, and send omnibuses to the station. The 
charge for a room with southern aspect varies from 2'/ 2 to 10 fr • pension 
(R., A., B., luncheon, and D. ; wine extra) from 6 to 20 fr. per day. — On 
the W. Bay. (1) At some distance from the sea : *H6tel National (PI. a), 
finely situated ; "Iles Bkitanniques (PI. b) , R. 3-8 fr. L. 75 c. A. 1 fr. 
D. 6, pens. 10-20, omn. 1 fr. ; :! H6t. du Louvke (PI. i), with garden R.' 
3-6, D. 5, pens. D-13fr; "Hot. des Ambassadeubs, pens. 9-18 fr • Hot 
Victoria & des Pkinoes , 8-13 fr. ; Hot. de Geneve ; Hot. de Ve'nise & 
Continental ; "Hot. d'Okient (PI. d), with garden, R. 5-10, D. 5 fr • "Hot. 

Restaurants. MENTONE. 17. Route. 89 

des Palmiers, R. 3-4, D. 4 fr. 50 c; 'Grand Hotel de Russie & d'Alle- 
magne (PI. e); Hot. de Malte; Hot. de Turin. Beyond the station: "Hot. 
Cosmopolitain, in a high situation, pens. 8-14 fr. ; Hot. d'Albion, English. 
— In the Avenue de la Gare: Hot. du Parc, Hot. d'Europe et Terminus, 
belonging to the same landlord, pens, from 8 fr. ; Pens. Suisse, Pens, des 
Deux-Mondes, unpretending. — (2) In the Promenade du Midi, Route Natio- 
nale, Avenue Victor Emanuel, and Rue St. Michel, near the sea: Hot. de 
Menton et du Midi (PI. f), R. from 2>/2, D. 4 fr. ; Hot. dd Littoral (PI. 1) ; 
Hot. de Paris (PI. h) ; Hot. des Colonies , English , R. 2-4 , D. 5 fr. ; 
Rotal; Metropole et Central (PI. k), pens. 8 fr. ; Pens, des Dames. — 
To the E. of the Jardin, Public and the Boul. Carnoles: Splendide Hotel, 
8-12 fr. ; Hot. de Londres, 6-8 fr.; Pens, de Familles; Hot.-Pens. St. 
Georges. — In the Vallee du Borrigo: Pens, des Rosiers. — In the Gorbio 
valley, to the N.W., 20 min. from the middle of the town: 'Alexandra 
Hotel, a large new house, charmingly situated, with garden. — At the Cap 
Martin (p. 91) : Grand Hotel du Cap Martin, R. from 5, D. 7, pens, from 
15 fr. Adjacent, on the road : Hotel Victoria, with baths and a good 

On the E. Bay: "Hotel d'Italie and Hot. Bellevue, both situated 
above the high-road and patronised by the English, with pleasant gardens, 
R. from 2 or 3, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr.; Hot. des Anglais, frequented by 
English and Americans, R. 2 1 / 2 -5, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr. ; Grand Hotel, 
close to the Garavan station, with large garden, R. 2'/2-6, D. 5, pens. 
8-12 fr.; 'Hot. Beaurivage , 8-12 fr. ; Hot. Britannia; Hot.-Pens. Sta. 
Maria, 7-12 fr.; Beau-Site; Pens. Villa Marina, 7-10 fr. 

All the hotels and pensions are closed in summer except the Hotels 
de Menton and du Parc. 

Apartments. In both bays there are many charming and sometimes 
handsomely furnished villas, a list of which (about 300) may be obtained 
of O. Willoughby , Cook's Agency, Boglio (English and American Agency), 
Oust. Atnarante (Place St. Roch 11), or Ton. Amarante, who draw up con- 
tracts of lease , take inventories of furnishings, and compare them again 
when the visitor leaves. Rents 1000-7000 fr. and upwards for the season. 
Private apartments, from 700 fr. upwards, where families can live less ex- 
pensively than at a pension, are to be had in the Avenue Victor Emanuel, 
Rue de la Republique , etc. Choice of situation, see p. 90. 

Restaurants. Maison Dorie, Place St. Roch. Many of the hotels, 
such as the H6t. de Menton , supply subscribers with dinner at reduced 
rates. — Cafes. "Gafi de Paris, Rue St. Michel; Rumpelmayer (ices), Avenue 
Victor Emmanuel; Gafi du Nord, Avenue dc la Gare (coffee 40 a); Pa- 
vilion de Menton, at the Jardin Public. — Beer. Brasserie Suisse (Jann), 
Rue Honorine; Brasserie de Munich, Rue Partouneaux, etc. — Confec- 
tioners. "Giovanoli, Place St. Roch; Jann, see above. 

Physicians. Drs. Fitz-Henry, Marriot, Siordet, and Rendal, English; 
Dr. Stiege and Dr. v. Cube, German ; Dr. Francien, Dutch ; Drs. Farina, 
Andral, Just, Malihran, and Chios, French. — Dentist : Mount. — Chemists : 
British Pharmacy (Jassoud) , Lindewald, Oddo, Oilson, and Btzos, all of 
whom make up English and German prescriptions during the winter. 

Baths. Etablissement des Bains, Rue Partouneaux; Sea-Baths (cold 
and hot) in front of the Hotel des Anglais. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 4), Rue Partouneaux (from 7 or 8 a.m. 
till 9 p. m.). 

British Vice-Consul, Charles Palmaro, Esq., Place St. Roch. — United 
States Consular Agent, Ange Clericq, Esq , Casa Mars, Garavan, East Bay. 
Bankers. Charles Palmaro (see above); Banque Populaire, Rue Par- 
touneaux; Cridit Lyonnais, Place St. Roch 11. — Book-Shops. Librairie 
Centrale., Rue St. Michel, with lending library; Matthieu, Rue St. Michel 24. 

— Public Library, in the Hotel de Ville, open on Tues., Thurs., & Sat., 
10-12 and 2-5. — Bazaars. Maison Modele, Rue St. Michel; Bazar Parisien 
and Bazar de Menton, Avenue Victor Emanuel ; Au Petit Pans, for ladies. 

— Photographers. Anfossi and Guesquin, Rue Partouneaux. 

Music in the Jardin Public on Mon., Tues., Wed., Frid., & Sat., 2-4 

90 Route 17. MENTONE. Situation. 

p.m., also from 1st Jan. to 15th April, 11-12 ; on Sun. at the Place du 
Cerele, 2-4 p.m. 

Casinos. Grand Casino, Rue de la Re'publique (adm. lfr.); Casino 
Central (PI. 6), next door to the Hotel de Turin. 

Tramway in the season every 20 min. from the Quartier Garavan on 
the E. to the Avenue Lodola on the W. (near the Cap Martin ; 30 c), pass- 
ing the Place Nationale (15 c.) ; and from the Rue Trenca to the Villa 
Caserta, in the Vallee de Carei (30 c), passing the railway-station ofCon- 
damine (15 c). — Omnibus from the Place du Cap to Ventimiglia at 
6.30 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. (1 fr.). 

Carriages. Drive in the town lfr., with two horses l'/2 fr., at night 
l>/2 or 2 fr. ; per hour 2 fr. 50, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 75, 3 fr. 75 c; half-day, one- 
horse 8-10 fr. , day 12-15 fr. ; two-horse 25 fr. per day. — Drive in the 
Boul. de Garavan 4-6 fr. ; to Cap Martin 6-8 fr. ; Roquebrune and the 
Vallee de Menton 8 or 10 fr. ; Mortola 10 or 15 fr. ; Vallee de Gorbio 
and back 12-15 fr. ; Monte Carlo 8-12, and back, with stay of 1-2 hrs.. 
12-15 fr. — Donkey 5 fr. per day, 21/i fr. per half-day. 

English Churches. St. John's, in the W. bay, services at 8, 11, and 3; 
Christ Church, in the E. bay, adjoining the Casa Mars, services at 8.30 
11, and 3. — Scottish Church, Rue de la Republique. — French Protestant 
Church, Rue de la Republique. 

Climate. Mentone is sheltered from the N. winds by a girdle of rocky 
mountains, and is considered one of the most favourable spots for a 
winter-residence on the Riviera. The E. bay in particular is thoroughly 
sheltered, and has a mean temperature in winter of 50° Fahr. A cool and 
refreshing breeze, however, generally springs up about noon, and the 
cold 'Brise' is also an occasional visitor. Between 1st Nov. and the end of 
April rainy days average 40, while snow rarely falls. Fogs are unknown, 
but heavy dews are frequent. The W. bay is less sheltered than the E. 
bay, but has a greater choice of houses at a distance from the sea, and 
affords pleasanter walks. The dusty roads are regularly watered, and 
the sanitary arrangements have been improved. 

Mentone, Fr. Menton, a small town with 9000 inhab., formerly 
belonging to the principality of Monaco, independent for a short 
time in 1849,'and afterwards under Sardinian supremacy, was an- 
nexed to France in 1861. It is charmingly situated on the Bay of 
Mentone, consisting of the Bale de VEst or de Garavan and the Bait 
de I'Ouest, separated by a rocky promontory, on which the older 
parts of the town are built. Below the old town, in the E. bay, is 
the harbour, constructed in 1890 (fine view from the breakwater]. 
Several brooks, occasionally swollen by rain, empty themselves into 
the W. bay, the Sinus Pads of antiquity. The luxuriant vegetation 
consists mainly of orange and lemon groves , chiefly in the side- 
valleys (yielding al>out 30 million lemons annually), interspersed 
with gnarled carob-trees (ceratonia siliqua), figs, olives, etc. As a 
winter-resort Mentone vies with Nice and Cannes , offering simpler 
and quieter quarters than either of these, while not less favoured by 

From the principal station , on the E. Bay , we soon reach the 
Tight bank of the Torrent de Carei , which we may either skirt to 
its mouth or cross by the new bridge leading to the centre of the 
town. By crossing it at its mouth, we reach the W. Bay , with the 
two great gathering-places of visitors (11-2): the Promenade du 
Midi, skirting the sea, and the Jardin Public. To the left parallel 
with the Promenade, begins the Avenue Victor Emanuel forming 

Excursions. MENTONE. 17. Route. 91 

along with the Rue St. Michel, the principal artery of the new town. 
At its E. end stands the Hotel de Ville, containing a small museum 
of prehistoric antiquities found near Mentone (comp. below), includ- 
ing parts of some troglodyte skeletons (open on Mon., Wed., & Sat.). 
The Old Town, near this point, has tortuous, steep, and badly 
made streets, but is very picturesque. It resembles Italian towns, 
but is cleaner. Its principal building is the Church of St. Michel, 
dating mainly from the 17th century. 

The quarter adjoining the E. Bay , named Oaravan ('gare a 
vent'), is also picturesque. At the opposite end of it from the small 
harbour mentioned above is (1 V2 M.) the Torrent de St. Louis (comp. 
p. 88). Here are the Grottoes, now partly destroyed, in which the 
above-mentioned skeletons of prehistoric man were found. 

Above the old town stood a chateau, the site of which has been 
converted into a Cemetery, a conspicuous feature in views of the 
town. From this cemetery , and from the high-lying Boulevard de 
Oaravan, which skirts the whole of the E. Bay, we obtain a splen- 
did view of the sea and of the coast from Bordighera to the Tete-de- 
Chien. On the top of one of the hills is the village of S. Agnese 
(see p. 92). Another fine view is obtained from the convent of 
/SiS. Annunziata, to which a fair but steep path, diverging near the 
station of Menton-Condamine from the road to Sospello , leads in 

1/2 hr. 

The favourite object for a short drive from Mentone (1 hr. there 
and back) is the *Cap Martin, with its large hotel (p. 89; carriage, 
see p. 90). Walkers may avail themselves of the tramway to La 
Lodola (p. 90). At present we follow the Monaco and Nice road, 
but an esplanade is being made which will extend to the cape. 
The cape is covered with a forest, part of which is now the park of 
the Hotel du Cap Martin (visitors admitted ; cafe'-restaurant). On 
the other side of the cape is a Signal Station (Semaphore) , a little 
to the N. of which is a ruin, probably a tomb, belonging to the old 
Roman settlement of Lumone. 

Other pleasant walks may be taken to the W. to the Vallee des 
Torrents de Care'i (on the road to Sospello, see below), the Vallee 
de Borrigo, and the Vallee de Oorbio; to the E. to Mortola (see 
p. 88) and to Grimaldi (Trattoria Garibaldi) , immediately beyond 
the Pont St. Louis (p. 88; 3 / 4 hr.). 

Excursions. A beautiful walk or drive may be made by the new 
(Turin) road to Sospello, ascending the right bank of the Torrent de Corel, 
which falls into the Baie de TOuest. Near (4 M.) Monti the road begins 
to ascend. About 3/4 M. farther, a little to the right, is the Gourg de POra, 
a grotto with a waterfall. The road then winds up the Col de Guardia, 
penetrating the upper part of the hill by a tunnel 88 yds. long. At the 
other end of the tunnel lies the rock-bound hamlet of Casiillon (2530 ft), 
9'/2 M. from Mentone, 4>/2 M. from Sospello (p. 52). — Another walk is 
by (iy 4 hr.) Cattellar (Cafe^-Restaurant des Alpes) to the summit of the 
Roc d'Ormea or Berceau (3600 ft. ; 3-4 hrs.) ; magnificent prospect, embrac- 
ing the mountains of the coast, the blue expanse of the Mediterranean, 
and Corsica in the distance. — Castellar is also the starting-point for an 

92 Route 17. MONTE CARLO. Hotels. 

ascent (2V2 hrs.) of the Grammondo (4515 ft.) or Grand Mont, a little to 
the N., by a bridle-path reaching to within 1/4 hr. of the top. — To S. 
Agnese (poor inn) , a village built on the top of a rocky ridge (2500 ft.) 
as a place of refuge from the Saracens (2'/z hrs. by the old road, a little 
more by the other). The return may be made via (IV2 hr.) Gorbio (1426 ft. ; 
Cafe-Restaurant Reynaud) and the new road (71/2 M.) or via (p/t hr.) the 
railway -station Cabbe-Roquebrune (see below). — The Pic de Baudon 
(4143 ft.) is ascended in 41/2 hrs. from Mentone via S. Agnese and the 
Collet de Bauison, to the E. of the mountain; or by Gorbio (easier road) 
and the Col de la Madone-de- Gorbio. Splendid view. 

The following Round may be recommended to visitors whose time is 
limited. We drive by the Sospello road (p. 91) as far as the tunnel of 
the Col de Guardia (3V2 hrs.; 15 fr.), where luncheon may be taken. We 
next visit CastHlon (p. 91) and then proceed to the S., by a good footpath 
skirting the E. slope of the Siricocca (3494 ft.) to S. Agnese (2 hrs.; see 
above). Thence, by a stony road, commanding splendid views of the coast 
and the sea, to Gorbio and Mentone (see p. 91). 

--Feom Mentone to Nice by the Old Road (Route de la Corniche), 
19 M., carriage in 4 hrs. (fare 25-30 fr., with gratuity of 2-3 fr.). Walkers 
(6-7 hrs.) should not attempt it except in cool weather. As the drivers 
prefer the new road, which is much less picturesque, it is well to stipu- 
late expressly for the Corniche route and to see that the right branch is 
followed at the fork near Roccabruna (see below). — This fine road, con- 
structed under Napoleon I., traverses the most beautiful part of the entire 
Riviera, the true Route de la Corniche, and is far preferable to the rail- 
way. It ascends through the most luxuriant vegetation. From the first 
ridge we obtain a fine view of Mentone and of the coast as far as Bordi- 
ghera. At the fork, a little farther on, we obtain a view of Monte Carlo 
and Monaco, to which the road to the left descends. We follow the right 
branch, which ascends slowly to the N.E. (on the height to the left the 
village of Roccabruna or Roquebrune, see below). Farther on it runs up 
and down along the slopes to (3 hrs.) the village of La Turbie (1594 ft.; 
Cafes-Restaurants de Paris, de France, Dondo, all very modest; Restau- 
rant at the mountain railway, see p. 93; omn. to Nice, see p. 97), with 
the remains of the Roman Tropaea Augusti (hence the name) , erected to 
commemorate the subjection of the Ligurians ('anno 74S urbis conditse', 
i. e. 6 B. C). In the 13th cent, the monument was used as the base of 
a tower, which is now in a very ruinous condition. A magnificent view 
of Monaco and the coast as far as Cap Martin is obtained from the plat- 
form 175 yds. to the E. of the Cafe de France. — Beyond La Turbie we 
soon come in sight of the wooded promontory of St. Jean (p. 103), Beaulieu 
(p. 95) , and Villefranche (p. 95) , with its fine gulf. To the left rises a 
precipitous isolated rock, crowned by the houses and white church of 
Eza. At the (4 hrs.) Restaurant des Forts d'Eze a view of the snow-clad 
Maritime Alps is disclosed to the right. The road ascends somewhat and 
then descends steadily, passing (5 hrs.) the Col des Q/uatre Chemins, where 
a road to Villefranche and a rough footpath to (1 hr.) Nice diverge on the 
left. It then sweeps to the N., round the Mont Grot (p. 103), and reaches 
(6V2 hrs.) Nice (p. 95). v " 

Beyond Mentone the Railway skirts the sea, crossing the incon- 
siderable Borrigo and penetrating Cap Martin (p. 91) by a tunnel. 
— 9^2 M. Cabbe-Roquebrune ; the village (Ital. Roccabruna) lies 
high up to the right, embowered in orange and lemon groves and 
commanded by a conspicuous ruined castle. 

12 M. Monte Carlo. - Arrival. The Principal Station is near the 
Casino (ascenseur, or lift, 25 c, up and down 35 c). Station of La Turbie, 
see p. 93. 

Hotels. "Metkopole , with 600 rooms from 6 fr. upwards D 8 f r • 
Hotel de Paris, dej. 5, D. 6 fr. ; *Gkand Hotel Continental, pens', from 
11 fr. ; these three near the Casino and handsomely fitted up with charges 
to correspond, especially in the season (Dec 15th to May). Hotisl Windsor 

Casino. MONTE CARLO. 17. Route. 93 

with good sanitary arrangements, frequented by the English, moderate 
charges, well spoken of; St. James; Hotel des Anglais, R. 6-10, dej. 4, 
D. 6 fr. : Villa des Fleues, R. 5-10, D. 4 fr. ; Hot. do Louvre, R. from 
3,_D. 3'/2 fr. ; Hot. des Colonies; Hot. de I.ondkes, R. from 4, D. 5fr. ; 
Hot. Mekmet ; Hot. de Russie ; Splendide, R. from 5 , D. 6 fr. ; Pbince 
de Galles et Victoeia, frequented by the English, R. from 8, dej. 4, D. 

8 fr. , these all situated higher up. — To the E. , in Les Monlins: "Hot. 
de la Teeeasse, R. 4-10, D. 6, pens. 12-20 fr. ; Hot. de l'Eurofe, D. 
4 fr.; Villa Ravel (maison meublee), pens. 8-15 fr.; Hot. du Paeo. — In 
the Ave. de Monte Carlo, leading to La Condamine: Beaueivage, pens. 
12-16 fr. ; Hot. des Peinces. — At the railway-station: Hot. Terminus, R. 
from 21/2, dej. 2Vj, D. 3 fr. 

These hotels are generally closed in summer, with the exception of the 
Hot. de Paris, the H6t. des Colonies, the H6t. de I'Europe, and the Terminus. 
Restaurants. "Caft Riche, Restaurant de Paris, high charges. 
Post and Telegraph Office , Ave. de Monte Carlo , open 8 a. m. to 

9 a.m. (for telegraph till midnight), Sun. 8-6. 

Banks. Smith & Co., Galerie Charles III., adjoining the Hot. Metropole. 

Carriages. Per course within the Principality of Monaco IV2, per hr. 
3 fr., at night 2 l /z or 5 fr. ; to Nice and back, with stay of 3 hrs., 25 fr.; 
to Cap St. Martin and back, with stay of l'/s hr., 10 fr. Bargaining desirable. 

Omnibus to Nice, see p. 97. A Brake also plies daily from the Casino, 
at 11.30 a.m., to Cap Martin (p. 91), following the new road. 

Monte Carlo, belonging to the principality of Monaco, and beau- 
tifully situated in a sheltered hay, is well-known for its charming 
climate, hut is chiefly visited on account of its gaming facilities. 

The handsome Casino, built by Charles Gamier, stands on a 
promontory to the E. of the town. The Salles de Jeu lie to the left 
of the entrance. In front is the Salle des Fetes, richly adorned with 
paintings by Feyen-Perrin , Gust. Boulanger , Clairin , and Lix. 
Outside are statues of Music, by Sarah Bernhardt , and Dancing, by 
Gust. Bore. 

The Gaming Rooms are open daily, from midday till 11 p.m., by tickets 
obtained gratis at the office (to the left, in the vestibule) on presentation 
of visiting-cards. The games are roulette and trente-et-quarante, the mini- 
mum and maximum stakes being respectively 5 and 6000, 20 and 12,000 fr. 
— The other rooms are also open from 10 a.m. till midday by special 
ticket ('carte blanche'). Music twice daily; concert of classical music on 
Thurs. (in winter), 2.30-4 p.m.; opera, with first-class artists, in winter. 

The Casino is surrounded by beautiful grounds, with numerous 
palm-trees and affording splendid views. They extend to the Palais 
des Beaux-Arts, where an exhibition of modern works of art is held, 
from Jan. to April (daily , 9-5 ; adm. 1 fr.). Farther on, beyond 
the limits of the principality , are the La Turbie Station and the 
imposing building of the Credit Lyonnais. — The Serres Blanc 
(greenhouses), above the Casino Gardens, also deserve a visit. 

A Mountain Railway, opened in 1894, ascends from Monte Carlo to 
La Turbie in 20 min. (fares 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 30 c; return-fare 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 
45 c). It is about 2 M. long and rises 1345 ft. Trains pass each other at 
the intermediate station of La Bordina (720 ft.). The upper station 
(1574 ft. ; *Restaurant, a branch of the Continental Hotel of Monte Carlo) 
commands a magnificent view (comp. p. 92). 

The railway to Nice skirts the deep ravine separating Monte 
Carlo from Condamine, and reaches — 

13 M. Monaco. — Arrival. The railway-station is at La Condamine., 
at the foot of the rock on which Monaco stands. Omn. to the old town 20 c. 

94 Route 17. MONACO. Hotels. 

Hotels (all at La Condamine). Hotel de la Condamine, well spoken 
of, R. 2-6, D. 3'/2, pens. 8-10 fr. ; Beau-Sejour, similar charges ; Bristol, 
R. from 3, D. 4 fr. ; Beau-Site, R. from 3, D. 31/2 fr. ; "Hot. des Etrangers, 
R. 2'/2, L>. 3 fr. ; Hot. de la Paix; Hot. d'Angleterre ; Hot. Monegasqde, 
well spoken of; Hot. de Marseille, D. at these four 3 fr. — Near the 
railway-station: Hot. de Nice, R. from 3, D. 3fr.; Hot. des Negociants. 
— Hotels in the Avenue de Monte Carlo , see p. 93. 

Carriages as at Monte Carlo. — Omnibus from the Place d'Armes to 
Monte Carlo, 20 c. 

Sea Baths, at La Condamine, near the promontory. 

English Physicians: Dr. Hutchinson, Villa Mai; Dr. Fagge, Villa de 
la Porte Rouge; Dr. Filz-Qerald; Dr. Pryce Mitchell, Villa Henri; Dr. Rolla 
Rouse. — Dentist: Mr. Ash. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. Edward Smith. — American Consular Agent, 
Mr. Emile de Loth. — Bankers, Smith it Co. 

English Church ; chaplain, Rev. Francis Stewart, M. A. 

Monaco (195 ft.), a town with about 3000 inhab., is the capital 
of the diminutive principality of the same name , which included 
Roccabruna and Mentone down to 1848. This little 'enclave' in 
French territory is about 2i/ 4 M. long and 165 to 1100 yds. wide (area 
5 3 / 4 sq. M.) and contains about 10,000 inhabitants. It is governed 
by sovereign princes of the house of Grimaldi, but the custom-house 
and postal service are in the hands of France. 

The town consists of two parts : Monaco proper, picturesquely 
situated on a bold promontory at the foot of the Tete de Chien, and 
La Condamine, or the new town, on the bay below. The latter, now 
the more important of the two, is a favourite health-resort in winter 
and a sea-bathing place in summer. To the N.W. opens the pretty 
Vallon de Ste. Devote, named from a pilgrimage-chapel, situated to 
the right, beyond the railway viaduct (comp. p. 93). 

Descending from the railway-station towards the sea, we soon 
reach the Place d'Armes, whence walkers ascend to Monaco by a 
path to the right, while carriages follow a road which winds round 
the promontory and approaches the palace from the E. 

The *Palace, a building of the Renaissance with crenelated towers, 
contains sumptuous apartments adorned with frescoes (shown daily, 
2-5 ; fee). Besides a series of royal portraits, there are pictures by 
Giorgione, Albani, Domenichino, and other masters. The great hall 
has a handsome Renaissance chimney-piece. — Behind the palace 
is a fine Garden, also shown to visitors. 

The only other building of consequence in Monaco is the Cathe- 
dral, an imposing modern structure in a Romano-Byzantine style by 
Chas. Normand. Its decorations are veTy tasteful. — Near this 
church, on the S. side of the town , is the Promenade St. Martin, a 
public garden laid out on the old ramparts and commanding a *View 
of the sea and coast. — A tower adjoining the promenade on the E. 
contains a small Museum, open on Sun., Tues. , & Thurs., 1-4 p.m. 
Monte Carlo is about l>/ 4 M. from Monaco via La Condamine. Car- 
riages, see p. 93. 

Beyond Monaco the train threads three long and several short 

Hotels. NICE. 77. Route. 95 

tunnels. — 14 M. La Turbie (p. 92); 16 M. Eza, with the village 
on a rock to the right (p. 92) ; 18 M. Beaulieu (p. 92) ; 1974 M. 
Villefranche (p. 92). We now penetrate a tunnel, nearly 1 M. long, 
pass Biquier, enter the valley of the Paillon, cross the stream, 
pass through another tunnel, and reach the principal railway-station 
of (22 M.) Nice. 

Nice and Environs. 

Arrival. Nice has'three railway-stations : the Grande Gare (PI. C, 2), 
on the main line from Marseilles to Ventimiglia; the Gare de Riquier (PI. 
H, 2), a suburban station on the same line ; and the Gare du Sud (PI. C, 1), 
for the lines to Grasse and Puget-Theniers. — Cabs, see p. 96; omn. 
30 c, trunk 25 c., small article of luggage 10 c. 

Hotels. In the Promenade des Anglais (PI. A-D , 5, 4): "Hotel des 
Anglais, de Luxembourg, "de la Meditereanee, Westminsteb, de Rome 
or "West-End, St. Petersbourg, Eltsee, all first-class and expensive: R. 
4-10, A. 1-li/j, L. 3/ 4 -l, dej. 4, D. 6, pens. 10-20 fr. — Near the end of 
the Promenade : Pens. Chateau des Beaumettes, with a garden, 15-20 fr. 
— By the Jardin Public (PI. D, 4): 'Grande Beetagne , R., L., & A. 7, 
D. 6, omn. 2, pens, from 16 fr. ; "Angleterre, R., L., & A. from 4, D. 6, 
pens. 15 fr. 

On the Qtiai Massina (PL D, E, 4): "Hot. de France, R., L., & A. 
from 5, B. IV2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens. 12 fr. — Quai St. Jean-Baptiite (PI. E, 
F, 4, 3): Cosmopolitan Hotel; Hot. de la Paix; Grand Hotel. 

la the Square Grimaldi (PI. D, 4), Hotel Grimaldi, first-class. — In 
the Rue de France (PI. D, 4): Hot. -Pens. Tarelli, R. 2-7, L. & A. 1, B. 
IV4, dej. 21/2, D.4, pens. 8-12 fr. — In the Boulevard du Midi (PI. E, F, 4): 
Hot. Beaueivage, with beautiful view, R. 2'/2-6, L. & A. 1, D. 5, pens, 
from 10 fr. ; Suisse, R. 2-7, D. 4, pens, from 9 fr. — In the Rue des Pon- 
cfiettes (PI. F, 4): "Hot. des Princes, well situated on the shore, R. 2-5, 
L. & A. 1, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr. — In the Rue du Poni-Neuf (PI. E, 4), in 
the old town: "Hot. des Eteangees, frequented by passing travellers, R., 
L., & A. from 31/2, D. 4, pens. 10-12 fr. 

In the Boulevard Carabacel (PI. F, 2) : Hot. de Paris ; Hot. Bristol ; 
"Hot. de Nice, well situated, R., L., & A. from 474, D. 5-6, pens. IOV2-I8 fr. ; 
Hot. d'Europe et d'Amerique ; Hot. Carabacel. — In the Boulevard Du- 
bouchage (PI. E,3,2): Hot. Jullien; Hot. d'Albion, pens. 10fr.; Hot. Mono- 
pole ; Hot. duJLittoeal ; Hot. Gilles et des Empeeeurs ; Hot. de Biarritz ; 
Hot. de Hollande. — In the Avenue Beaulieu (PI. D, E, 2): Hot. Roubion, 
R , L., & A. from 4V2, D. 6, pens. 9-15 fr. — In the Avenue de la Gare (PI. 
L\ E, 2, 3) : Univers, at the corner of the Rue du Temple, commercial ; 
Hot. Gilles et des Deux-Mondes; National, near the station, dej. 3, 
D- 4 fr. — In the Rue Pastorelli (PI. D, E, 3) : Hot. des Negociants, R., 
L., & A. 4-5, D. 4, pens, from 9 fr., well spoken of. — In the Rue Giof- 
fredo (PI. E, F, 3): Hot. Montesquieu, second-class. 

In the Boulevard Victor Hugo (PI. C, D, 3): *Iles Britanniques, R., L., 
& A. from 5, B. I1/2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens. 12-18 fr. ; "Paeadis, frequented by 
the English, R., L., & A. from 4 3 / 4 , B. I1/2, dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 12 fr. ; 
Hot-Pens. Reine- Victoria; Hot. du Louvre; Hot. -Pens, des Palmiers, 
R., L., & A. from3>/ 2 , B. I74-I72, dej. 3, D. 4fr.; Splendide ; H6t.-PenS\ 
des Orangers. — Rue St. Etienne (PI. C, D , 2, 3) : Hot. Raissan; *H6t. 
Milliet, R., L., & A. from 4 3 /<, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5 fr. — In the Rue 
Cotta (PI. C, D, 3); Hot. de l'Amieaute ; Hot. Longchamp. — In the 
Rue Rossini (PI. C, D, 3): "Hot. International; Hot. de Russie. — In 
the Rue Adelaide (PI. D, 3) : Hot. Revelli. — In the Rue d'Angleterre (PI. 
D, 2, 3): Hot. de Berne, R. 3, B. l'/ 4 , dej. 3, D. incl. wine 3'/ 2 fr.; "Hot. 
Meuble de Paris, unpretending, R. IV2 fr., B. 60 c. — In the Avenue Durante 
(PI. D, 2): Hot. du Midi, well spoken of, R., L., & A. 31/4, B. l'/4 fr. ; 
Hot. Richemont; Hot. -Pens. Funel. — In the Avenue Thiers (near the 

96 Route 17. 



Grande Gare; PI. C, 2): Terminds, R., L., & A. 4-6, B. I1/2, dej. 4, D. 5, 
pens, from 10 fr. ; Hot. d'Interlaken & de Provence; Hot. Minekve. 

To the N., beyond the Railway Station: Hot. Windsor, Rue Valentine, 
near the Avenue Malaussena (PI. D, 1), first-class, new ; Hot. St. Barthe- 
lemt, situated on a hill, outside the town, with a garden (free omnibus 
to the town); Riviera, Boul. de Cimiez (PI. E, 1), a large new house with 
garden ; Hot. de Cimiez, frequented by the English. 

To the S.E., outside the Town: Hot. du Montboron, Boul. Carnot (PI. 
H, 4), well situated, at the beginning of the forest road, a new first-clas 
house, pens. 9-12 fr. (free omnibus to the town). 

Most of the hotels are closed from the beginning of summer till the 
end of Sept. or Oct. The Hotels de VUnivers, des Etrangers, des Nego- 
ciants, Terminus, Tarelli, Suisse, National, and de Geneve are open the 
whole year. 

Pensions (usually good). In the Promenade des Anglais : Pension Rivoir, 
P. Anglaise. Rue Eossini : Pension Internationale, P. de Geneve, moderate 
charges. Boul. Victor Hugo : Villa Cardon. At Cimiez: P. Anglaise; P. Ci- 
miez. Usual charge 8-14 fr. per day. 

Apartments. Houses and apartments to let, indicated by tickets, are 
easily found, best with the aid of a house-agent. A doctor should be 
consulted as to situation, etc. A single visitor may procure 1-2 furnished 
rooms for the winter for 250-700 fr. ; suites of apartments are let for 
1000-5000 fr., villas for 3000-8000 fr. and upwards. The contract (on stamp- 
ed paper) should specify the condition of furniture, linen, wall-papers, etc., 
as disputes are apt to arise on the termination of the lease. Landlords 
sometimes make exorbitant demands on the death of one of their guests, 
in which case the aid of the authorities should be invoked. Nice is 
reputed an expensive place, but it is possible to live here, as in other 
large towns, cheaper than at Cannes or Mentone. The pensions at a 
distance from the sea, but in well-sheltered spots, are comparatively 
moderate. — House Agent, Ch. Jougla, Rue Gioffredo 55. 

Restaurants. Restaurant Francais, Avenue de la Gare ; London Mouse, 
Rue Croix de Marbre, adjoining the Jardin Public, high charges ; Garden 
House, Cafe" de la Rigence, "Cafe' Amiricain, National, all in the Avenue de 
la Gare, dej. 2 J /2, D. 31/2 fr. ; Rest, du Helder, Place Masse'na ; Rest, des Deux- 
Mondes, Rue Gamier; Rest, du Cours , in the Corso, modest; Rest, des 
Gourmets, Rue Masse'na ; restaurants at the Casino Municipal (p. 99) and at 
the J etie- Promenade (p. 100; high charges). — On the coast, to the E. of 
Nice, "Rest, de la Riserve (PI. H,5). — Beer: "Taverne Gothique, "Taverne 
Sleinhoff, Avenue de la Gare; Taverne Russe (see below). 

Cafes. "Grand Cafi Glacier, "Taverne Russe, both on the groundfloor 
of the Casino (p. 99); Cafi de la Rigence, Cafi Amiricain, see above; 
Cafi de Paris, Boul. Dubouchage; Cafi de la Vicloire; Cafi-Concert Eldo- 
rado, Rue Gamier. — Confectioners, Rumpelmayer, Boulevard Victor Hugo, 
dear; Fia, Vogade, Place Massena; Portaz, Ave. de la Gare; Muller, Place 
St. Dominique. 

Bakers. Rem, Rue Paradis, German ; Diedrich, Place St. Etienne, Russian. 

Cabs (Voitures de Place). 

Per drive in the town, central 

. division 

Per drive within the octroi 

limits of the town .... 
Per hour, in the town . . 
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To Villefranche, Monlboron,Tri- 

niti- Victor, Grotte St. Andri 
Tri Beaulii'.u and St. Jean . . 
To the Observatory on Mont- 

gros, Gairaut, Falicon, St. 


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Omnibuses. NICE. 17. Route. 97 

The fares for all these excursions include a stay of >/2hr. and the 
drive back. — Night is reckoned in winter from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m., in 
summer from 10 to 7. When a cab is taken by the hour, one full hour 
at least must always be paid for; but fractions of hours after the first are 
charged pro rata. Small articles of luggage free ; larger, 25 c. each. — 
The tariff is not compulsory during the Carnival and the Races, when a 
special bargain must be made. 

Tramways from the Place Massena (PI. E, 4) to Pont Magnau (PL A, 5) 
and the Californie (near the Var Bridge, where the races take place), to 
the Main Railway Station (PI. C, 2) and St. Maurice, and to the Square 
Garibaldi and the Abattoirs (comp. PI. G, H, 1); also from the railway- 
station to the harbour (PI. G, 4). Fares 10-33 c, with 'correspondance' 
for the inside seats. 

Omnibuses from the Boul. MacMahon (PI. E, F, 4) to Cimiez (p. 101) 
at 8, 11, 2, and 4 (50 c), to Villefranche, Beaulieu, and St. Jean hourly 
(60 c.), and to St. Laurent-du-Var (p. 103), four times daily (60 c); from 
the Square Garibaldi (PI. F, G, 3) to St. Andri (p. 102) every >/ 2 hr. (50 c); 
from the Boul. Risso (PI. G, 2) to La Turbie and the Laghet via the Corniche, 
at 6 a.m. and 2 p.m. ; from the Boulevard du Pont-Vieux (PI. E, 3) to 
La Triniti-Victor , Conies, and VEscarene (p. 53) at 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. 
(not recommended). — Brake from the Place Massena to Cimiez at 1.30, 
2.30, and 3.30, returning at 2, 3, and 5 (fare lfr., including admission to 
the Zoological Garden); from the Boul. MacMahon to Monte Carlo at 9.30 
and 1.30 (returning at 10 and 3.30), by the new road (fare 3, return- 
fare 5 fr.). — Excursions of the Agence JTranco-Suisse, in winter, in good 
weather. 1. To Gairaut (p. 102), Falicon (p. 102), and Sl.Andri (p. 102), 
starting from the Theatre Francais; 2. To Menlone via, the Corniche, 
returning by Monaco (fare 10 fr., after the Carnival 3 fr. ; on Sun., to 
Monaco only, 5 fr.). 

Donkey 4-5 fr. per day, attendant 1 fr. ; half-day 2-3 fr. — Horse 6-10 fr. 
per half-day. 

Post Office, Place de la Liberte (PI. 8 ; F, 3), open from 7 (in winter 
8) a.m. to 9 p.m. Branch-offices : Place Grimaldi 3, Place Garibaldi 2. — 
Telegraph Offices: Place de la Liberte, Place Grimaldi, Place Garibaldi, 
and at the railway-station ; these always open. 

Physicians. English: Dr. Sturge, Boul. Dubouchage 29; Dr. Ashmore- 
Noakes, Promenade des Anglais 5; Dr. Brandt, Boul. Victor Hugo 29; 
Dr. Gilchrist, Boul. Victor Hugo 39. American: Dr. Linn, Quai Massena 16. 
German: Dr. Ziircher, Rue Massena 20. — Dentists : Williams (Amer.), Quai 
Massena 16 ; Garcia (Amer.), Frisbie (Amer.), Preterre, all in the Place Mas- 
sena. — Chemists: Nicholls & Passeron, Quai Massena; Grande Pharmacie, 
Avenue de la Gare 35; Pharm. Sue, same street, 18; Ferand (late Watson 
<£• Co.), same street, 46; Leoncini, Place St. Etienne 1; Liotard, Rue de la 
France 2, etc. — Mineral Waters : Claud el Mitivet, Rue Massena 26. 

British Consul: James Chas. Harris, Esq., Place Bellevue 4. — Amer- 
ican Consul: Major Wilburn B. Hall, Rue dAngleterre 2 (9-1). 

Bankers. Cridit Lponnais, Avenue de la Gare 13bis(a palatial edifice) ; 
Banque de France, Boul. de Midi 13; Caisse de Cridit, Rue Gubernatis 1; 
SociiU Ginirale, Rue Gioffredo 64; Lacroix, Place du Jardin Public 2. 

Baths. Warm Baths : Bains Polythermes, Rue St. Francois-de-Paule 8 ; 
Bains des Quatre Saisons, Place du Jardin Public 8 ; Bains Parisiens, Avenue 
de la Gare 20; Bains des Platanes, Place de la Liberte; Bains Macarani, 
Rue Macarani 6; Bains Massina, Rue Massena 3; Bains des Galeries, Rue 
Adelaide 2. Turkish Baths: Hammam de Nice, Rue de la Buffa 4. — Sea- 
baths opposite the Promenade des Anglais and at the Quai du Midi, 1 fr. 
(including fee). 

Booksellers. Baudry, Jeancourt, <fc Cie. (Galignani), Quai Massena 48; 
Hubert, Place du Jardin Public 4; Visconli, large reading-room with news- 
papers of every country and lending library, Promenade du Cours , with 
garden; Librairie Nouvelle, Quai St. Jean-Baptiste 50; Ardoin, Ave. de la 
Gare 44. — The Sice Library, in the building of the Credit Lj onnais (p. 99), 
contains about 4000 English books. 

Shops. The best are on the Quai St. Jean-Baptiste and the Quai Mas- 

Baedekbr. itaisiJJUj»Bdit 7 

98 Route 17. NICE. Climate. 

sena. 'Marqueterie' (inlaid wood-work) : Oimello Fits <t Co., Quai St. Jean- 
Baptiste 9 ; Rueger, Rue du Pont-Neuf 3, etc. — Photographers : Nessy, Ave. 

Amusements. "Casino Municipal (PI. E, 4), Place Massena (seep. 99); 
aim. 2 fr., subscription for 15 days 15, for a month 20, for three months 
45, for the season 60 fr. ; family-tickets at reduced rates. Theatre tickets 
(fauteuil d'orchestre 6, stalle d'orchestre 4 fr.) include admission to the 
casino. — Casino de la Jetie- Promenade (PI. L>, 4; p. 100); adm. in the 
forenoon 50 c, from 12 to 4 p.m. 1 fr., after 4 p.m. 2 fr., less for sub- 
scribers. — Cercle de la Miditerranie , Promenade des Anglais 3; Cercle 
Philharmonique , Place Massena 8; Cercle Massina and Cercle International, 
in the Casino Municipal; Cercle de V Union; Cercle de Nice. — Theatres. 
Thi&tre de VOpira or Municipal (PI. 39; E, F, 4), Rue St. Francois-de- 
Paule; Thidtre du Casino, Thidtre dela JeliSe- Promenade, see above; Thidtre 
Francais, Rue de l'H6tel-des-Postes, operettas, comedies, etc. — Circus, Rue 
Pastorelli (PL E, 3). — Cafi-Concerl Eldorado, Rue Gamier (PI. D, E, 3). 

The Carnival is usually celebrated at Nice with great energy and 
display, the observances including the throwing of 'Confetti' , the 'Battle 
of Flowers' on the Promenade des Anglais, the carrying of 'Moccoletti' 
(small lighted candles, which the revellers try to extinguish), and 'Veglioni', 
or masked balls , at the Theatre Municipal. — Horse Races are held in 
Jan., on the racecourse on the bank of the Var. — Regattas are held 
in March or April. 

Music daily in the Jardin Public, 10-11.15 a.m. and 2.15-3.45 p.m. 

English Churches in the Rue de France (PI. 25; D, 4), at Carabacel, 
and in the Ave. Notre Dame (PI. 26; E, 2). — American Church (PI. 24; 
1), 3), Boul. Victor Hugo 21. — Scottish Church (PI. 27; D, 3), Rue St. 
Etienne. — French Protestant Church (PI. 28; E, 3), Rue Gioffredo 50. — 
Oerman Protestant Church, Rue d'Augsbourg. 

Climate. The bay of Nice is sheltered from the N., N.E., and N.W. 
winds by the lower terraces of the Maritime Alps (culminating in Mont 
Chauve, Ital. Monte Calvo, 2670 ft.), a natural barrier to which it owes its 
far-famed mildness of climate. The mean winter temperature is 10-15° 
Fahr. higher than that of Paris, summer temperature 5-10° lower. Frost 
is rare. The neighbourhood of the broad and stony channel of the Paillon 
is apt to be rather draughty. The coast is somewhat exposed to the E. 
and W. winds. In March and April the E. wind not unfrequently prevails, 
and is usually most trying to delicate persons about midday , when the 
clouds of dust it raises in the Promenade des Anglais have often given 
rise to complaints. Owing, however, to the depth of the basin in which 
Nice is ensconced, it is easy to find inland quarters beyond reach of these 
drawbacks. The most sheltered situations are the Boulevard Carabacel 
and the Quartiers Brancolar and Cimiez , in the last of which the air is 
generally pure and free from dust. There are three distinct climatic zones : 
the coast, the plain, and the hills. Sunset is a critical period. The mo- 
ment the sun disappears, the atmosphere becomes damp and chilly, but 
this moisture lasts 1-2 hours only. The rainy season begins early in 
October and lasts about a month. The dry, warm, and at the same time 
bracing climate of Nice is specially beneficial for chronic invalids, if free 
from fever and pain, for convalescents, and for elderly people, while the 
town affords greater comfort and variety than any other place on the 
Riviera. — Good drinking-water is supplied by the water-works. — Re- 
ports of the observations made at the Meteorological Station , founded in 
1877, are posted up on the band-kiosk in the Jardin Public. 

Nice, Ital. Nizza, is the capital (88,273 inhab.J of the French 
department of the Alpes Maritimes and the seat of a bishop. In winter 
it is the rendezvous of invalids and others from all parts of Europe, 
who seek refuge here from the rigours of winter. The season begins 
with the races (see above) early in January, and closes with a great 
regatta at the beginning of April; but visitors abound from October 

Situation. NICE. 17. Route. 99 

until the end of May. In summer the place is deserted, though its 
temperature is then lower than that of Paris. The carnival is cele- 
brated at Nice with great liveliness (see p. 98). 

Nice, the Nlxv) or Nicaea of the ancients, was founded by the Phocfean 
inhabitants of Marseilles in the 4th cent. B.C., to commemorate a victory 
gained over the Ligurians. It prospered greatly at first, but under the 
Romans it was supplanted by Cimiez; and later it suffered much from 
the Goths , the Saracens , and in the wars and rivalries of the various 
rulers of Provence and N. Italy. Down to 1388 it belonged mainly to the 
County of Provence; then to the Dukes of Savoy; in 1792 it was occu- 
pied by the French, in 1814 restored to Sardinia, and in 1860 annexed to 
France together with Savov. Nice was the birthplace of the French Mar- 
shal Masse'na (1758-1817) and of Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882). — The 
dialect of the old town is Italian with a mixture of Provencal, but in the 
new town French is spoken almost exclusively. 

Nice is superbly situated on the broad Bate des Anges, which 
opens towards the S. , at the mouth of the insignificant Paglione or 
Paillon. The broad and stony bed of the stream, flanked with hand- 
some quays, bisects the town. On the left bank is the Old Town, 
with its narrow lanes , which have been replaced by better streets 
near the shore (Boulevard du Midi and Promenade du Oours). It is 
dominated by the castle-hill (p. 101) beyond which lies the harbour 
(p. 101). On the right bank is the Strangers' Quarter, which is 
already much larger than the old town , and will soon occupy the 
whole space bounded on the "W. by the brook Magnan and on the 
N. by the railway. 

From the Principal Station (PI. C, D, 2), near which there is a 
beautiful avenue of eucalypti (Eucalyptus globulus) , we descend to 
the town by the handsome Avenue de la Oare (PI. D, E, 2, 3), which 
is flanked by plane-trees. To the right stands the modern Gothic 
church of Notre-Dame (PI. 19; D, 2), built by Chas. Normand. To 
the left are an Augustine Nunnery and the Hospice de la Charite 
(PI. 31). — We then intersect another of the chief arteries of the 
new town, formed by the Boulevard Victor Hugo (right) and the 
Boulevard Dubouchage (left), the latter leading to the Boul. Cara- 
bacel (p. 95). — To the right, farther on, is the handsome build- 
ing of the Credit Lyonnais (p. 97), which also contains a well-sup- 
plied reading-room. Exhibitions of paintings are often held here in 
Feb. and March (open daily, 9.30-4). At the end of the Ave. de la 
Gare, to the right, diverges the Rue Massena, which is continued by 
the long Rue de France. A Marble Cross, at the beginning of the 
street last named, commemorates the meeting of Charles V. and 
Francis I. in 1538, effected by Pope Paul III. It has given its name 
(Croix de Marbre) to this quarter of the town. 

The Avenue de la Gare ends at the Place Massena (PI. E, 4), 
with its arcades , which forms, along with the adjoining Place du 
Casino (the old Pont-Neuf), built over the Paillon, the centre of the 
Strangers' Quarter. In the Place du Casino, to the left, stands the 
Casino Municipal (PI. E, 4), a handsome structure erected in 1883, 
With a winter-garden, a theatre, gaming rooms, a cafe'-restaurant, etc. 

7 * 

100 Route 11. NICE. Promenade des Anglais. 

— Behind the Casino, and also built over the Paillon, is the Square 
Massena (PL E, F, 4) , embellished with a Statue of Massena 
(p. 99) in bronze, by Carrier-r.elleuse; on the pedestal in front 
Clio -writes the marshal's name on the page of history ; at the sides 
are reliefs. To the N. is the Quai St. Jean-Baptiste , lined with 
handsome houses. 

The *Jardin Public (PI. D, E, 4) , covering the space between 
the Place du Casino and the sea. at and over the mouth of the Paillon, 
is prettily laid out, with palms, pepper-trees, aloes, laurels, and 
myrtles (music, see p. 98). Like the Promenade des Anglais, it 
forms one of the gathering-places of visitors to Nice. The Monu- 
ment du Centenaire , to commemorate the first union of Nice with 
France (1792), is to be erected near the garden. 

The *Promenade des Anglais (PI. A-D , 4, 5) , originally con- 
structed by the English in 1822-24, for the sake of furnishing work 
to the unemployed, and since extended, stretches to the W. along 
the coast. It is shaded by palms and other trees and bordered with 
palatial hotels and villas. At the beginning of it the Jetbe-Pbome- 
nade (PI. D, 4), a large and handsome structure of glass and iron, 
projects into the sea. This pier was originally erected about 12 years 
ago, but was soon destroyed by fire; the present structure has been 
built since 1890. It forms a kind of casino (adm., see p. 98). 
Opposite is the handsome Cercle de la Mediterranee (p. 98). The 
Promenade des Anglais is prolonged beyond the brook Magnan (PI. 
A, 5) to Californie, a point of view 2^2 M. distant. Those who do 
not care to walk may use the tramway in the parallel Rue de France. 

In tlie quarter adjoining the Promenade, at the angle formed by the 
Boul. Gainbetta and the Boul. Victor Hugo (PI. C, 3), is the handsome 
new Square Gambetta. — Farther to the N.W., beyond the main railway, 
is the Villa Bermond, with its 10,000 orange-trees, where Nicholas, Crown 
Prince of Russia, died in 1865. The site of the room in which he died 
is now occupied by a Memorial Chapel (PI. E, 2). 

The Boulevard du Midi (PI. E, F, 4) forms the prolongation of 
the Promenade des Anglais towards the E., on the side of the Old 
Town (p. 99). It affords a good view of the Castle Hill, with its 
cascade (see next page). 

Parallel with this boulevard runs the Rue St. Fkancois db 
Paule , one of the chief thoroughfares of the Old Town. In it, to 
the left, is the Hotel de Ville (PI. 34), with a marble group of Orestes 
and Minerva, by Hugoulin , in the court. Farther on is the Church 
of St. Francoh-de-PauU (PI. 16), dating from the 18th century. 
The * Theatre Municipal, or Opera (PI. 39), to the right, is a hand- 
some edifice re-erected after the disastrous fire of 1881. Still farther 
on, also to the right, is the Public Library (PL 6), open daily from 
9 to 4 or 5. It also contains a few Roman antiquities. 

The Rue St. Francois-de-Paule is continued by the Pbomenade 
du Coubs (PL F, 4), formerly the chief street of Nice, where an 

Musee Municipal. NICE. 17. Route. 1 01 

interesting market is held during the season. To the right extend 
the so-called Terraces, on the top of a double row of low houses. 
To the left, at the end of the Promenade, stands the Prefecture (PI. 
38), the old seat of government, built in 1611-13. Adjacent is the 
new Palais de Justice (PI. 33), finished in 1892. 

To the S. E. of the town rises the Castle Hill (PI. F, G, 4 ; 320 ft.), 
which may he ascended from the N., E., or S.W. side in 20 min. ; 
the S.W. approach is by a flight of steps (Escalier Lesage) from the 
Rue des Ponchettes. The hill was formerly crowned with a castle 
destroyed by the Duke of Berwick under Louis XIV. in 1706. Al- 
most the only relic now standing is the Tour Bellanda (now pri- 
vate property). At the top of the hill is an artificial Waterfall, sup- 
plied by the city reservoir and the Canal de la Ve"subie (p. 102). 
The plateau has been transformed into a promenade, which com- 
mands an admirable view in every direction : S. the Mediterranean ; 
"W. the coast, the promontory of Antibes, the lies de Lerins, the 
mouth of the Var, and Nice at our feet ; N. the valley of the Paillon, 
the monasteries of Cimiez and St. Pons, the distant castle of St. An- 
dre, Mont Chauve, the Aspremont , and the Alps; E. the ancient 
Fort Montalban, and the promontory of Montboron (p. 102). The S. 
slope of the castle-hill, which descends precipitously to the sea, is 
called the Rauba Capeu ('hat-robber', owing to the prevalence of 
sudden gusts). 

Among the monuments in the Cemetery, on the N. side of the 
castle- hill, are that of Gambetta (d. 1882) and a pyramid commem- 
orating the victims of the fire at the Theatre Municipal in 1881 
(p. 100). 

On the E. side of the castle-hill lies the Harbour (PI. G, H, 4, 
5), called Limpia from an excellent spring (limpida) near the E. 
pier. The Place Bellemte , at the foot of the hill , was embellished 
in 1840 with a marble Statue of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, 
founder of the harbour. — • To the N. of the castle-hill is the Square 
Garibaldi (PI. G, 3), with a Statue of Garibaldi (1807-82), who 
was a native of Nice, by Etex andDe'laye. No. 6, in this square, is the 
Museum of Natural History (open on Tues., Thurs., & Sat., 12-3). 
The Pont Garibaldi (PI. F , 3), crossing the Paillon , leads to 
the end of the Quai St. Jean-Baptiste (p. 100) and to the most 
populous quarter of the New Town, traversed by the Boul. Du- 

The Musee Municipal (PI. 7; E, 3), Boul. Dubouchage 39, in 
the old Exchange, is open daily, except Tuesday, from 10 to 4 in 
winter and from 9 to 12 and 2 to 5 in summer. Catalogue 60 c. Its 
contents include a collection of paintings, mainly by modern French 
artists, and also modern sculptures, casts, water-colours, pastels, 
and engravings. 

The Environs of Nice afford many beautiful excursions. 
About 2 M. to the N. of Nice, on a fertile hill, lies Cimiez, Ital. 
Cimella (Hotels, etc., see p. 96), which is reached by the Boul. de Cimiez 

102 Route 17. NICE. Environs, 

(PI K, 1). It occupies the site of the Roman town of Cemenelum, of 
which part of an Amphitheatre (210 ft. long, 180 ft. wide), a quadrangular 
structure called a Temple of Apollo, and traces of baths and other buildings 
have been discovered. The iirst street to the right beyond the amphi- 
theatre leads to the Capuchin Monastery of Cimiez , erected in 1540 on the 
foundation of a temple of Diana. Ladies are not admitted, except to the 
chapel, which contains two paintings by Bre'a of Nice (d. 1513). — The 
second street to the right leads to a small Zoological Garden, on the E. 
slope of the hill (adm. 1 fr., including the brake from or to Nice, comp. 
p. 97; Cafe-Restaurant, dear)- 

A good road ascends on the right bank of the Paillon to the (40 min.) 
monastery of St. Pons, founded in 775 on the spot where St. Pontius, a 
Roman senator, suffered martyrdom in 261. It was destroyed by the Sara- 
cens in 970 and rebuilt in 999. The treaty by which the County of Nice 
was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy was concluded here in 13S8. IThis 
excursion may be combined with a visit to Cimiez (see above) by taking 
the road from St. Pons to Cimiez through the olive-groves on the hill.) 
— About '/ 2 hr. from St. Pons, in the valley of the Garbe or Riousec, is 
the chateau of St. Andre, built in 1687, now occupied as a lunatic asylum. 
Farther up the valley ( ] /i hr.) is the small grotto Let Cluses de St. Andri 
(adm. 50 c), or rather a natural bridge over the brook. An avenue of 
cypresses leads thither from the chateau. 

From the Grotto of St. Andre we may follow the road through the 
rocky ravine of the Garbe a little farther, and ascend to the left by a 
winding road to (1 hr.) the village of Falicon (Inn, poor), the highest 
point of which affords an admirable view. Near this point is the Grotte 
des Chauves-Souris, which contains beautiful stalactites. 

Farther up the valley of St. Andre, 7 M. from Nice, lies La Tourette 
(Ital. Torretta), a curious specimen of the ancient fortified villages of the 
district. It contains a picturesque ruin, which commands a very striking 
survey of the sterile mountain scene, Mont Chauve , Aspremont, and 
Chateauneuf, perched on a barren ridge of rock, with Montalban and the 
sea to the S. 

About 4 31. to the N.E. of Torretta is the village of Chateauneuf, 
which is said to have been built in the 15th and 16th cent, by the in- 
habitants of Nice as a refuge from Turkish invaders, but is now almost 
deserted owing to the want of water. This is another splendid point of 
view. Adjacent are two fine stalactite grottoes. 

Instead of returning to Nice by the valley, we may proceed farther 
to the W. from Falicon (see above), and take a shorter but less attractive 
road, which turns to the left at a Chapel of St. Sebastian and leads to Nice 
via, Le Ray and St. Maurice (tramway from this point, see p. 97). This 
road crosses the Canal de la Yisubie, an aqueduct 20 31. long, formed to 
supply Nice with water. Near the point of intersect'on is Gairaut, with 
a reservoir and a picturesque cascade. — From the above-mentioned 
Chapel of St. Sebastian a path ascends to the top of the Mont Chauve 
d'Aspremonl or Mont Can (2780 ft.), formerly often visited for the sake of 
the view, but now rendered inaccessible through the construction of a fort. 

To the W. of Nice is the (I1/2 hr.) Vallon Obscur, a ravine about 
500 yds. long, reached via St. Barlhtlemy (tramway to this point). Part 
of the ravine is accessible to pedestrians only. — Another plea-ant walk 
may be taken in the valley of the Magnan (p. 99) , in which a road 
ascends to (2 31.) the church of La Madeleine. About '/ 2 31. farther up is 
the romantic ravine of the Pnits aux Etoiles. 

A fine excursion may be made to the Mouth of the Var (p. 103) either 
by carriage and pair (there and back 2IJ-25 fr.) or by using the tramway 
to California (p. 97), which is 1 31. from the station of Var (p. 103) and 
I1/2 31. from the pretty Jardin d'Acclimalation (Restaurant) and the Race- 
course (Champ de Courses), situated to the right and left of the railway. 

To the K. of Nice stretches a chain of heights, easily accessible. The 
nearest to the sea is Montboron (950 ft.; H/, hr.), the fortified promontory 
separating Nice lrorn Villefranche. On its flope runs the beautiful road 
(the first part named Boul. Carnot; PI. H, 4) to (3 31.) Villefranche (p. 15; 

'Escatene i Sofn) l .i 

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English Miles. 

Wagner 8. DeT)es, Leipzig. 

Environs. NICE. 17. Route. 103 

omn. and carr., see p. 97; boat 10 fr.), with the conspicuous Villa Smith, 
a palatial red building in the Oriental style. To the left a<=cends the 
"Route Forestiere de Montboron. — If we follow the Villefranche road 
for l'/z M. more, a road on the right, crossing the railway by a stone 
bridge, will lead us to ( 3 /i M.) Beaulieu (p. 95). Thence to St. Jean, see 
p. 92. — Montalban (1085 ft.), ascended in '/s hr. from Montboron by the 
Route Forestiere, is crowned by a fort. — The Vinaigrier (1215 ft.), so 
called, it is said, from the sour wine it produces, is ascended by the old 
road in l'/2 hr., or by a njew road round Mont Gros in 2J/2-3 hrs. — On the 
Mont Gros (1220 ft.), 3 M. to the N., on the Route de la Corniche (see p. 92), 
is a fine' Observatory (no, admission). 

From Nice to Mentone by the Route de la Corniche, see p . 92 ; to Cuneo 
and Turin, by the Col di Tenda, see R, 10. 

The charming island of Corsica may also be visited from Nice (see 
Baedeker's Southern France). Steamboat to Ajaccio once weekly in 13-14 hrs., 
to Bastia once weekly in 11-12 hrs. 

Fkom Nice to St. Martin-Vesobie, 36'/2 M., diligence every night, in 
91/2 hrs., besides halts (7, 6, 5 fr.). — The road leads to the N. via St. 
Andre" (p. 102), and traverses an uninteresting valley. — 13>/2 M. Levens 
(Hot. National), an ancient village, on a height above the Vtsvhie, which 
joins the Var l'/2 M. farther down, immediately below the "DifiU de 
I'Echaudan, a gorge 3^2 M. long, between precipitous rocks 1300 ft. in 
height. — "We now ascend the picturesque Valley of the Visubie, via, (18 M.) 
Duranvs, Utelle (2625 ft.), ' and St. Jean- de-la- Riviere , whence the Brech 
(5260 ft. ; view) may be ascended in 4 hrs. via the Col du GinesU. — 25 M. 
Le Suchet. — 28 M. Lantosque (Hot. des Etrangers). [An excursion may 
be made hence to La Bolene and Belvedere (2800 ft. ; Hotel Franco), whence 
the Mont Clapier (9100 ft,), one of the finest points of view in the Maritime 
Alps, may be ascended in 8V2 hrs. (comp. p. 51).] — Beyond (31'/2 M.) 
Roquebilliere a road to the left leads to (7 M.) Berthemont (3280 ft. ; Hotels), 
a summer station with a sulphureous spring. Farther on, also on the left, 
is Venanson, a little town in a picturesque situation. — 36'/2 M. St. Martin- 
Vesubie or St. Martin- Lantosque (3115 ft.; Hdtel des Alpes; H&t. de Paris, 
etc.; Eng. Ch. Service), at the confluence of the two streams forming the 
Ve'subie. a place growing in favour as a summer-resort from Nice. Many 
interesting excursions and ascents may be made hence: to the (2 hrs.) 
Cascade du Borrion (115 ft. in height), formed by the stream which de- 
scends on ithe N. ; to the Madone de Fenestre (3600 ft.), a pilgrim resort, 
2'/2 hrs. totheN.E., beyond the frontier, surrounded by an amphitheatre 
of mountains comprising the Caval, Neiglier, Ponset, Colomb, and Gelas ; 
to the (2 hrs.) Combe de Saleze, to the left of the Borreon valley ; to the 
Tele de Piagii (7f85 ft.) and the Tele de la Palii (6990 ft.), to the left and 
right of the route to the Madone 121/2 hrs. each) ; to the (31/2 hrs.) Sirol 
(6610ft.), on the S.W., beyond Venanson (see above); etc. For details, 
see Baedeker's Sotithern France 

Fkom Nice to Puget-Thenieks , 36'/2 M., railway in 3'/4 hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 95, 3 fr. 65 c). — This line (Ligne du Sud) ascends the Valley of the 
Var and is of interest for the difficulties overcome in its construction. 
For a description of it, se e Baedeker's Southern France. — 36 ! /2 M. Puget- 
Theniers (Laugery; Croix de Matte), with 15T0 inhab., on the Var, is of 
little interest to the tourist. 

Continuation of the Railway from Nice to Cannes. — The 
first station beyond Nice is (25>/2 M.~) Var , where the Nice Race- 
course (p. 98) lies to the left and the Jardin d'Acclimatation (adm. 
25 c.) to the right. We then cross the Var, an impetuous torrent 
which formed the frontier of France before the annexation of Nice 
in 1860. — 27 M. St. Laurent du Var. — 29 M. Cagnes; the little 
town, with an old castle of the Grimaldi (p. 94), lies on a hill to 
the right. 

104 Route 17. ANTIBES. 

34 M. Antibes (Hdtel des Aigles-d'Or, Rue Thuret), a finely sit- 
uated and fortified town of 7000 inhab., and a small seaport. It is 
the ancient Aniipolis , a colony of the Massilians, founded to resist 
the Ligurian invasions. From this point there is a magnificent view 
as far as Nice, with its amphitheatre of mountains, snow-clad except 
in summer. The harbour is protected on the exposed side by a break- 
water, 1540 ft. in length, by Vauban. 

The Cap d'Antibes or de la Garoupe is a peninsula about V-ji M. long, 
with luxuriant vegetation. La Garoupe, (245 ft.), with a pilgrimage-chapel 
and a lighthouse, may be ascended in 3 /t hr. from Antibes. In this di- 
rection is the Villa Thuret, with a garden in connection with the Jardin 
des Plantes in Paris, open on Tuesdays. Near the end of the peninsula, 
about 2'/2 M. from Antibes, are several villas, one with the curious tomb 
of James Close, an Englishman. Another is the Hotel du Cap , to which 
the nearest station is Juan-les-Pins (see below). 

35 M. Juan-les-Pins. — 37 M. Oolfe-Juan-Vallauris, on the 
Golfe Juan, where Napoleon landed from Elba in 1815. 

41 M. Cannes, see Baedeker's Southern France. 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante. 

102'/2 M. Railway in 4-7 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 5, 8 fr. 40 c. ; ex- 
press 20 fr. 50, 14 fr. 35 c). The trains start from the Stazione Piazza 
Principe (local trains to Chiavari also from the Stazione Piazza Brignole; 
comp. the time-tables). Tickets to Nervi by the fast express are issued 
only as extensions of tickets to Genoa, on application being made im- 
mediately on the traveller's arrival in Genoa. — Finest views on the side 
of the train opposite to that on which passengers enter at Genoa. Travellers 
by the night-express, of course, miss all the scenery. Between Nervi and 
Spezia, however, the view is much interrupted by the numerous tunnels. 
Observe that it is dangerous to lean out of the carriage-window. — If time 
permit the traveller should drive from Recco to Chiavari (with ascent of 
the Monte di Fortofino, p. 1C6) and from Sestri to Spezia. Carriage and pair 
from Genoa to Spezia (or vice versa), about 120 fr. A bargain should be 
made with the driver directly, without the intervention of the hotel portier. 

Genoa, p. 64. The train backs out of the Stazione Piazza Prin- 
cipe, and then starts in the opposite (E.) direction, passing through 
a long tunnel under the higher parts of the town (4-5 min.). 

2 M. Stazione Piazza Brignole. To the left we obtain a view 
of the fortress-crowned heights around Genoa (comp. p. 67). 

The railway, parallel with the road at places, now follows the 
*Rivibra di Levante, where the vegetation is less luxuriant than 
on the Riviera di Ponente (p. SO), but the scenery is almost more 
striking. The line is carried through numerous cuttings and more 
than eighty tunnels, some very long. The villages present a town-like 
appearance, with their narrow streets and lofty, substantial houses, 
closely built on the narrow sea-board or in short and confined val- 
leys, and mostly painted externally as at Genoa. 

The train crosses the insignificant Bisagno, and passes under 
S. Francesco d'Albaro by means of a tunnel. 4 M. Sturla. To the 
right the Mediterranean ; to the left the olive-clad slopes of the 
Apennines, sprinkled with country-houses. 5 M. Quarto. 6 M. 
Quinto (Alb. Quinto, with garden and sea-view), with numerous 






NERVI. 18. Route. 105 

villas, dense lemon plantations, and several fine palm-trees. In the 
foreground rises the promontory of Portofino. Three tunnels. 

7V2 M. Nervi. — Hotels. 'Eden Hotel (proprietor Fanconi), in a 
palatial style, on the hill above the town, with garden stretching to the 
sea, B, 3-8, L. Vi , A. »/«, B. I'/j, dej. 31/2, D. 4'/a, pens. 8-15 (L. extra), 
hath 3, omn. l'/sfr.; *Gr. Hot.-Pens. Anglaise, in the main street, ad- 
joining the park of the proprietor, the Marchese Gropallo, E. 3-6, L. i, 
A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 0, pens. 9-15 fr. ; Hot.-Pens. Victoria, near the 
station and the sea, with shady garden, E. 2-5, L. 1/2, A. 3 /t, B. ly,, dej. 2 l fa, 
D 4 pens. 8-12 fr. These three have lifts and are closed in summer. — 
*H6t. Nekvi, E., L., & A. 3-6, B. I1/4, dej. 2i/z, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr.; Alb.- 
Pens. Svizzera, with restaurant, E., L., & A. 2>/2-3, B. 1, dej. 21/4, D- 3'/2, 
pens. 6 1 /s-7 1 /i fr., these two at the corner of the main street and the street 
leading to the station; Hot.-Pens. Bellevde, in a picturesque situation 
on the road to S. Ilario, R. 21/2-31/2, L. 1/2, B. 17 4 , d<Sj. 2i/ 2 , D. 31/2, pens. 
61/2-8 fr., well spoken of. 

Pensions. Pens. Boner a- Palazzo Gnecco, with large garden, in the W. 
of the town; Villa Sanitas, next the Villa Gropallo, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Mme. 
Lindenberg \ near the Municipio, with garden, pens. 7-8 fr., German ; Villa 
Rotengarten; Villino Piccolo Eden. — Furnished Apartments (800-1500 fr. for 
the season) and villas (2500-4000 fr.) are scarce. A doctor should be con- 
sulted as to situation. 

Physicians. Dr. Freeh- THnius, Dr. Orlenau, Dr. Schelelig, Dr. Laudien, 
all of whom receive boarders. — Private Hospital (12-14 patients; pens. 
13-18 fr. daily), under Dr. Frech-Trinius, in the Villa Quisisana, in the 
garden of the Eden Hotel. — Chemists: one at the post-office; another 
opposite the Palazzo Gropallo. — Telegraph Office opposite the post-office. 
— English Church Service at the Eden Hotel. 

Climate, etc. Nervi, the most important winter-station on the E. 
Riviera, is backed on the N. by Monte Giugo, and is sheltered on the 
N.W. by a spur of the Monte Fascia and on the W. by the promontory of 
Portofino, while it lies fully exposed to the S.E. wind. Its mean winter 
temperature (52° Fahr.) is almost the same as that of the W. Riviera, 
hut the rainfall at Nervi is more copious and the periods of dry weather 
less prolonged. A feature of the place is the dust-free and sunny pro- 
menade, which runs along the shore above the rocky beach, and is pro- 
tected hy a lofty wall on the landward side. Pleasantly placed benches 
on the promenade and in the adjoining gardens afford resting-places for 
patients who wish to be much in the open air without taking active 
exercise. The choice of longer walks in the vicinity is limited. 

Nervi, a small town with 2900 inhab., surrounded with groves 
of olives, oranges, and lemons, is much frequented in winter by 
English and Germans , as a health resort , and like Quinto and 
Sturla, by Italians in summer for the sea-bathing, but the beach is 
rocky. Among the villas the finest are Villa Gropallo (beautiful 
park, not always open; entrance by No. 55 in the main street; fee), 
Villa Serra, and Villa Croce (to the W., with superb grounds), all 
noteworthy for their luxuriant vegetation. 

Besides the above-mentioned "Coast Promenade , another charming 
walk may he taken by the picturesque road, which, beginning opposite 
the Villa Gropallo in the main street, ascends in curves to ( 3 /4 hr.) the 
church of S. Ilario, halfway up the Monte Giugo (1594 ft.). On the way, 
and from beside the church, we obtain admirable views as far as Porto- 
fino on the E., and of the Riviera di Ponente and the Ligurian Alps on 
the W. The footpath (short-cut) may be chosen for the descent. 

The numerous tunnels that now follow sadly interfere with the 
enjoyment of the view. — 9 M. Bogliasco; 9 J /2 M. Pieve di Sori; 

106 Route 18. S. MARGHERITA. From Genoa 

IOV2M. Sori, beautifully situated, with a noble survey of sea and 
valley from the viaduct which passes high above the town and ri- 
vulet. — 13 M. Recco. 

Fkom Recco to Rota, 2>A> M. ; omnibus and carriages (3 fr.) at the 
station. Ruta (Italia, dej. 272, D- 3, pens. 6 fr., well spoken of), grandly 
situated at the highest point of the high-road (see below), is the best starting- 
point for the ascent of the *Monte di Portoflno (2010 ft.; guide not neces- 
sary). A good footpath, commanding fine views of both the Rivieras, 
ascends in '/« hr. to the top of the ridge, s/ 4 hr. from the summit, with 
the Telegrafo or signal-station (no inn, provisions should be taken), which 
affords a magnificent survey of the Gulf of Genoa and as far as Spezia 
(Corsica is sometimes visible to the S.). — The descent to (IV2 hr.) 
S. Margherita or Portofino (see below) is very interesting, though fatiguing. 
From the descent to Portofino, a footpath (guide desirable) leads to the 
right, 20 min. below the summit, to O/2 hr.) S. Fruttuoso (Trattoria, un- 
pretending), prettily situated between steep rocks on a bay at the S. 
side of the promontory. The church contains tombs (13-14th cent.) of the 
Doria family. A very rough path leads along the beach to Portofino, 
and it is advisable either to take a boat (2 fr.) or to return to the path 
mentioned above. 

I41/2 M. Camogli, on the coast, to the right, whence another 
ascent to the promontory of Portofino (3 hrs.) begins. Beyond the 
long Tunnel of Ruta, penetrating Capo S. Margherita, the train 
reaches the fertile plain of Rapallo, with its numerous villas. 

17!/ 2 M. S. Margherita Ligure (Grand Hotel, in a lofty situation 
with fine view, with garden, pens. 8-12 fr. ; Hotel Bellevue, R. 3, 
B. 1^2, D. 41/2, pens. incl. wine 8fr., mediocre; Tratt. Colombo; 
Tratt. degli Amici), a town of 3600 inhab., situated on the coast, 
to the right, below the railway, is frequented as a winter-resort 
and for sea-bathing. In the Piazza Magenta is a fountain with a 
statue of Columbus by Tabacchi (1892), and by the Caffe Ligure is 
a statue of Garibaldi. Many of the women are engaged in lace- 
making, while the men go in May as coral-fishers to the coasts of 
Sardinia and N. Africa. 

On a commanding promontory, >/« M. off, on the picturesque road to 
Rapallo (see below), is Marchese Spinola's Villa Pagana, with a beautiful 
garden. — The Monte di Portofino (see above) may be ascended from S. Mar- 
gherita in 2 hrs. — The "Excursion to Portofino (boat 3-4 fr. ; omnibus 
six times daily, 25 c.) is attractive. A good road runs to the S. along the 
shore, with fine views of the coast as far as the hills of Spezia, to the 
(1/2 hr.) suppressed monastery of Cervara, where, after the battle of Pavia, 
Francis I. of France, when detained here by contrary winds on his way 
to Madrid as the prisoner of Charles V., was once confined. Thence the 
road , passing the picturesque Castle of Paraggi (Mr. Brown) and the 
hamlet of the same name on a little bay, leads to P/4 hr.) Portofino (Piccolo 
Hotel, Alb. Delfino, both unpretending; Oslcria delta Stella), a small sea- 
port ensconced beneath the S.E. extremity of the promontory, with two 
old castles, now the property of Mr. Brown ; the one situated at the ex- 
tremity of the promontory ('/ 2 hr. from Portofino) commands a splendid 
prospect. — This excursion may be pleasantly prolonged by taking a boat 
(5-6 fr.) to (V/t hr.) S. Fruttuoso (church, see above) and on to ( 3 /4 hr.) the 
Punta delta CMappa, the S.W. extremity of the promontory ; thence on foot 
to S. Eocco 0/2 hr.) and Camogli C/2 hr. ; see above). 

I8Y2 M. Rapallo. — Hotels (no omnibuses at the station). Gk. Hot. 
de l'Eueope, with small garden and sea-view, R. from 2, L. V2, A. V2 
B. f/2, dej. 3, D. 4Vz, pens. 7-10, luggage l-U/2 fr. ; 'Alb. & Pen's. Rapallo 

to Pisa. RAPALLO. IS. Route. 107 

& della Posta, with sea view, R., L., & A. 2'/2-3, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, D. 3'/2, 
pens. 6-9 fr., opposite the Europe; Alb. Rosa Bianca, pens. 6 fr., with 
good trattoria. — Physician, Dr. Brack. — Lace at Gaet. Vassallo's. — Om- 
nibus to S. Margherita. — Engl. Church Service at the Hot. Rapallo. 

Climate. Rapallo is surrounded on the N. by a semicircle of moun- 
tains, which unite with the promontory ofPortofino on the W., to forma 
tolerable shelter against the wind. Rapallo is cooler, moister, and rainier 
than Nervi, but far excels it in the number of its attractive walks. 

Rapallo, a small seaport with 2900 inhab., who make lace and 
do a brisk trade in olive-oil, has recently become a frequented winter- 
resort, owing to its agreeable climate and beautiful situation. 

Excursions. By boat (l'/z hr. ; 3-4 fr.) or by road (6 31.) via, S. Michele 
and S. Margherita to Portofino (p. 106). — Via Rtita to (2 ! /2 hrs.) Recco, 
p. 106. — To the valley of S. Anna, 1/2 hr - to the N.W. — To the N.E. is 
the pilgrimage-church of 'Madonna di Montallegro (2015 ft.; Inn, R. 2-3, 
pens. 5-6 fr.), reached by one of several routes in 2!/2hrs. (guide unneces- 
sary), which commands a superb view to the N. and S. A path at the 
back of the hospice ascends to the top of the hill, where the view is still 
more extensive. 

The district between Rapallo and Ohiavari is one of the most 
beautiful in Italy, and should if possible be traversed by car- 
riage (one-horse 8, two-horse 12 fr., in about 2 hrs.). — The next 
station after Rapallo is (21 V2 M.) Zoagli, a prettily situated little 
place, with a bronze statue of Conte Canevoro, founder of the hospi- 
tal, and an interesting churchyard. The manufacture of satin is a 
house-industry here. 

241/2 M. Chiavari (Fenice ; Trattoria. $ Alb. del Negrino), a town 
with 7700 inhab., near the mouth of the Lavagna, where the moun- 
tains recede in a wide semicircle, manufactures lace , light chairs 
(sedie di Chiavari), and silk, and builds ships. It contains a hand- 
some new Town Hall and statues of Oaribaldi and Mazzini, by Ei- 
valta. Pretty gardens beside the station. 

Chiavari is the starting-point for the accent of the Monte Fenna 
(5690 ft.; 9-10 hrs.). The route leads via Borzonasca (carriage-road; omni- 
bus F0 c.) and Sopra la Groce (Locanda Pittaluga), whence a steep foot- 
path ascends to the summit (fine view of the Apennines and the sea). 

25 1 / , 2 M. Lavagna, a ship-building place, ancestral seat of the 
Counts Fieschi, and birthplace of Sinibaldo de 1 Fieschi, professor of 
law at Bologna, afterwards Pope Innocent IV. (1243-54). — 27 M. 
Cavi. Then a long tunnel. 

28V2 M. Sestri Levante (Gr. Hot. Sestri, new; Hot. d'Europe, 
pens. 7 fr. ; Hot. a" Angleterre, pens. 6-7 fr., well spoken of), a town 
with 2500 inhab., picturesquely situated on a bay and shut in by a 

The High Road from Sestri to Spezia, far superior to the railway in 
point of scenery (carriage and pair about 45 fr. ; about 13 hrs.' walk), turns 
inland and after l /z hr. diverges to the right from the old road to Parma 
via Casarza, Vareae Ligure. and Borgotciro (p, 310). It then winds up the 
scantily wooded mountains, affording a fine retrospect of Seftri. Below, 
to the left, is Casarza; and farther on, Moneglia (p. 108) is seen on the 
coast (to the right). Then a gradual ascent through a bleak district to the 
Osteria Baracca (2235 ft.) , whence we descend into a pleasant valley in 
which lies the village of Carrodano. After a slight ascent we next descend 
by Pogliasca to Borghello (Cafe Conti, clean, with rooms) and the valley 

108 Route 18. SPEZIA. From Genoa 

of the impetuous Vara, an affluent of the Magra. The road skirts the 
broad, gravelly bed of the river and then enters a wooded tract to the 
right. Beyond Baracca the aea is not visible until the last height before 
Spezia is attained at La Foce (p. 109), whence we enjoy a magnificent 
prospect of the bay and the precipitous Alpi Apuane (p. 109). We then 
descend by numerous windings to Spezia, which we enter by the Porta 

Beyond Sestri the mountains recede, and the train also leaves 
the coast for a time. Many tunnels. Several fine views of the sea 
and the rocky coast to the right. 31 72 M. Riva Trigoso; 34y 2 M. 
Moneglia, close to the sea; 37^2 M. Deiva, at the entrance to a 
side-valley; 39 M. Framura; 41 M. Bonassola; 43 M. Levanto 
(Alb. Levanto, pens. 6 fr. ; Stella d'ltalia), a small town of 1600 
inhab., with old fortifications, a small Giardino Pubblico, and good 
sea-baths. Again a succession of tunnels. 46 M. Monterosso ; 48 M. 
Vernazza; 50 M. Corniglia; 51^4 M. Manarola; 52 M. Riomaggiore. 
Before reaching Spezia four more tunnels, the last very long (7 min.). 

56*/2 M. Spezia. — Hotels. *Ceoce di Malta, facing the sea, R. 3-10, 
A. 1, L. 3 /i, B. i'/2, dej. incl. wine 3, D. incl. wine 5, omn. 1, pens. 8-12fr. ; 
Italia, with 'Restaurant and sea-view, R., L., & A. 8 1 /*, omn. % fr. — Alb. 
Roma, with sea-view, R. 2-272, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 372, pens. 6-7 fr., 
tolerable; Gran Bektagna, R., L., & A. 2>/2, B. 3 /4, dej. 2, D. 3, pens.7fr., 
mainly commercial ; Alb. Continentale, at the station ; Posta, Corso Cavour 

Cafe. Cafe 1 del Corso, near the Giardino Pubblico. 

Baths. Warm baths at the two first-named hotels and next door to 
the Hotel Italia. — Sea-baths at the Stabilimento Selene, on the rT. side of 
the gulf, and at S. Terenzo (p. 109). 

Post Office, Corso Cavour (8-12 and 2-6). — Telegraph Office, Via da 
Passano. — Chemists. Fossati, Via del Prione ; International Pharmacy (Eng- 
lish and German prescriptions), Via Chiodo 6. 

Theatre. Politeama Duca di Genova, daily. — Music on Sun. and Thurs. 
in the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cabs. Per drive 80 c, at night 1 fr. ; with two horses 1 and IV4 fr. 
Circular drive via La Foce and Sarbia, with one horse 7, two horses 10 fr. ; 
to Porto Venere, 8 and 12 fr. ; to S. Terenzio and Lerici, 10 and 14 fr.; 
carr. and pair to the top of the Monte di Castellana 20, to Sestri Levante 50, 
to Genoa 120 fr. (carriages at L. CecchVs, Via Fazio, etc.). — Omnibus to 
or from the station 20 c, at night 30 c. ; also to Porto Venere. 

Boat with one rower, I72 fr. the first hr., 1 fr. each additional hr. ; 
for 2 pers. 2 fr. and 1 fr. 20 c. each additional hr. ; 3 pers. 272 fr. and 1 fr. 
40 c. ; 4 pers. 3 fr. and 1 fr. 60 c. ; 5 pers. 372 and 2 fr. ; to the Stabilimento 
Selene 30 c. (or 50, 60, 70, and 80 c); to Le Grazie 17 2 fr. (or 1 fr. 80, 2 fr., 
2 fr. 3! I, 2 fr. 50 c.) ; to S. Terenzo 2 fr. (or 2 fr. 40, 2 fr. 80, 3 fr. 20, 3 fr. 80 c.) ; 
to Porto Venere or to Lerici, 1 pers. 2y 2 fr., to Palmaria 3 fr. (each ad- 
ditional pers. 72 fr* more). 

Steamboats. Via Le Grazie to Porto Venere, thrice daily in 172 hr., 
fare 30 c. (not recommended for ladies); to S. Terenzo and Lerici, hourly 
in summer, in 20 min., fare 30 c, there and back 50 c, at other seasons 
thrice daily, return-fare 60 c. (starting near the Hot. Croce di Malta). 

English Church Service in the Hotel Croce di Malta. — English Vice- 
Consul : M. V. Qurney, Esq. 

N.B. Visitors must not approach within 300 yds. of the forts. 

Spezia, a town with 45,500 inhab., lies at the N.W. angle of the 
Oolfo della Spezia, at the foot of beautiful hills fringed by pictur- 
esque villages and crowned with forts. The climate is very mild, 
resembling that of Pisa (p. 362), so that Spezia is frequented as a 
winter-residence by the English and for sea-bathing in summer by 

ioPUa. SPEZIA. 18. Route. 109 

the Italians. The chief centres of traffic are the Via Mazzini, on the 
coast, the neighbouring Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, in which is the 
attractive Giardino Pubblico, and the Via Chiodo. The harbour, 
one of the largest, safest, and most convenient in Europe, an- 
ciently praised by Ennius as the Lunai Portus, was surveyed by Na- 
poleon I. as a war harbour, and since 1861 has been the chief war 
harbour of Italy. The entrance to the gulf is protected not only by 
several hill-forts, but also by the Diga Subacquea, an embankment 
nearly 2 M. long, constructed in 1874. Beside the latter, on the 
shore, are the two forts of S. Maria (W.) and S. Teresa (E.). The 
Royal Dockyard on the S.W. side of the town, constructed by Gen- 
eral Chiodo (d. 1870), whose statue rises at the entrance, is a large 
establishment, 150 acres in extent (no admission). The marine ar- 
tillery magazines in the bay of S. Vito cover an area of 100 acres. 
Spezia is also a trading and manufacturing place of some import- 
ance; and the construction of a commercial harbour, to the E. of the 
town, was begun in 1890. 

Excursions. An admirable survey (if the town and harbour is afforded 
by the Giro della Foce (carr., see p. 108; 2 hrs.' walk), a circular route 
leading to the hill of La Foce (790ft.), on the road to Sestri Levante (p. 1U7) 
and returning via Sarbia on the ridge to the N.W. of Spezia. — To the 
S. of La Foce, reached by a good road, is the Monte Parodi (2200ft.), 
commanding fine views. — A charming 'Excursion may be made to Porto 
Venere, either by steamer (p. 108) or via the high-road (7 M.), constructed 
by Napoleon in 1808-12 (carr. and omnibus, see p. 108), which describes a 
wide curve round the bay of S. Vito, with the arsenal, and then skirts the 
S. shore of the gulf, via ifarola, Fezzano, Panigaglia, and Le Orazie (steam- 
boat station, p. 108). Porto Venere (Alb. Piaggione, unpretending), on the 
site of the ancient Portus Veneris, with the remains of fortifications built 
by the Genoese in 1113, is celebrated, like the fortified island of Palmaria 
(613 ft.) immediately opposite, for a yellow-veined black marble, known 
as 'Portoro'. Charming prospect from the ruined church of S. Pietro, ris- 
ing high above the sea, and supposed to occupy the site of the temple of 
Venus. Between two rocks beneath the church is the Orotta Arpaja, or 
'Byron's Grotto' (inscription), where the poet is said to have written much 
of his 'Corsair'. — The ascent of the fortified Monte di Castellana (1670 ft.) 
is made from Le Orazie (see above) in 2 hrs. by means of a picturesque wind- 
ing road (carriages require a permesso from the Direzione Territoriale del 
Genio in Spezia). Fine view of the sea and the Rivieras from the top and 
during the ascent. — Several pleasant excursions may also be made on 
the N. side of the gulf by steamer (p. 108) or by carriage, the best being 
to S. Terenzo (sea-baths, p. 108), where Shelley passed his last days, and 
Lerici, both on the Bay of Lerici. A little to the E. of S. Terenzo, on 
the road to Lerici, is the Casa Maccarani, formerly the Casa Magni, where 
Lord Byron lived in 1822. Lerici, with a small harbour and an old castle, 
was the capital of the Gulf of Spezia in the Middle Ages. A road leads 
from Lerici to (4'/2 M.) Sarzana (p. 110). 

Railway from Spezia to Parma, see p. 310. 

Soon after quitting Spezia we enjoy a beautiful view of the Gulf 
of Spezia to the right, and, to the left, of the jagged marble Alpi 
Apuane, the S.W. chain of the central Apennines, culminating in 
the Monte Pisanino (6385 ft.). — Beyond several tunnels we reach 
(61 M.) Vezzano Ligure (p. 310), whence the line to Parma diverges 
to the N. — 62 l /2 M. Areola, with a conspicuous campanile. The 

110 Route 18. CARRARA. From Genoa 

train passes through a tunnel, and crosses the broad Magra, the an- 
cient boundary between Italy and Liguria. 

6572 M. Sarzana (Alb. di Londra), with 14,300 inhab., Rom. 
Sergiana , or Luna Nova , from its having succeeded the ancient 
Luna, with the picturesque fortification of Sarzanello, constructed 
by Castruccio Castracani (p. 374), was taken by the Florentines in 
1467 under Lorenzo Magnifico , from whom it was wrested by 
Charles VIII. of France. It subsequently belonged to Genoa, and 
then to Sardinia. Sarzana was the birthplace of Pope Nicholas V. 
(Tommaso Parentucelli , 1447-55). The handsome Cathedral of 
white marble, in the Italian Gothic style, begun in 1355, contains 
an ancient painted crucifix from Luni. In 5. Francesco is the tomb 
of Castruccio Castracani (d. 1328), by Giov. di Balduccio, of Pisa. 

The environs are fertile. Near (70 M.) Luni are the ruins of 
Luna. This ancient Etruscan town fell to decay under the Roman 
emperors ; in the middle ages it was destroyed by the Arabs (1016) ; 
and its episcopal see was transferred to Sarzana in 1465. The ruins 
of an amphitheatre and a circus are still traceable. From Luna the 
district derives its name of La Lunigiana. — Among the mountains 
to the left the quarries of white marble are visible. 

72 M. Avenza, a small town on the brook of that name, above 
which rises an old castle of Castruccio Castracani , of 1322, with 
bold round towers and pinnacles, was once the frontier-town of the 
Duchy of Massa. On the coast to the right is a small harbour for the 
shipment of the Carrara marble. 

Bkanch Railway in 16 min. (fares 60, 40, 30 c.) to (3 M.) — 

Carrara {Alb. della Posla, well spoken of; one-horse carr. to Massa, 
3-4 fr.) , a pleasant little town with 11,900 inhab. , most of whom gain 
their livelihood by working the marble. Some of the studios of the nu- 
merous sculptors are interesting. So also the following churches : S. Andrea, 
in the Gothic style of the 13th cent., with interesting facade and good 
sculptures ; Madonna delle Grazie, with sumptuous decorations in marble. 
The Accademia delle Belle Arli contains works by sculptors of Carrara and 
several Roman antiquities found in the quarries of Fantiscritti (p. Ill), 
e.g. a basrelief of Jupiter with Bacchus. 

A visit to the far-famed quarries (Care) requires 2-3 hrs. at least 
(somewhat fatiguing). Guides 2-3 fr., but their services are not indispens- 
able. Leaving the station, we follow the plane-tree avenue to the right, 
and then, after crossing the usually scanty stream of the Carrione by a 
bridge to the right, proceed to the left by the Via Vittorio Emanuele, the 
principal street of the town, passing a marble statue of Garibaldi (left), 
by Nieoli (1889), and the theatre, to the Piazza Alberica, which is adorned 
with a statue of the Grand-Duchess Maria Beatrice, over life-size, erected 
in 1861. — Thence the Via Alberica leads to the right to the Piazza dell' 
Accademia, in which is the Academy (see above) and a marble statue of 
Mazzini by Al. Biggi (1892.). — We follow the Via S. Maria to the end of 
the town and ascend the valley by the banks of the Carrione. At (>/4 M.) 
a group of houses a path diverges to the right to large quarries of inferior 
marble, but we continue to follow the road, passing numerous marble cutt- 
ing and polishing works. At the entrance to the (1 M.) village of Torano, we 
turn to the right and climb the steep lanes to the marble railway (see 
p. Ill), the metals of which we follow in the narrow shadeless upland valley, 
passing numerous quarries, to (1 M.) the station of Piazza. We may push 
on to the highest station (small restaurant) , but the ascent is fatiguing 

to Pisa. VIAREGGIO. 18. Route. Ill 

and should be attempted only when time is abundant. About 400 quarries 
with 5000 workmen are at present in operation. The working hours are 
from 7 or 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., so that the visit should be begun not later 
than midday. A horn is blown as a signal when the rock is about to be 
blasted. The blocks of marble are carried away partly by means of ox- 
waggons, partly by means of a railway {Ferrovia Marmifera), which sends 
branches into several of the lateral valleys. Visitors are sometimes 
allowed to ride on the trains (the tunnels are very cold). The quarries of 
Monte Crestola and M. Sagro yield the best and largest blocks of the finer 
marble (marmo ttatuario); the coarser variety is known as marmo ordi- 
nario. Pretty quartz crystals are offered for sale. The quarries of Fanti- 
scritti, 3 M. from Carrara, were worked by the ancient Romans. 

76Y2 M. Massa (* Oiappone ; omnibus from the station to 
the town and to Carrara), formerly the capital of the Duchy of Massa- 
Carrara, which was united with Modena in 1829, with 9000 inhab., 
is pleasantly situated amidst hills, and enjoys a mild climate. The 
handsome rococo Chateau (17th cent. ; now the prefecture) was a 
summer-residence of Napoleon's sister Elisa Bacciocchi, Duchess of 
Massa-Carrara. The loftily situated Castello (now a prison) commands 
a splendid view (permesso at the prefecture). The marble-quarries 
rival those of Carrara. 

Country fertile and well cultivated. The picturesque ruined 
castle of Montignoso occupies an abrupt height to the left. — 80'/ 2 M. 
Serravezza , a pleasant summer-resort , with marble-quarries, lies 
2 M. to the N.E. of the station. 

Serravezza is the starting-point for the exploration of the S. portion 
of the Alpi Apuane (p. 109). In the centre of the mountains, on the S.W. 
slope of the Monte Pania (6100 ft.), lies the Albergo Alpino (22J5 ft.), which 
may be reached from Serravezza in about 472-5 hrs. , and in about the 
same time from Bagni di Lucca (p. 379) or from the station of Ponte a 
Mariano (p. 379). 

83 M. Pietrasanta (Unione; Europa), a small town (4000 inhab.) 
with ancient walls, beautifully situated, was besieged and taken by 
Lorenzo de' Medici in 1482. The church of S. Martino (II Duomo), 
begun in the 13th cent., with additions extending down to the 16th 
cent., contains a pulpit and sculptures by Stagio Stagi. Ancient 
font and bronzes by Donatello in the Battistero. Campanile of 1380. 
S. Agostino, an unfinished Gothic church of the 14th cent., contains 
a painting by Taddeo Zacchia, of 1519. In the Piazza is the pinnacled 
Town Hall. Near Pietrasanta are quicksilver-mines. 

89^2 M. Viareggio. — Hotels. 'Hot. de Russie, on the beach, 
with a dependance, R. 2 1 /*, L. 3/4, A. 3/ 4 , B. 1, dej. 2, D. 4, pens. 9 fr. ; 
Alb. di Roma; Hot. d'Italie, R. 3-5, L. 1/2, A. s/ 4 , B. 3 /i, dej. incl. wine 
2'/2, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 5-7 fr. ; Corona d'Italia ; Commercio ; all 
these are near the beach; Hot. Viareggio; Miss Haden's Pension, Via 
Ugo Foscolo 62, close to the sea, pens. 5-6 fr. in summer, more in winter. 
— Apartments moderate. 

Viareggio, a small town on the coast (10,200 inhab.), and a sea- 
bathing place (Stdbilimento Nettuno ; Balena), has lately come into 
favour as a winter-resort. The climate resembles that of Pisa. The 
celebrated pine-wood (Pineta), which forms a half-circle round the 
place from N.E. to S.W., shelters it from the wind. 

112 Route 18. NOZZANO. 

A monument to Shelley (p. 372), by Urbano Lucchesi, was erected 
in the Piazza Paolina in 1894. 

On the side of the pedestal, encircled by intertwined branches of oak 
and olive, is a book bearing on its cover the word 'Proineteo'. Above 
this is the following inscription : — '1894 to P. B. Shelley, heart of hearts, 
in 1822 drowned in this sea, consumed by fire on this shore, where he 
meditated the addition to 'Prometheus Unbound' of a posthumous page in 
which every generation would have a token of its struggles, its tears, 
and its redemption'. 

Walks in the somewhat neglected grounds of the Piazza Azeglio 
on the shore , or on the long Molo , with its lighthouse (view). 
The S. portion of the Pineta, which extends along the coast for 
31/2 M., belonged to the Duchess of Madrid (d. 1893), first wife of 
Don Carlos, whose fine villa is about 3 M. from Viareggio. In the 
smaller and inferior part of the wood which belongs to the town are 
the ruins of a hippodrome. — Longer excursions to the beautifully 
situated Camajore (2 hr^.), and to the Lake of Massaciuceoli, near 
Torre del Lago (see below). 

From Viareggio to Lucca, 14 M., a branch-railway in 3 /4-l hr. via 
(5 M.) Massarosa and (8'/2 M.) Nozzano. From Nozzano we may visit the 
so-called Bayni di JYerone, a beautifully situated Roman ruin on the road 
from Viareggio to Lucca, not far from the above-mentioned Lake of Massa- 
ciuceoli. From Lucca (p. 373,) to Florence via. Pistoja, see pp. 380-387; to 
Bologna, see pp. 342, 341. 

The line enters the marshy plain of the Serchio. 92*^ M. Torre 
del Lago. At (9?72 M.) Migliarino we cross the Serchio. 

10272 M. Pisa (p. 361). To the left, before the station, rise the 
cathedral, baptistery, and campanile. We then cross the Arno. 

IV. Lombardy. 

19. Milan 115 

The Certosa di Pavia 138 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco 140 

a. From Milan to Como via Saronno 140 

b. From Milaji to Como and to Lecco via Monza . . . 141 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 145 

22. Lake of Como 147 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio 153 

23. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano to 
Luino on the Lago Maggiore 155 

24. From Milan to Laveno and Arona 157 

1. From Milan to Laveno 157 

a. Via. Saronno and Varese 157 

From Varese to Como and to Porto Ceresio .... 159 

b. Via, Gallarate 159 

From Gallarate to Varese 160 

2. From Milan to Arona 160 

25. Lago Maggiore 161 

26. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta .... 170 

27. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via, Pavia 173 

From Pavia to Alessandria via, Torre-Berretti and Valenza 175 

From Pavia to Brescia via Cremona 175 

From Pavia to Stradella 175 

28. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 176 

From Cremona to Piacenza 178 

29. From Milan to Bergamo 179 

From Bergamo to Ponte della Selva 182 

From Bergamo to Lovere 183 

From Lecco to Brescia via. Bergamo 183 

30. From Milan to Verona 183 

31. Brescia 185 

32. The Lago di Garda. Riva. Arco 191 

33. From Brescia to Edolo. Lago d'Iseo 196 

The name of the Germanic tribe that invaded Italy in 568 is now 
applied to the country between the Alps and the Po, which is separated 
from Piedmont by the Ticino, and from Venetia by the Mincio. It is 
divided into the eight provinces of Como, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio, Ber- 
gamo, Cremona, Brescia, and Mantova, covering an area of about 9000 sq. M., 
and containing 3,713,331 inhabitants. The name was once applied to a 
much larger tract. Lombardy has not inaptly been likened to an 
artichoke, the leaves of which were eaten off in succession by the lords 
of Piedmont; thus in 1427 they appropriated Vercelli, in 1531 Asti, in 1703 
Val Sesia, in 1706 Alessandria, in 1736 Tortona and Novara, and in 1743 
Domodossola. The heart of the country , if we continue to use the 
simile, would then be the District op Milan, or the tract lying between 
the Ticino, Po , and Adda. The three zones of cultivation are the same 
as in Piedmont, viz. the region of pastures among the mountains, that 
of the vine, fruit-trees, and the silk-culture on the lower undulating 

Baedekek. Italy I. 10th Edit. 8 


country and the slopes adjoining the lakes, and that of wheat, maize, 
and meadows in the plains, the yield of these last being, however, far 
more abundant than in Piedmont. The summers are hot and dry, rain 
being rare beyond the lower Alps , and falling more frequently when 
the wind is from the E. than from the W., as the moisture of the latter 
is absorbed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. The land, however, 
is more thoroughly irrigated than that of any other district in Europe, 
and the servitude of aquae ductus, or right to conduct water across the 
property of others, has been very prevalent here for centuries. A failure 
of the crops indeed is hardly possible , except when the summer is 
unusually cold. Meadows yield as many as twelve crops in the year, 
their growth being unretarded by the winter. The so-called Parmesan 
cheese is one of the well-known products of Lombardy. In the middle 
ages the importance of Milan was due to its woollen industries, but shetep- 
breeding has in modern times been largely superseded by the silk-culture, 
an industry which has so materially increased the wealth of the country, 
that it used to be said during the Austrian regime, that the army and the 
officers lived on mulberry leaves, as their produce alone sufficed to pay 
the land taxes. Under these circumstances the population is unusually 
dense, being about 380 persons to the sq. mile, exclusive of the capital. 
The central situation, and the wealth of the country, have ever ren- 
dered it an apple of discord to the different European nations. In the 
earliest period known to us, it was occupied by the Etruscans, an Italian 
race , which about the 6th cent. B.C. was subjugated or expelled by 
Celts from the W. These immigrants founded Mediolanum (Milan), and 
traces of their language still survive in the modern dialect of the coun- 
try. It was but slowly that the Italians subdued or assimilated these 
foreigners, and it was not till B.C. 220 that the Romans extended their 
supremacy to the banks of the Po. In the following century they consti- 
tuted Gallia Cisalpina a province, on which Caesar conferred the rights 
of citizenship in B.C. 46. Throughout the whole of the imperial epoch 
these regions of Northern Italy formed the chief buttress of the power of 
Rome. From the 4th cent, on Milan surpassed Rome in extent, and, 
in many respects, in importance 'also. It became an imperial residence, 
and the church founded here by St. Ambrosius (who became bishop in 
374), long maintained its independence of the popes. The Lombards 
made Pavia their capital, but their domination, after lasting for two 
centuries, was overthrown by Charlemagne in 774. The Lombard dia- 
lect also contains a good many words derived from the German (thus, 
bron, gast, gra, pib, smessor, stora, and stosa, from the German Brun- 
nen, Gast, Greis, Pflug, Messer, storen, and stossen). The crown of 
Lombardy was worn successively by the Franconian and by the German 
Kings, the latter of whom, particularly the Othos , did much to promote 
the prosperity of the towns. When the rupture between the emperor 
and the pope converted the whole of Italy into a Guelph and Ghibelline 
camp , Milan formed the headquarters of the former , and Cremona those 
of the latter party, and the power of the Hohenstaufen proved to be no 
match for the Lombard walls. The internal dissensions between the 
nobles and the townspeople, however, led to the creation of several new 
principalities. In 1287 Matteo degli Visconti of Milan (whose family 
was so called from their former office of 'vicecomites' , or archiepiscopal 
judges) was nominated 'Capitano del Popolo', and in 1294 appointed gov- 
ernor of Lombardy by the German King. Although banished for a time 
by the Guelph family Delia Torre, both he and his sons and their poster- 
ity contrived to assert their right to the Signoria. The greatest of this 
family was Giovanni Galeazzo, who wrested the reins of government from 
his uncle in 1385, and extended his duchy to Pisa and Bologna, and even 
as far as Perugia and Spoleto. Just, however, as he was preparing at 
Florence lobe crowned king of Italy , he died of the plague in 1402 
in the 55th year of his age. On the extinction of the Visconti family in 
1447, the condottiere Francesco Sforza ascended the throne, and under his 
descendants was developed to the utmost that despotism which Leo de- 
scribes as 'a state in which the noblest institutions prosper when the 

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MILAN. 19. Route. 115 

prince ia a good man; in which the greatest horrors are possible when 
the prince cannot govern himself; a state which has everywhere thriven 
in Mohammedan countries, but rarely in the middle ages in other Christian 
countries besides this '. In 1494 when Lodovico il Moro induced Charles 
VIII. of France to undertake a campaign against Naples , he inaugurated 
a new period in the history of Italy. Since that time Italy "has at once 
been the battlefield and the prey of the great powers of Europe. Lodo- 
vico himself, after having revolted against France and been defeated at 
Novara in 1500, terminated his career in a French dungeon. In 1525 the 
battle of Pavia constituted Charles V. arbiter of the fortunes of Italy. In 
1535, after the death of the last Sforza, he invested his son, Philip II. of 
Spain, with the duchj of Milan. In 1713 the Spanish supremacy was 
followed by the Austrian in consequence of the War of Succession. On 
four occasions (1733 , 1745 , 1796 , and 1800) the French took possession of 
Milan , and the Napoleonic period at length swept away the last relics of 
its mediaeval institutions. Although Napoleon annexed the whole of 
Piedmont, Genoa, Parma, Tuscany, and Rome (about 36,000 sq. M. of 
Italian territory) to France, the erection of a kingdom of Italy contrib- 
uted materially to arouse a national spirit of patriotism. This kingdom 
embraced Lombardy, Venice , S. Tyrol , Istria , the greater part of the 
Emilia, and the Marches (about 32,000 sq. M.). Milan was the capital, 
and Napoleon was king , but was represented by his stepson Engine 
Beauharnais. The Austrian Supremacy, which was restored in 1815, proved 
irreconcilable with the national aspirations of the people. I?y the Peace 
of Zurich (10th Nov., 1859), Lombardy, with the exception of the district 
of Mantua, was ceded to Napoleon III., and by him to Sardinia. 

19. Milan, Ital. Milano. 

Arrival. The Central Station (PI. F, G, 1; Restaurant, high charges), a 
handsome and well-arranged structure, is decorated with frescoes by Pag- 
liano, Induno, and Casnedi, and with sculptures by Vela, Strazza, Magni, 
and Tabacchi. Omnibuses from most of the hotels are in waiting (fare 
l-l'/2 fr.). Fiacre from the station to any part of the town ly«fr. (also at 
night), each large article of luggage 25 c. , small articles taken inside the 
cab free. Tramway into the town 10 c. (hand-baggage only allowed). — 
The Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, 4), a secondary station for the lines to 
Saronno and Como (p. 140), to Erba (p. 145), and to Varese and Laveno 
(p. 157), is connected with the Piazza del Duomo by an electric tramway 
(10 c). Porterage to the town for luggage under 100 lbs. 50 c, according 
to tariff (from either station). — Railway-tickets of all kinds may also 
be procured at the Agenzia Intemazionale di Viaggi (Fratelli Gondrand), 
Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 22-24, and (for the above-named side-lines) at the 
Agenzia Ferrovie Nord Milano, in the Hotel Metropole. — For the stations 
of the Steam Tramways, see p. 117. 

Hotels (all those of the first class have lifts). *Cavouk (PI. b; F, 3), 
in the Piazza Cavour, R. 41/2, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2 fr. ; "Grand Hotel de la 
Ville (PI. a; F, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, R. 3-15, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, 
D. 5, pens. 15, omn. l!/2fr.; "Grand Hotel Milan (PI. c; F, 3, 4), Via 
Alessandro Manzoni 29, with ticket and luggage office, R. 3'/2-7, L. 1, A. 1, 
B. I1/2, dej. 3'/2, D. 5, pens, from 10, omn. 1, electric light 1, heating 
1 fr.; Continental (PI. e; E, 4), Via Alessandro Manzoni, also with 
electric lighting, R. , L., & A. 4-8, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens, from 10, 
omn. l l /2fr. — The following are somewhat less expensive: "Grande Bre- 
tagne & Reichmann (PI. d; D, E, 6), Via Torino 45, with lift, R., L., & A. 
4-6, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 9, omn. l'/2 fr. ; 'Hotel Metropole, in 
the Piazza del Duomo, with lift, R. 2V2-4, A. 3/ 4 , L. s/ 4i b. I1/2, dej. 3, 
D. 4V2, pens. 81/2-I2, omn. 1 fr. ; Reeeochino (PL P ; E , 5) , Via S. Mar- 
gherita, with restaurant, R. 3-5, L. 3 / 4 , A. i /t, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 6, pens. 
12, omn. I1/4 fr. — "Eoropa (PI. f; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 9, with 
lift and electric lighting, R. from 2V2, L. 3/ 4 , A. 3/ 4 , B. IV2, dej. 3, B. 4, 
omn. 1, pens. 8-12 fr.; "Manin (PI. k; F, 2), Via Manin, near the Giardini 


1\6 Route 19. MILAN. Hotels. 

Pubblici, R. from2V2, L. 3 / 4 , A. 3/i, B.I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 91/2, omn. 
1 fr. ; 'Roma (PI. g; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 7, with lift and restaurant, 
R. 21/2, A. 3/4, L. 'A, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 9-11, omn. 1 fr. ; Nazio- 
nale, Piazza della Scala 4, with electric lighting, E., L., & A. 21/2-3V2, 
B. IV2, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 8-10, omn. 1/2 fr., well spoken of. — The 
following are all good Italian houses of the second class: "Pozzo (PI. 1; 

E, 6), Via Torino, E., 21/2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, B. H/4, dej. 2>/2, D. 41/2, 
pens. 9, omn. 1 fr.; *Francia (PI. m; F, 5), K. 2-21/2 fr., L. 60, A. 60c, 
dej. 3, D. incl. wine 4'/2, pens. 8-10, omn. 1 fr. ; "Central St. Marc (PI. 
h; E, 6), Via del Pesce, E. , L. , & A. from 2'/2, B. D/4, d(5j. 21/2, D. 4, 
pens, from 7, omn. 3 /t fr. ; Bella Venezia (PL i; E, F, 5), Piazza S. Fe- 
dele, R. 2>/2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, D. 4, omn. 1 fr. ; "AncSea et Geneve (PI. n; 

F, 5), Via Agnello and Corso Vitt. Emanuele, R. 2-2y 2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, 
omn. 3/4 fr- ; "Angioli, Via S. Protaso, R., L., & A. 21/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, 
omn. 3 lt fr. ; *Lion et Teois Soisses (PI. o ; G, 4, 5), Corso Vittorio Ema- 
nuele, at the corner of the Via Durini, R. li/ 2 -2 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, B. I1/4, 
dej. 2'/2, D. 3'/ 2 , pens. 7, omn. 3 /i fr. ; Bisoione & Bellevde, Piazza Fon- 
tana (PI. F, 5), R., L., & A. 2i/ 2 -3V2, B. D/2, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 8, omn. 
1 /n fr. — Unpretending Italian hotels, with trattorie : Hot.-Pension Sotsse, 
Via Visconti 15, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. with wine 4, pens. 
7 fr., well spoken of; Falcone, Via del Falcone, well spoken of; Passarella, 
Via Passarella, R., L., & A. 2'/2, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 31/2, pens. 71/2, omn. 3 / 4 fr.; 
Pens. Viviani, Via Gabrio Casati, pens. 8-7 fr., A. 25, L. 30c, well spoken 
of, all near the Piazza del Duomo ; Agnello, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 2 ; "Com- 
mercio, Piazza Fontana 5, unpretending; Hot. do Noed, Alb. Tokino, Alb. 
Concordia, Alb. Como (with a pleasant garden), Alb. S. Gottardo, 'Hot. 
Terminus (R., L., & A. 2'/-2, D. 3V« fr.), all these near the central station; 
Pension Ravizzi, Via Solferino 11. 

Restaurants {Ristoranti, Trattorie; comp. p.xix). "Cova, Via S. Giaseppe, 
near the Scala, with a garden (evening concerts ; 10 c. added on each order) ; 
"Biffi, ° Gambrinui-Halle (formerly Gfnocchi), *Savini, all three in the Galleria 
Vitt. Emanuele (see below); Accademia, Piazza della Scala; Orologio, be- 
hind the Duomo, charges reasonable. The above-mentioned second-class 
hotels are also restaurants. Fiaschetteria Toscana, behind the E. branch 
of the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele ; good Tuscan wine. 

Cafes (comp. p. xix). "Biffi (concerts in the evening), Savini (see 
above), and Campari, all in the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele; "Cova, Via S. 
Giuseppe (see above) ; Caffe Antille, Via Alessandro Manzoni, opposite 
the Hotel de Milan ; Martini, Accademia (see above), both Piazza della Scala; 
Carini, Piazza del Duomo ; Eden, Via Cairoli (see below) ; several cafe's in 
the Giardini Pubblici (p. 136); delle Colonne, Corso Venezia 1. Beer in glasses 
may be procured at most of the cafe's. — Panetone is a favourite kind of 
cake, chiefly used during the continuance of the Carnival. 

Beer-Houses (Birrerie; 'tazza' or small glass 35 c, 'tazza grande' or 
half-litre 55 c). Gambrinus-Halle, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele (p. 122), Munich 
beer, concert in the evening ; Birreria Nazionale , a large establishment 
in the Via Carlo Alberto, on the W. side of the Piazza del Duomo (Vienna 
beer); Birreria Svizzera, Via Cappellari, near the Hotel Metropole; Bor- 
ghetti, Via Principe Umberto 29 ; Culmbacher Bierhalle, Via Mercanti 5 ; 
Naef, Via Dante , cor. of the Via Cordusio ; Birreria della Scala , Piazza 
della Scala ; Spatenbrau , Via Al. Manzoni (also luncheon-rooms), well 
spoken of. 

Baths. Societa delle Terme, Foro Bonaparte; Corso Vittorio Emanuele 17, 
clean and not expensive; Via Annunziata 11; Bagni Dufour, Via S. Vit- 
tore ; Tre Be, Via Tre Alberghi 24 (PI. E, 6) ; Via Pasquirolo 11, etc. — 
Swimming-Baths : -Bagno di Diana (PI. H, 2), outside the Porta Venezia 
(1 fr., including free conveyance by tramway from the Piazza del Duomo). 

Cabs (' Cittadine' or '■Broughams'; a tariff in each vehicle). Per drive 
by day lfr., by night l'/4 fr. ; from the station to the town l'/ 4 fr. ; half- 
hour lfr., per hour l'/2fr.; each large article of luggage 25c. 

Electric Railway from the Piazza del Duomo through the Via Dante 

Tramways. MILAN. 19. Route. 117 

to the Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, 4) and on through the Via Vincenzo 
Monti to the Porta Sempione (PI. B, 2); fare 10 c. 

Tramways from the Piazza del Duomo to most of the city-gates, and 
to the station (fare 10 c, at night 20 c); also round the town (Tramvia di 
Circonvailazione ; from one gate to either of the next two 10 c). A line is 
being made from the Central Railway Station to the Stazione Ferrovie 
Nord via the Porta Nuova. — Milan is also the centre of a network of Steam 
Tkamwais , extending over almost the whole of Lombardy. The follow- 
ing are the principal lines diverging from Milan : 1. To Monza (p. 141 ; 1 hr.), 
starting from the church of S. Babila, Corso Venezia (PI. G, 4); inside 
80 c. outside 60 c. — 2. Tramway Interprovinciale , station in the Strada 
di circonvailazione, outside the Porta Venezia (PI. G, 1); lines to Monza 
and Barzand; to Vimercate; to Vaprio (with branch from Villafornace to 
Treviglio, p. 183, and thence to Bergamo, p. 179) ; to Lodi (p. 299) ; and to 
Caravaggio (p. 176). — 3. To Magenta (p. 62) and Castano, starting outside 
the Porta Magenta (PI. A, 4, 5). — 4. To Seregno (p. 142), and thence on the 
one side to Carale-Brianza (p. 148), on the other to Giussano, starting from 
the Porta Volta (PI. D, 1). — 5. To Melegnano (p. 299), S. Angela Lodigiano 
(p. 299), and Lodi (p. 299), starting outside the Porta Romana (PI. H, 8). 
— 6. To Pavia, see p. 173. — 7. To Saronno- Tradate (p. 157) and to Galla- 
rate (p. 160) , starting from the Foro Bonaparte, at the corner of the Via 
Mercato (PI. D, 3). , ^ , 

Post Office (PI. E, 6), Via Rastrelli 20, near the cathedral, at the back 
of the Palazzo Reale, open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Telegraph Office (PI. 
E, 5), near the Borsa, Piazza dei Mercanti 19, groundfloor. 

Theatres. The Teatro alia Scala (PI. E, 4), the largest in Italy after 
the S. Carlo Theatre at Naples, was built in 1778, and holds 3600 spectators. 
The opera and ballet are excellent, but performances take place during 
winter only; the interior is worthy of inspection (open 9-4; V*fr.). — Teatro 
Manzoni (PI. E, 5), Piazza S. Fedele, elegantly fitted up, good performances 
of comedy; Teatro Lirico Internazionale (on the site of the old T. Canob- 
biana) , Via Larga (PI. F, 6) ; Teatro Dal Verme (PI. D , 4) , operas and 
ballets, sometimes used as a circus; Teatro Filodrammatico (PI. E, 4), Via 
S. Dalmazio, operas ; Teatro Milanese, Corso Vittorio Emanuele, plays in 
the local dialect. — Eden Theatre of Varieties , Via Cairoli (PI. D, 4) ; 
Follia, Via dei Ratti (PI. E, 5). 

Bankers. Mylius & Co., Via Clerici 4 (PI. E, 4); Weill, Schott Figli, 
& Co., Via S. Andrea 6 (PI. F, G, 4); Zacc. Pita, Via S. Giuseppe 4; Fon- 
willer <£• Co., Via Broletto 37; Bellinzaghi, Via Andegari 14. — Money- 
changers : Minolelti, Piazza Mercanti (PI. E, 5) ; Strada, Via Manzoni, etc. 
Booksellers. Boepli, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 37; F. Sacchi <t Figli, Via 
S. Margherita; Dumolard, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 21; Gius. Galli, Galleria 
Vitt. Emanuele 17&80; Libreria Treves, Gall. Vitt. Emanuele. — News- 
papers. Perseveranza (10 c); Corriere delta Sera; La Sera; Lombardia; 
Secolo, etc. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Citta d'ltalia, Piazza del Duomo, is an establishment in the style of 
the large Magasins at Paris. The Silk Industry of Milan, in which up- 
wards of 200 considerable firms are engaged, is very important. The 
following are noted retail-dealers: Cogliati & Co., Corso Vitt. Emanuele, 
adjoining the Hotel de la Ville; Osnago, Via S. Radegonda 5, to the N. of 
the Cathedral; Besozzi, Monghisoni, & Co., Corso Vitt. Emanuele 2.->. — 
Marbles : Bianchi, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele. — Antiquities : Vedova Arri- 
goni, Via Senato ; Erei, Via Monte Napoleone 26 ; A. Cantoni, Via Ugo Fos- 
colo 1. — Optician : Duroni, Gall. Vitt. Emanuele 9. —Fancy Goods : Guglia- 
neili, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, at the corner of the Via S. Paolo. 

Cigars. Genuine havanas may be obtained at Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 90. 
Physicians. Dr. John Bill, Via Principe Umberto 17 ; Dr. Francis 
Cozzi, Via Monforte 6; Dr. Lindner, Via Senato 8a; Dr. Fornom, Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele 26; Dr. Schulle, Via Cernaja. — Private Hospitals: Casa di 
Salute Parapini, Via La Marmora, near the Porta Romana; Asilo Evan- 
gelico, Via Monte Rosa 12, outside the Porta Magenta. — Chemists: Val- 
camonica <fc Introzzi, Corso Vitt. Eman. 4; Zambelletti, Piazza b. Carlo, 

118 Route 19. MILAN. Collections. 

Corso Vitt. Emanuele (PI. F, 4,5); Talini, Via Alessandro Manzoni, opposite 
the Hot. de Milan. 

Cook's Tourist Office, Piazza del Duomo 45. — Goods Agents. Fralelli 
Gondrand, Via Tre Alberghi 3 (PI. E, 6). 

Permanent Art Exhibition, in the Palazzo delta Societa per le Belle 
Arti, Via Principe TJmberto 32 (PI. F, 2; open 10-4; 60 c). 

American Consul, Chas S. Hazelline, Esq., Via Monte Napoleone 7. 
British Vice-Consul, Alf. Edwards, Esq., Via Solferino24; pro-consul, Wm. 
M. Tweedie, Esq. 

English Church Service , Via Andegari 8, at 11 and 3. — Waldentian 
Church, Piazza S. Giovanni in Conca. 

Collections and Objects of Interest. [Artists receive free admission 
to Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, the Salone, and the Certosa di Pavia 
on application at the office on the groundfloor of the Brera, jwhile per- 
mission for the Brera itself and the Museo Poldi-Pezzoldi is granted on 
the first floor. For a list of the national holidays, see p. xxii. 

Ambrosiana. Library shown daily , 10-3, Sun. and holidays 1-3, fee 
•/» fr. ; open to students from Nov. 12th to Aug. 31st, daily, 10-3, except 
Wed., Sun., and festivals. Pinacoteca, daily, 10-3, 1 /2 fr. ; from May 1st 
to Sept. 30th, Wed., 10-3, free; p. 129. 

Brera. Archaeological Museum, daily, 12-3, 1 /t fr., free on Sun and festi- 
vals. Library, daily, 9 to 4 or 5, Sun. 10-2, closed on holidays. Picture Gal- 
lery, daily, 9-4 (Nov.-Feb. 9-3), 1 fr. ; on Sun. and holidays, 12-3, free; p. 124. 

Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci, daily, 9-4, 1 fr. ; Sun., 12-3, free ; p. 131. 

Mtiseo Borromeo, Tues. & Frid., 2-4, fee C/2-l fr.); p. 130. 

Museo Civico, daily, 11-4, '/z fr. ; Sun. & Thurs., free; p. 137. 

Museo Poldi-Pezzoli, daily, 9-4, 1 fr. ; Sun. & holidays, 11-3, free; p. 123. 

Salone, daily, 11-4, 1 fr.; Sun. & Thurs., free; p. 136. 

Principal Attractions. 1st day, in the morning : "Cathedral , ascend 
to the 'Roof; "Galleria Vittorio Emanuele ; Piazza de' Mercanti; 'Brera (pic- 
ture-gallery); in the afternoon: S. Maria delle Grazie and 'Leonardo da 
Vinci's Last Supper; S. Ambrogio, the oldest of the churches; in the 
evening : walk in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele and Piazza del Duomo, or in 
summer in the Giardini Pubblici. — 2nd day, in the morning: S. Eustorgio; 
*S. Lorenzo; S. Satiro; Ambrosiana (pictures); Museo Poldi-Pezzoli; in 
the afternoon : New Cemetery. — Excursion to the "Certosa di Pavia 
(p. 138); to Monza (p. 141; steam-tramway). 

Milan (390 ft.J, Ital. Milano, surnamed 'la grande 1 , the Medio- 
lanum of the Romans, which was rebuilt after its total destruction 
in 1162 by the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, is the capital of Lom- 
bardy, the seat of an archbishop, the headquarters of an army- 
corps, the chief financial centre of Italy, and one of the wealth- 
iest manufacturing and commercial towns in the country, silk and 
woollen goods, gloves, carriages, machinery, and art-furniture being 
the staple commodities. It also exports a considerable amount of 
cheese, butter, eggs, poultry, and other country produce. The town 
is situated on the small river Olona, which, however, is navigable 
and is connected by means of the Naviglio Grande (p. 62) with the 
Ticino and Logo Maggiore, by the Naviglio di Pavia with the 
Ticino and the Po, and by the Naviglio della Martesana with the 
Adda, the Lake of Como , and the Po. It is 7 M. in circum- 
ference and ranks next to Naples and Rome in point of population, 
containing with the suburbs, and a garrison of 5000 men 425 800 
inhabitants. There are numerous German and Swiss residents. 

The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy near 
the beginning of several of the great Alpine passes, has always se'cured 

Cathedral. MILAN. 19. Route. 119 

for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans it was one of the 
largest cities in Italy (p. 114), but owing to its repeated destruction hardly 
a trace of that period has been left. In the 11th cent, it contained 300,000 
inhabitants. Its heroic struggles against the- German emperors are well 
known. With the exception of S. Ambrogio and a few other churches, the 
city was totally destroyed in 1162 by the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 
but in 1167 it was rebuilt by the allied cities of Brescia, Bergamo, Man- 
tua, and Verona. It was afterwards ruled by the Visconti (1294-1447), then 
by the Sforza family (1447-1535). Under the supremacy of the latter it at- 
tained the zenith of its reputation as a patron of art, having been the 
residence of Bramanle from 1476 to 1500, and of Leonardo da Vinci in 1485- 
1500 and 1506-16. The most eminent of Leonardo's followers who flour- 
ished here were Bernardino Luini , Cesare da Sesto , Oiov. Ant. Boltraffio, 
Marco da Oggiono, Andrea Salaino, Giov. Pedrini, G. A. Bazzi ( l il Sodoma'). 
and Gaud. Ferrari. — Milan with the rest of Lombardy afterwards passed 
into the hands of the Spaniards , and in 1714 fell to Austria. In 1796 it 
became the capital of the 'Cisalpine Republic*, and then (down to 1815) that 
of the Kingdom of Italy. The bloody insurrection of 17th May, 1848, com- 
pelled the Austrians to evacuate the city, and the patriotic agitations which 
ensued were happily ended by the desired union with the new kingdom 
of Italy in 1859. 

No town in Italy ha3 undergone such marked improvement as Milan 
since the events of 1859. In the province of Art it has raised itself to 
the highest rank in the kingdom. Sculpture is here carried on to such 
an extent as to have become almost a special industry. The Milanese 
Sculptors take great pride in their technical skill, and in effective imi- 
tations of nature. Among the best known are Barzaghi, Argenti, Calvi, 
Astori, and Barcaglia. — Painting is represented by Bianehi, Pagliano, 
Bouvier, Segantini, Steffani, Didioni, and others, but most of these artists 
seem to cultivate the modern Parisian style, and to be entirely oblivious 
of their glorious old national traditions. 

The old part of the town, which consists partly of narrow and 
irregular streets and partly of handsome modern structures, is en- 
closed by canals. Beyond these have sprung up suburbs (borghi), 
named after the different gates (Porta Venezia, Garibaldi, Sem- 
pione, etc.). 

The focus of the commercial and public life of Milan is the 
*Piazza del Duomo (PI. E, 5), which has recently been much ex- 
tended, and is now enclosed by imposing edifices designed by Men- 
goni (p. 122). It is a centre for omnibuses and tramways. 

The celebrated **Cathedral (PI. E, F, 5) , dedicated 'Mariae 
NascentV, as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the 
gilded statue on the tower over the dome also indicates, is regarded 
by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the world, and is, next to 
St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral at Seville, the largest church 
in Europe. This huge structure covers an area of 14,000 sq. yds. (of 
which about 2400 sq. yds. are taken up by the walls and pillars), and 
holds about 40,000 people. The interior is 162 yds. in length, the 
transept 96 yds. in breadth, the facade 73 yds. in breadth ; nave 
157 ft. in height, 18 yds. in breadth. The dome is 220 ft. in height, 
the tower 360 ft. above the pavement. The roof, marble like the rest 
of the building, is adorned with 98 turrets, and the exterior with 
upwards of 2000 statues in marble. The stained-glass windows in 
the choir are said to be the largest in the world. The structure, 
which was founded by the splendour-loving Gian Galeazzo Vis- 

120 Route 19. MILAN. Cathedral. 

conti in 1386, occupies the site of the early-Christian basilica of 
S. Maria Maggiore. The general style of the building is Gothic, but 
shows many peculiarities. The author of the original design is un- 
known. Marco da Campione and Simone da Orsenigo have been 
named, but without any positive proof. The latter superintended 
the building-operations after 1387. The building progressed but 
slowly, owing to the dissensions between the Italian architects and 
the German and French masters (Heinrich von Omilnd, Vlrich von 
Fiissingen, Jean Mignot, and others), who were frequently called to 
their aid. About the year 1500 Francesco di Giorgio of Siena and 
Oiov. Ant. Amadeo appear to have been associated in the super- 
intendence of the building, and after them the work was conducted 
by Dolcebuono, Cristofano Solari, etc. The crypt and the baptistery, 
the style of which is quite out of harmony with the general design 
of the building, were added in the second half of the 16th cent, by 
Pellegrino Tibaldi, who also laid down the marble pavement and 
designed a Baroque facade. The church was consecrated by S. Carlo 
Borromeo on Oct. 20th, 1577. The dome was begun in 1759 by the 
architects Croce and Merula, and was finished in 1775. The facade 
remained uncompleted, until in 1805 Napoleon (whose marble 
statue, in antique costume, is among those on the roof) caused the 
works to be resumed, according to Tibaldi's plan, -with modifications 
by Amati. The facade is about to be restored according to the plan 
of the young architect Giuseppe Brentano (d. 1889), whose design 
won the first prize in an open competition in 1888. 

The church is cruciform in shape, with double aisles and a tran- 
sept, the latter also flanked with aisles. The Interior is supported 
by fifty-two pillars, each 12 ft. in diameter, the summits of which 
are adorned with canopied niches with statues instead of cap- 
itals. The pavement consists of mosaic in marble of different colours. 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith col- 
umns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 167). The band of 
brass in the pavement close to the entrance indicates the line of the 
meridian. Right Aisle: Sarcophagus of Archbishop Aribert (1018-1045), 
above which is a gilded crucifix of the 11th century. Monument of Otto 
Visconti (d. 1295) and Johannes Visconti (d. 1354) , both archbishops of 
Milan. Gothic monument of Marco Carelli (d. 1394). Tomb of Canon 
Vimercati, by Bambaja. — Right Transept (W. wall) : Monument of the 
brothers Giacomo and Gabriele de' Medici, erected by their brother 
Pope Pius IV. (1564), the three bronze statues by Leone Leoni (Aretino). 
Tickets for the roof (25 c, see p. 121) are obtained near this monument; 
the staircase leading to the dome is in the corner of the side-wall. The 
altar of the Offering of Mary (E. wall of S. transept) is adorned with fine 
reliefs by Bambaja, with a relief of the nativity of the Virgin by Tan- 
tardini at the foot. Adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholomew by Marco 
Agrate (end of 16th cent.), anatomically remarkable, as the saint is 
represented flayed, with his skin on his shoulder, and bearing the 
modest inscription 'non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrafes'. 

The door of the S. Sacristy (to the right, in the choir) is remarkable 
for its richly sculptured Gothic decorations (14th cent.). The "Treasury here 
(adm. 1 fr.) contains silver statues and candelabra of the 17th cent. ; the 
enamelled Evangelium of Abp. Aribert ; a diptych of the 6th cent. ; book- 
covers adorned with Italian and Byzantine carving of the early middle 

Pal. Reale. MILAN. 79. Route. 121 

ages ; ivory vessel belonging to Bishop Godfrey: a golden Pax by Caradosso ; 
and lastly a statue of Christ by Cristofano Solari. 

In the ambulatory, a little farther on, is a sitting figure of Martin V. 
by Jacopino da Tradate (1421). Then the black marble Monument of 
Cardinal Marino Carracciolo (d. 1538), by whom Emp. Charles V. was 
crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520, by Bambaja. The fourth of the 
handsome new Gothic confessionals is for the German, French, and English 
languages. The stained glass in the three vast choir-windows, comprising 
350 representations of scriptural subjects, were executed by Alois and 
Qiov. Bertini of Guastalla during the present century ; most of them are 
copies from old pictures. Before the N. Sackisty is reached, the Statue 
of Pius IV. is seen above, in a sitting posture, by Angelo Siciliano. The 
door of this sacristy is also adorned with fine sculptures in marble. 

In the centre of the N. Transept is a valuable bronze "Candelabrum, 
in the form of a tree with seven branches, executed in the 13th cent., and 
decorated with jewels, presented by Oiov. Bait. Trivulzio, in 1562. 

Left Aisle: Altarpiece, painted in 1600 by Fed. Baroccio, represent- 
ing 8. Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penalties. 
Upon the adjoining altar of St. Joseph, the Nuptials of Mary, by F. Zuc- 
caro. The following chapel contains the old wooden Crucifix which S. 
Carlo Borromeo bore in 1576, when engaged, barefooted, in his missions 
of mercy during the plague. Adjacent, the Monument of Abp. Arcimboldi 
(ca. 1550), and by the wall the statues of eight Apostles (13th cent.). Not 
far from the N. side-door is the Font , consisting of a sarcophagus of S. 
Dionysius (?) ; canopy by Pellegrino Tibaldi. 

In front of the choir, below the dome, is the subterranean "Cappella 
S. Carlo Borromeo (p. 160), with the tomb of the saint; entrance opposite 
the doors to the sacristy, to the N. and S. of the choir (open till 10 a.m. ; 
at other times 1 fr.; for showing the relics of the saint 5 fr.). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the *Roof and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The staircase ascends from the corner of 
the right transept (ticket 25 c. ; open till an hour before sunset, in 
summer from 5 a.m.), where an excellent panorama of the Alps by F. 
Bozzoli may also be bought (also at Pirola's, Piazza della Scala 6 ; 
1 ft.). As single visitors are not now admitted, except when other 
visitors are already at the top, a party of two or more must be 
made up. The well-informed guide demands 1 fr. peT person for 
his services. The visitor should mount at once to the highest gallery 
of the tower (by 194 steps inside and 300 outside the edifice). A 
watchman, generally stationed at the top, possesses a good telescope. 

View. To the extreme left (S.W.), Monte Viso, then Mont Cenis 
(p. 2); between these two, lower down, the Superga (p. 38) near Turin; 
Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard ; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all ; 
to the left of the last the prominent Matterhorn ; then the Cima di Jazzi, 
Strahlhorn, and Mischabel ; N.W. the Monte Leone near the Simplon ; 
the Bernese Alps; N. the summits of the St. Gotthard and Spliigen, and 
E. in the distance the Ortler. S. the Certosa of Pavia (p. 138) is visible, 
farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia itself, in the background the 
Apennines. Perfectly clear weather is necessary to see all these points. 

To theS., opposite the cathedral, stands the Palazzo Reale (PI. 
E, P, 5, 6), built on the site of a palace of the Visconti in 1772, 
adorned with frescoes by Appiani, Luini, and Hayez, and contain- 
ing several handsome saloons. In the street to the left, beyond 
the palace, are visible the tower (1336) and apse of the fine half- 
Romanesque church of S. Oottardo, formerly the chapel of the 
Visconti. — Adjacent, on the E., is the large Archiepiscopal Pal- 

122 Route 19. MILAN. Oalleria Vitt. Eman. 

ace(Arcivescovado; PI. F, 5), by Pell egrinoTibaldi (1565), contain- 
ing a fine court with a double colonnade and marble statues (Moses 
and Aaron) by Tantardini and Strazza. The second court, on the 
side next the Piazza Fontana, is embellished with Corinthian col- 
umns of the 15th century. — The W. side of the Piazza del Duomo 
is skirted by the Via Carlo Alberto (see p. 129), beyond which, to 
the N.W., lies the Piazza de J Mercanti (p. 129). 

On the N. side is the imposing palatial facade (finished in 1878) 
which forms the entrance to the **Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 
(PI. E, 5), connecting the Piazza del Duomo with the Piazza della 
Scala. This is the most spacious and attractive structure of the 
kind in Europe. It was built in 1865-67 by the architect Oius. 
Mengoni, one of the most gifted of modern Italian architects, 
who unfortunately lost his life by falling from the portal in 1877. 
The gallery, which is said to have cost 8 million fr. (320,000J.), 
is 320 yds. in length, 16 yds. in breadth, and 94 ft. in height. 
The form is that of a Latin cross, with an octagon in the centre, 
over which rises a cupola 180 ft. in height. The decorations are 
well-executed and bear testimony to the good taste of the Milanese. 
The octagon is adorned with frescoes, representing Europe, Asia, 
Africa , and America , while the frescoes on the entrance-arches 
are emblematic of Science, Industry, Art, and Agriculture. The 
gallery contains handsome shops, and is fitted with electric light. 

The gallery is adorned with 24 statues of celebrated Italians : at the 
entrance from the Piazza del Duomo, Arnold of Brescia and G. B. Vico; 
in the octagon, on the right, Cavour, Emmanuel Philibert (p. 3i), Vittore 
Pisano, Gian Galeazzo Visconti (p. 114); Romagnosi (p. 300), Pier Capponi, 
Macchiavelli, Marco Polo ; Raphael, Galileo, Dante, Michael Angelo ; Volta, 
Lanzone, Giov. da Procida, Beccaria •, at the right lateral exit Beno de' 
Gozzadini and Columbus, at the left lateral exit Ferruccio and Monti ; 
at the entrance from the Scala, Savonarola and Ugo Foscolo. 

The Piazza della Scala (PI. E, 4) is embellished with the 
"'Monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) by Magni, erected 
in 1872. The statue of the master in Carrara marble, over life-size, 
stands on a lofty pedestal, surrounded by Marco da Oggiono, Cesare 
da Sesto , Salaino , and Boltrafflo , four of his pupils , and adorned 
with copies of his principal works in relief. — In the piazza, to the 
N.W., is the Teatro alia Scala (p. 117). To the S.E. is the large 
Palazzo Mabino (PI. E, 4), in which the Municipio has been estab- 
lished since 1861, erected in 1558 from designs by Galeazzo Alessi. 
The main facade, towards the Piazza della Scala, was completed in 
1890 from the designs of Luca Beltrami. The court is handsome. 

Behind the Pal. Marino is the Piazza S. Fedele, with a monument 
to Al. Manzoni (p. 145) and, to the N., the Jesuit church of S. Fe- 
deJe(PLE,F,4), erected by S. Carlo Borromeo in 1569 from designs 
by Pellegrino Tibaldi, containing a sumptuous high-altar. The ad- 
joining Palazzo del Censo ed Archivio, formerly the Jesuit college, 
contains part of the government archives, chiefly documents relating 

Museo Poldi-Pezzoli. MILAN. 19. Route. 123 

to the history of Milan. — To the N. of this point is the Via degli 
Omenoni with the palace of the same name (No. 1), erected by 
Leone Leoni and adorned with Caryatides. The Via degli Ome- 
noni ends in the Piazza Belgiojoso, which contains the Palazzo 
Belgiojoso (No. 2) and Manzoni's house (No. 3). 

Adjacent, ViaMorone, No. 10 (PI. F, 4), is the *Museo Poldi- 
Pezzoli, bequeathed to the town by Cav. Poldi-Pezzoli in 1879 and 
exhibited in the tastefully-furnished house formerly occupied by 
the founder. The collections include valuable pictures, arms and 
armour, and small objects of antiquity (adm., see p. 118; cata- 
logue 1 fr.). 

First Floor. In the library (to the left) is a portrait of an ecclesias- 
tic, by Ribera. — The next two rooms contain nothing of importance. — 
Sala Dokata (to the right). In the cases at the window to the left, 
antique gold ornaments and silver plate, goldsmith's work of the 16-18th 
cent. ; in the centre-cases, Romanesque crosses and reliquaries, valuable 
vessels embellished with gems and enamelling ; in the last case, Roman and 
Oriental bronzes, antique glass, etc.; below the mirror, cloisonne 1 enamel 
from China, Persian weapons. Among the pictures the following are most 
noteworthy : "21. Piero delta Francesco, Portrait of a woman ; 19. Vine. 
Foppa (Ambrogio de Predist), Portrait; 20. Crivelli, Christ and St. Francis; 
17. Botticelli, Madonna; 18. Girolamo da Santa Croce, Portrait; 16. Luini, 
Betrothal of St. Catharine. The room also contains fine wood-carvings, 
carpets, Dresden, Chinese, and Sevres porcelain, etc. — Sala Neka. Pictures : 
23. Early Flemish Master, Annunciation; 31. V. Foppa, Madonna; 24. Sig- 
norelli, St. Barbara ; 25. Borgognone, St. Catharine ; Andrea Solario, 26. John 
the Baptist (1499), 29. St. Catharine. Also a marble statue by Bartolini, 
representing Reliance upon God. — Stanza da Letto. Pictures : 33. Ber- 
lini, Portrait of Cav. Poldi-Pezzoli ; 35. Imitator of Botticelli, Descent from 
the Cross. Venetian glass. — I. Stanza a Quadki : 62. Marco Palmezzano, 
Portrait; 56. Domenichino, Cardinal; 57. Eltheimer, Landscape with Diana. 

— II. Stanza a Quadri: 83. Ant. da Murano, Madonna enthroned; Luini, 
84. Tobias, 85. St. Jerome ; no number, Gaud. Ferrari, Madonna with angels : 
Bart. Montagna, 98. St. Jerome, 100. St. Paul; *106. A. Solario, Ecce 
Homo; above, Solario, SS. Jerome and Anthony; 108bis. Andrea Cor- 
degliaghi, Portrait of a man ; above, Cosimo Tura, A canonized bishop; 109. 
Boltraffio, Madonna; above, "Cima da Conegliano, Angel's head; 111. Lor. 
Costa, Saint. — III. Stanza a Quadki: 122. Mantegna, Madonna; 125. 
B. Luini, Christ bearing the Cross and the Virgin Mary, "127. Carpaccio, 
Venetian senator; '130. A. Solario, Flight into Egypt (1515); 138. School 
of Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna; "139. Fra Bartolommeo, Small altar-piece, 
with the Madonna and saints within and the Annunciation without (1500) ; 
142. Romanino (not Moretto), Madonna with saints in an attractive land- 
scape; 150. Pielro Perugino, Madonna with angels; 146. Carpaccio, Samson 
and Delilah ; 149. Venetian School (signature Giov. Bellini is forged), Pieta. 

— We now return and enter the Armoury to the right. 

The Via Alessandro Manzoni leads hence to the right to the Via 
Bigli, in which (No. 1 1) stands the Casa Taverna or Ponti, with a 
fine portal and an admirably restored court of the 16th century. 

We next proceed from the Piazza della Scala to the N. by the 
Via S. Giuseppe (PI. E, 4) and Via di Brera to the Brera. In the 
Via del Monte di Pieta, the second side-street on the right, is the 
handsome new Cassa di Risparmio, or savings-bank, by Balzaretti. 

The *Brera (PI. E, 3), or Palazzo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 
formerly a Jesuits' College, contains the Picture Qallery described 
at p. 124, the Library founded in 1170 (300,000 vols.; adm., see 

124 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

p. 118), a Collection of Coins (50,000), the Observatory, a collection 
of Casts from the Antique, and an Archaeological Museum (p. 128), 

In the centre of the handsome Court by Richini is a bronze 
statue of * Napoleon I., as a Roman emperor, by Canova, considered 
one of his finest works. By the staircase, to the left, the statue 
of the celebrated jurist Beccaria (d. 1794), who was the first scien- 
tific questioner of the wisdom of capital punishment. The court is 
also adorned with several other statues. 

The staircase ascends to the first floor, on which is the *Pictuee 
Gallery or Pinacoteca (adm., see p. 118; catalogue l^fi:.). — 
The gem of the collection is Raphael's Sposalizio (No. 270), 
the chief work of his first or Umbrian period. The numerous 
pictures of the Lombard school, and particularly the frescoes sawn 
out of churches, are also very valuable. The authenticity of the 
Head of Christ (No. 267) ascribed to Leonardo is open to consider- 
able doubt. Among the oil-paintings, No. 265 by Bernardino Luini 
is a very meritorious work, and among the frescoes, Nos. 47 and 52, 
by the same master. The most interesting works of the early Italian 
school are Nos. 264, 273, and 282 by Mantegna. The collection 
ajfo affords an instructive survey of the progress of Carlo Crivelli 
(who flourished in 1468-93; 2nd room), a master who connects 
the Paduan school with that of Venice. The most notable works of 
the latter school are No. 168 by Oentile Bellini, Nos. 284 and 261 
by Giovanni Bellini, and Nos. 19 and 300 by Cima da Conegliano; 
and of a later period No. 209 by Bonifazio I., Nos. 248 and 288bis 
by Titian, and Nos. 253, 254, 255 (7th room) by Lorenzo Lotto, 
rivalled by Oiov. Bait. Moroni (No. 214) of Bergamo. No. 456 by 
Domenichino , and No. 331 by Guercino , represent the Italian 
masters of the 17th century. The most important works of foreign 
schools are No. 447 by Rubens, No. 446 by Van Dyck, and No. 449 
by Rembrandt. Each picture bears the name of the painter. 

I. and II. Ante-Chambers : 2-70. Frescoes by Bernardino 
Luini, some of them approaching the genre style (Nos. 2, 11, 13), 
scenes from the life of Mary (5, 19, 42, 43, 51, 63, 69, 73), 
*Madonna with St. Anthony and St. Barbara (47), God the Father 
(48), Angels (14, 26, 45, 49, 54, 68), and*St. Catharine placed in her 
sarcophagus by angels (52; with the inscription K. V. S. Ch., i.e. 
'Katharina Virgo Sponsa Christi'); Bramantino (4); Marco da 
Oggiono (15, 20, 33); Foppa, St. Sebastian (71); Gaudenzio 
Ferrari, Adoration of the Magi (25). — To the left of this room is 
the Appendice al Vestibolo, containing a continuation of the fres- 
coes. To the right, 19. Borgognone, Madonna and angels ; 15. Vine. 
Foppa, Same subject ; on the exit-wall, 13. Bern. Luini, Madonna 
with saints and the donor. — Adjacent is the Galleria Oggioni. 
On the entrance-wall, Coronation of the Virgin; above, Pieta, both 
by Carlo Crivelli; to the right, 24. Bern. Luini, Madonna. — We 
return to the II. Ante-Chamber and enter — 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 125 

Room I. Opposite the entrance, 87. Bernardino de' Conti, Ma- 
donna, with the four great church-fathers, SS. Jerome, Gregory, 
Augustine, and Ambrose, and the donors, LodovicoMoro, his wife 
Beatrice, and their two children; 75. Borgognone, Coronation of 
the Virgin (1522); 88. Salaino, Madonna with saints; 96. Marco 
da Oggiono, Fall of Lucifer; 98. B. Luini, Madonna with saints; 
left wall, 107. 0. Ferrari, Martyrdom of St. Catharine; on the en- 
trance-wall, 139. Nuvolone (17th cent.), The artist's family. To 
the left is — 

Room II. To the right of the entrance, 159. Gentile daFabriano, 
Coronation of the Virgin ; 162. Ant. and Oiov. da Murano, Madonna 
with saints; *167. Bart. Montagna, Madonna enthroned, with 
angels and saints, one of the artist's masterpieces (1499). 

*168. Qentile Bellini, Preaching of St. Mark at Alexandria. 

In this piece we 'perceive that the art of Gentile (brother of Giovanni) 
on the eve of his death was better than it had ever been before. . . . The 
composition is fine, the figures have the individuality which he imparled, 
and the whole scene is full of stern and solid power. — 'History of Paint- 
ing in North Italy', by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

172. Palma Vecehio, Adoration of the Magi (completed by Ca- 
riani?~); 175. Oiac. Francia, Madonna and saints; 178. Palmezzano, 
Coronation of the Virgin ; 176. Niccolb Rondinelli, Madonna en- 
throned with four saints-, *179. Ercole de' Roberti, Same subject; 
181. Oiac Francia, Madonna and saints; 177. Rondinelli, John 
the Evangelist appearing to Galla Placidia (p. 349); 186. Qaro- 
falo, Pieta; *187. Fra Carnevale (Piero della Francesca?), Madonna 
with saints and Duke Federigo da Montefeltro ; 188. Oiov. Santi 
(Raphael's father), Annunciation ; 189. C. Crivelli, Christ on the 
Cross; *191. Cima da Conegliano, SS. Peter Martyr, Augustine, 
and Nicholas of Bari; 190, 194. Qentile da Fabriano, Two saints; 
*193. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child ; 195. Timoteo Viti, Annun- 
ciation, with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian; 197 bis Luca 
Signorelli, Madonna enthroned, with four saints (restored) ; 202. 
Oirol. Oenga, Madonna and saints. 

Room III. To the left, 206. Moretto, Madonna on clouds, with 
SS. Jerome, Anthony Abbas, and Francis (the Madonna in- 
jured); *209. Bonifazio the Elder (d. 1540), Finding of Moses in 
the ark of bulrushes, in the style of Giorgione ; 212. Paris Bordone, 
Baptism of Christ; 213. P. Veronese, Christ at the house of Simon 
the Pharisee ; 215.-80718/0280 II., Christ atEmmaus ; 216. Paris Bor- 
done, Descent of the Holy Ghost ; 217. Jac. Tintoretto, Pieta ; *214. 
Moroni, Navagiero, Podesta of Bergamo (1565); 218. Moroni, As- 
sumption of the Virgin ; P. Veronese, *219, 220, 221. Adoration of 
the Magi, with SS. Gregory and Jerome to the left and SS. Ambrose 
and Augustine to the right; 230. Jac. Tintoretto, SS. Helena, 
Macarius, Andrew, and Barbara; *227. Paolo Veronese, SS. An- 
thony Abbas, Cornelius, and Cyprian, a monk, and a page, the 
finest 'conversazione' piece (see p. 242) by this master; 234 bis 

126 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

Jac. Tintoretto, Finding of the body of St. Mark ; 234. Oirol. Sa- 
voldo, Madonna and saints. 

Room IV. To the left, Moretto, 235. St. Francis of Assisi, 
239. Assumption of the Virgin ; 242. Paris Bordone, Madonna and 
saints; 244. Lor. Lotto, Pieta; *248. Titian, St. Jerome, a char- 
acteristic example of Ms later style (about 1560); 247, 249. 
Titian^!), Portraits. 

In the adjoining Ante-Room: 266. Copy of Michael Angelo 
(not Raphael), The Shooting of the Gods (original at Windsor 
Castle) ; 272. Oiotto, Madonna (wings in the Academy of Bologna, 
see p. 339) ; 274, 279. Gentile da Fabriano, Saints ; 10. Timoteo 
Viti, Madonna and saints. — We now turn to the left into — 

Room V, which contains the chief treasures of the collection. 
To the left, *288bis. Titian, Portrait of Count Porzia (of the master's 
middle period) ; 288. Vitt. Carpaccio, St. Stephen and the Scribes ; 
328. Lor. Costa, Adoration of the Magi (1499); 261. Oiov. Bellini, 
Madonna (an early work, with a Greek inscription) ; 100. Oiov. 
Pedrini, Mary Magdalen ; 264. Mantegna, Large altar-piece in 
twelve sections, at the top Madonna and St. John weeping over 
the dead body of Christ, below St. Luke and other saints, painted 
in 1454, and a proof of the early maturity of the artist, then 23 
years old; *265. Luini, Madonna in an arbour of roses; *267. 
Leon, da Vinci (?), Head of Christ; 263bis. Franc. Napoletano (a 
little-known pupil of Leon, da Vinci), Madonna. 

**270. Raphael's far-famed Sposalizio, or the Nuptials of the 
Virgin, painted in 1504 for the church of S. Francesco in Citta di 
Castello, where it remained till 1798. 

The composition closely resembles that of the Sposalizio of Perugino 
(now at Caen), in whose studio Raphael then worked. 'In both paintings 
the top is rounded, and in both a small polygonal temple, a charming 
forecast of Bramante's buildings, rises in the background. The central 
part of the foreground is occupied by the long-bearded high-priest, who 
joins the hands of the bridal pair ; Mary is attended by a group of graceful 
virgins, while near Joseph stand the rejected suitors, the most passionate 
of whom breaks his shrivelled wand. A closer examination of Raphael's 
work, however, divulges so many points of divergence, as to make the 
observer almost oblivious to its Peruginesque character. The transposition 
of the bride and bridegroom with their attendant groups to opposite 
sides of the canvas is a purely external difference and one of little signi- 
ficance, but the conception and drawing of the individual figures and the 
more delicate disposition of the grouping reveal the original and peculiar 
genius of the younger artist'. — l Raffael und Michelangelo', by Prof. An- 
ton Springer. 

262bis. Borgognone, Madonna with a Carthusian and St. Catha- 
rine ; 262. Luca Siynorelli, Scourging of Christ (an early work). 
273. Mantegna, Pieta, painted about 1474. 

'It is a picture in which Mantegna's grandest style is impressed, 
foreshortened with disagreeable boldness, but with surprising truth, 
studied from nature, and imitating light, shade, and reflection with a 
carefulness and perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Diirer; dis- 
playing at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attractiveness in the faces of the Marys.' — C. & C. 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 127 

280. Andrea Solario, Portrait; *282. Mantegna, Madonna in a 
nimbus of angels' heads, a work of surpassing beauty ; 282bis. 
Sodoma, Madonna with the Lamb, painted under the influence of 
Leonardo da Vinci ; 106bis. Gaud. Ferrari, Madonna ; 315. Liberale 
da Verona, St. Sebastian; *106. A. Solario, Madonna with SS. Jo- 
seph and Jerome (1495 ; restored). 

Room VI. Over the door, 406bis. Oirol. da Treviso, Pieta; *283. 
C. Crivelli, Madonna and saints (1482) ; *284. Oiov. Bellini, Pieta, 
an early and genuinely impassioned work ; 286, 289. Cima da 
Conegliano, Saints ; 287. Stefano da Zevio, Adoration of the Magi 
(signed, 1435) ; 290. Palma Vecchio, SS. Helena and Constantine, 
Rochus and Sebastian; 296. Franc. Morone (not Moroni), Madonna 
enthroned; *297. Giov. Bellini, Madonna (a late work; 1510) ; Cima, 
*300. SS. Peter, Paul, and John the Baptist, 302. St. Jerome. 

Room VII. 199bis. Torbido, Portrait; 306bis. Paris Bordone, 
Love-scene; 307. Vitt. Carpaccio, Presentation in the Temple. 

Lorenzo Lotto, *253. Portrait of a woman, *254, *255. Portraits 
of men. 

'The fine-chiselled features (of No. 253), extremely pure in drawing, 
charm by their mild expression. A delicate but healthy complexion is 
displayed in warm sweet tones of extraordinary transparence ; and masterly 
transitions lead the eye from opal lights into rich and coloured shadows. 
A half length in the same collection represents a man of lean and bony 
make with a swallow-tailed beard , a grey eye , close set features, and a 
grave aspect. ... A third half length, companion to these, offers another 
variety of type and execution. A man stands at a table in a pelisse with 
a fox skin collar; he is bare-headed and bearded. His right hand rests 
on the table and grips a handkerchief. The ruddy skin of the face is 
broken with touches now warm now cold by which the play of light and 
reflections is rendered with deceptive truth'. — C. & C. 

Room VIII: 324. Guido Reni, SS. Paul and Peter; 326. Franc. 
Albani, Dance of Cupids; 331. Guercino, Abraham and Hagar; 
333. Dosso Dossi, St. Sebastian; 334. Fr. Francia, Annunciation 

Room IX: 346. Jan van der Meer of Haarlem (not Hobbema), 
Forest landscape; 352,353. Bernardino Bellotto ( Canaletto), Land 
scapes (from the environs of Varese) ; 367. Jan Brueghel, Village 
street (1607); 370, 381. J. Fyt, Game; *449. Rembrandt, The art- 
ist's sister (an early work; 1632); *446. A. van TJyck, Portrait. 

Room X: to the left, 390. Velazquez (?), Dead monk; 391. 
Salvator Rosa, St. Paul the Hermit ; 447. Rubens, Last Supper ; 
384. Snyders, Stag-hunt; 442. A. van Dyck, Madonna and Child, 
with St. Anthony of Padua; 443. Jacob Jordaens, Abraham's sacri- 
fice; 428 bis. Giulio Campi, The Virgin enthroned, between two 
saints and the donor (1530); 424. L. Cambiaso, Adoration of the 
Shepherds ; 423. Castiglioni, Exodus of the Israelites ; 432. Raphael 
Mengs, Annibali the musician (1752) ; 415. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 
farther on, 402. Pietro da Cortona, Madonna and saints ; 401. Gasp. 
Poussin, Forest landscape. 

Room XI : on the light, 479. Luca Longhi, Madonna with St. 

128 Route 19. MILAN. Museo Archeologico. 

Paul and St. Anthony of Padua (1538) ; 463. Ann. Carracci, Christ 
and the -woman of Samaria ; 456. Domenichino, Madonna with St. 
John the Evangelist and St. Petronius. 

Room XII : By the window, Busts of Manzoni by Strazza and 
Hayez by Argenti; by the opposite wall, bust of Longhi by Pacetti. 

To the left, farther on, are several rooms (usually closed) containing 
modem pictures, sketches of academicians, casts from the antique, Re- 
naissance and modern sculptures. (An annual exhibition of art takes 
place in these rooms, generally in September.) — Room XX: by the 
rear-wall, Canova, Vestal Virgin; Thorvaldsen, The Graces and Cupid. — 
The last but one of the rooms (XXIII) with modern pictures contains 
portraits, the best of which are those of Niccolini hy Ussi, Cavour and 
Manzoni by Hayez, and D'Azeglio by gala. 

The Museo Archeologico on the gioundfloor (adm., see p. 118; 
entrance in the small Piazza di Brera, or through a passage to the 
right on the groundfloor) contains a rich but imperfectly arranged 
collection of antique, mediaeval, and modern works of art, includ- 
ing some fine Renaissance sculptures. 

I. Room. Wall of the door (right) : Sculptures from Porta Tosa 
(12th cent.) below a terracotta arch; by the last pillar, late-Greek tomb- 
relief; adjoining it a Renaissance 'putto'. Window-wall : Mediaeval sculp- 
ture from the tympanum of a church; in the middle, four ancient porphyry 
columns from S. Cristoforo. Next wall : Roman and mediaeval architectural 
fragments. Fourth wall: Portions of the monument of Gaston de Foix 
(who fell at the battle of Ravenna in 1512, see p. 352), from the mona- 
stery of S. Marta , the most important being a recumbent "Figure of the 
hero by Bambaja. Monument of Lancino Curzio (d. 1513), by the same master. 
Marble frame-work of a door from the Palazzo Medici, with the arms and 
portraits of Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti, attributed to 
Michelozzo , the builder of the palace. In the corner, Monument of 
Bishop Bagareto by And. Fusina (1517). — By the pillars to the right, and 
between them : Ancient Roman sarcophagus ; Roman cippus. Last pillar : 
Fragment of a stele, a youth leaning on a staff (Greek) ; to the left, Head 
of Zeus (nose modern). Monument of Regina della Scala, wife of Ber- 
nabo Visconti; bust of a lady (15th cent.). In the centre: Large mon- 
ument of Bernabo Visconti, erected by himself during his lifetime (1354), 
resting on twelve columns, and richly gilded; on the sarcophagus are 
reliefs, in front the four Evangelists, at the back the coronation of Mary ; 
at the sides the Crucifixion and a Pieta; above, the equestrian statue of 
Visconti. — II. Room. Above the door, Statuettes from the Porta Orient- 
ale; in the corner to the right of the entrance, a mediaeval bell (1352); 
on the right , suits of armour and bronze implements from the graves 
of Gauls discovered near Sesto Calende in 1867; in the cabinets, relics 
from tombs excavated in the Giardino Pubblico, terracottas, crystal, ivory- 
carvings; in the corner, bronzes, including an admirable portrait-head by 
Michael Angelo; sculptures in marble and ivory ; majolica ; mediaeval gold- 
smith's work; Egyptian antiquities. 

A little to the S.W., in the Piazza del Carmine, is the Gothic 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. D, 3, 4) of the 15th cent., 
now modernised, containing a Madonna in fresco by Luini. In the 
adjacent Via Clerici (PI. E, 4) is the Palazzo Clerici, now a law-court 
(Tribunale), with the flue rococo Sala del Tiepolo (always open). — 
To the N. W. of the Brera is the church of S. Simpliciano (PI. D, 3); 
a line Romanesque structure, containing a triumphal arch adorned 
with 'putti' by Luini, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Borgognone 
(in the apse). — Farther on, in the direction of the Porta Garibaldi, 

Bibl. Ambrosiana. MILAN. 19. Route. 129 

is the church of S. Maria Incoronata (PI. D, 1), built by Fran- 
cesco and Bianca Sforza. The Cappella Bossi contains the tombs of 
Giov. Tolentino (1517) and Archbishop Gabr. Sforza. 

To the W. of the Piazza del Duomo , beyond the Via Carlo 
Alberto (p. 122), lies the *Piazza de' Mercanti (PI. E, 5), the 
central point of the mediaeval city, and formerly provided with 
five gates. In the centre of the Piazza is the building which 
was formerly the Palazzo della Ragione , a large hall erected in 
1228-33 by the podesta (or mayor) Tresseno , to whom an eques- 
trian relief was placed on the S. side with the inscription, 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit uxit' (the Cathari were the Wal- 
densians). The groundfloor is now the corn-exchange, above which 
is the Archivio Notarile. On the N. side of the piazza is the ancient 
Palazzo dei Oiureconsulti with a tower , erected by Vine. Seregni 
(1564), with the exchange and telegraph-office on the groundfloor; 
on the S. side are the Loggia degli Osii, erected in 1315, and the 
Collegio dei Nobili (1625). 

We proceed hence to the S.W., through the archway and the 
"Via dei Ratti, to the Via and Piazza della Rosa. No. 2 in the latter 
is the celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PL D, E, 5), which 
contains 160,000 vols, of printed books, and 15,000 MSS., some of 
them of great importance, and also a valuable collection of objects 
of art (adm., see p. 118; entrance from the reading-room, to the 
right, in the court). The director of the library is Cav. Sacerdote 
Ceriani, the Orientalist. 

In the Biblioteca, which is on the groundfloor, many of the most in- 
teresting MSS. are exhibited to the public. Among the chief treasures are 
fragments of a MS. of Homer illuminated, of the end of the 4th cent. ; 
a copy of Virgil, with marginalia by Petrarch; a palimpsest of the 5th 
cent, with the Pauline epistles and other parts of Ulfila's Gothic trans- 
lation of the Bible, along with a fragment of a Gothic calendar (from 
Bohbio , p. 302) ; Dante's Divine Comedy, a MS. of the first half of the 
14th cent.; the celebrated -Codex Atlanticus, being a collection of original 
drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da Vinci; a number of miniatures; letters 
of Lucretia Borgia, S. Carlo Borromeo, Ariosto, Tasso, Galileo, Liguori, 
etc. — The side-rooms contain a few sculptures in marble: parts of the 
tomb of Gaston de Foix (p. 352) ; Cupid in marble, R. Schadow ; bust of 
Byron and several reliefs by Thorvaldsen. Also a Roman mosaic and a 
fresco of Christ crowned with thorns by Bern. Luini. 

First Floor. The second door on the left leads to the Cabinet of 
Bronzes , containing busts of Canova and Thorvaldsen , the latter by the 
master himself, and pictures of no great value: 46. Raphael Mengs, Pope 
Clement XIII.; 41. Venetian School (?), St. Sebastian; 30. Marco Basaiti, 
Eisen Christ ; 24. Lorenzo Lotto (?) , Madonna. — A short staircase leads 
to the — 

"Pinacoteca. I. and II. Rooms : Engravings. — III. Room. Opposite the 
windows : 52. Savoldo, Transfiguration (copy ; original in the Palazzo degli 
Dffizi, p. 412); "54. Ambrogio Borgognone, Madonna enthroned, with saints 
and singing angels; 72. S. Botticelli, Madonna and angels; above, 70. Baroc- 
do, Nativity; on the end-wall, 96. Cariani, Bearing of the Cross. — To the 
right is Boom IV. : 312. Giov. Batt. Moroni, Portrait (1554) ; also landscapes 
by J. Brueghel and Brill. — V. Room : Painting8 of the 17th century. — 
We return through the III. Room, to the VI. Room. On the sides of the 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 9 

130 Route 19. MILAN. Pal. Borromeo. 

entrance, 260, 261. Boltraffio, Large portrait-heads of a man and a woman, 
in chalk; 262. G.Ferrari, Marriage of the Virgin. Farther on, on the end- 
wall to the right : '231. Bonifazio I., Holy Family, with Tobias and the 
angel (injured by restoration); 230. Jac. Bassano, Adoration of the Shep- 
herds. On the window-wall are drawings of the School of Leonardo, and 
a few specimens from his own hand, including some of his celebrated 
caricatures. Opposite is ""Raphael's Cartoon of the 'School of Athens', 
which should be carefully studied. The dilapidated condition of the fresco 
in the Vatican makes this cartoon of great interest and value, since here 
only we gain the full key to the artistic motives of the painter. The de- 
viations of the fresco from the cartoon, with the exception of the ad- 
ditions of the sitting figure at the foot of the staircase, the temple-colon- 
nade, and the portrait of Raphael himself, are unimportant. — On the exit- 
wall : Bramantino, 272. Madonna with saints, 273. Adoration of the Holy 
Child (an early work); 277. Giov. Pedrini, and 274. Marco da Oggiono, Ma- 
donnas ; 279. Boltraffio, Portrait ; 281. B. Luini, Holy Family (after Da Vin- 
ci's cartoon in London) ; "282. Leonardo da Vinci (?), Portrait (unfinished) ; 
Luini, "283. Youthful Christ in an attitude of benediction, 284. John the 
Baptist ; "285. Leonardo da Vinci (? more probably Ambrogio de Predis 1), 
Portrait of a girl. — VII. Room : Drawings of the Lombard School, in- 
cluding some by Leon, da Vinci (the portrait of himself is a forgery, comp. 
p. 28) ; also several by Durer. 

At the back of the library is the venerable church of S. Sepolcro 
(PI. D , 5), dating from the 11th century, with a few pictures by 
Giov. Pedrini in the sacristy. The Via del Bollo leads hence to the 
W. to the Piazza S. Borromeo, in which are situated the small 
church of S. Maria Podone, a statue of S. Carlo Borromeo, and also 
the Palazzo Borromeo (No. 7). On the first story of the palace is a 
*Pictdeb Gallery (Pinacoteca) containing some important paint- 
ings and a few sculptures, chiefly of the Lombard School (adm., 
see p. 118 ; lists of the pictures provided). 

I. Room. Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian, an alto- 
relief by Marco da S. Michele (1525). 62. Giulio Cesare Procaccini, Madonna 
and a saint; copies of ancient paintings, etc. — II. Room. Lombard School, 
Madonna with the donor (King Francis I. ?), alto-relief of the 16th cent. ; 
Desiderio da Seltignano (?), Child's head; 156. B. Luini (?), Head of the 
Virgin (fragment of a fresco) ; 209, 214. Zuccarelli, Pastel portraits of girls. 
This room also contains some beautiful miniatures upon copper. — III. Room. 
Paintings of the German and Netherlandish schools, drawings, autographs, 
etc. — IV. Room, containing the chief works of the collection. 4. Marco da 
Oggiono (?), Michael the Archangel ; Giov. Pedrini, 6. St. Catharine, 9. Fer- 
tility; Gaud. Ferrari, 10. St. Sebastian, 12. Madonna with SS. Joseph and 
Anthony Abbas; 13. School of Mantegna, Bearing of the Cross; 14. Gaud. 
Ferrari, St. Rochus; s 68. Bern. Luini, Susanna (half-length); 69. Fil. Maz- 
zola, Portrait; 34. Luini. Madonna; 35. Borgognone (T), Portrait of Andrea 
de' Novelli, Bishop of Alba; 36. Pinturicchio, Bearing of the Cross (1513); 
37. Cesare da Sesto, Adoration of the Kings (early work) ; 43. Lorenzo Lotto, 
Crucifixion; 40. Lor. Lotto (1), St. Catharine; *4i, "45. Borgognone, Madon- 
nas ; Luini, 44. Madonna and saints , 47. Daughter of Herodias with the 
head of John the Baptist; Borgognone, 48. Christ blessing, 49. Madonna 
with the rose hedge; 51. Lombard School (not Leon, da Vinci), Madonna; 
50, 52. Borgognone, Annunciation; Bernardino de' Conti, 56. Portrait of Ca- 
millo Trivulzio (d. 1525), 58. Madonna. 

The Via S. Borromeo and the Via S. Maria alia Porta next lead 
to the Coeso Magknta, in which, to the right, is the Palazzo Litta 
(PI. C, 5), with an imposing rococo facade and a handsome court, 
now occupied by the Amministrazione delle Ferrovie dell' Alta Italia. 
Opposite, on the left, rises the small church of S. Maurizio, or 

8. Maria delle Grazie. MILAN. 19. Route. 131 

Chiesa del Monastero Maggiore (PI. 0, 5), erected in 1503-1519 by 
Oiov. Dolcebuono, a pupil of Bramante. 

The Interior contains numerous frescoes. Second last "Chapel on the 
right: Scourging of Christ and scenes from the martyrdom of S. Catha- 
rine, painted by Luini about 1525. The high-altar-piece, with the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, is by Antonio Campi. The "Frescoes at the sides are by 
Luini: above, in the centre, the Assumption of the Virgin; below, to the 
left, SS. Cecilia and Ursula at the sides of the tabernacle, with a beauti- 
ful figure of an angel. In the lunette above is a kneeling figure of the 
donor, Alessandro Bentivoglio (d. 1532 ; expelled from Bologna and buried 
here), with SS. Benedict, John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist. 
Above, martyrdom of St. Maurice. Below, to the right, SS. Apollonia and 
Lucia at the sides of the tabernacle, with a pieta; in the lunette, Ippolita 
Sforza, wife of Bentivoglio, with SS. Scholastica, Agnes, and Catharine. 
Ahove, King Sigismund presents a model of the church to St. Maurice. 
The frescoes in the chapels at the sides of the entrance-door are by 
Anrelio Luini and his pupils. — Behind the high -altar lies the Nuns' 
Choie, of the same size as the church itself. At the high-altar is a 
series of 9 Frescoes of the Passion; below, the life-size figures of SS. 
Apollonia, Lucia, Catharine, Agatha, Sebastian, and Rochus, all by Luini. 
Inside between the arches are 20 medallions of saints, by Borgognone. In 
the arches of the gallery above are 26 Medallions of holy women, of the 
school of Leonardo da Vinci, probably by Boltraffio. 

Farther on in the Corso Magenta, not far from the Porta Magenta, 
on the right, is situated the church of *S. Maria delle Grazie (PI. 
B, 5), an abbey-church of the 15th cent., the Gothic nave of which 
alone belongs to the original structure. The choir, transept, and 
dome are attributed to Bramante. 

Eight Aisle. In the 2nd chapel, John the Baptist, an altar-piece by 
Bugiardini. 4th chapel,; frescoes by Gaudenzio Ferrari, the Crucifixion, 
Christ crowned with thorns, Christ scourged (1542), angels with the in- 
struments of the Passion (on the vaulting) ; an altar-piece (Descent from 
the Cross) by Garavaggio. In the 6th chapel, frescoes by Fiammingo. — To 
the right of the choir, on the organ above, a Madonna enthroned with 
saints and a donor, fresco by Luini. In the Choir good stalls of the Re- 
naissance. — To the left of the choir are the Cloisters, beyond which is 
the Sacristy, with charming wood-paintings on the cabinets. — In the Left 
Aisle is the fine Cappella del Rosario , with the mural tablet of Branda 
Castiglione (d. 1495; to the right), by Bambaja (Giov. Ant. Amadeof), and 
the family tomb of the Delia Torre, by Amadeo (1483; restored). 

A large door marked 'Cenacolo', to the W- of this church, 
is the entrance to the refectory of the suppressed monastery of 
Sta. Maria delle Grazie (now a cavalry-barrack) , containing the 
celebrated **Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci (adm., see p. 118). 
The picture is unfortunately in bad preservation, chiefly from hav- 
ing been painted on the wall in oils (before 1499). In the same 
room are exhibited contemporaneous copies by Andrea Solario, Ce- 
sare Magnis, Marco da Oggiono, and Ant. de Glaxiate, an inspection 
of which much facilitates the study of the original. The large fresco 
by Giov. Donato Montorfano (Crucifixion) of 1495, opposite the Last 
Supper, is in much better condition. The kneeling figures of Duke 
Lodovico il Moro (p. 115) and his wife Bianca Maria with their 
children are by Leonardo da Vinci, the trace of whose hand is still 
distinctly distinguishable. 

Deplorable as is the condition of the Last Supper, the chief work 
executed by Leonardo during his stay at Milan, the original alone ex- 


132 Route 19. MILAN. S. Ambrogio. 

hibits to its full extent the emotions which the master intended to ex- 
press, and which even the best copies fail to reproduce. The motive of 
the work has been well explained by Goethe: 'The artist represents the 
peaceful little band round the sacred table as thunder-struck by the Master's 
words, One of you shall betray me. They have been pronounced ; the whole 
company is in dismay, while he himself bows his head with downcast 
eyes. His whole, attitude, the motion of his arms and hands, all seem to 
repeat with heavenly resignation, and his silence to confirm, the mournful 
words — It cannot be otherwise. One of you shall betray me!' Comp. 
also p. liv. 

The Via delle Oche aud the Via S. Vittore (omn. from the 
Piazza del Duomo to <S. Vittore) lead hence to the S.E. to the Piazza 
S. Ambrogio, with the church of — 

*S. Ambrogio (PI. C, 6), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th 
cent, on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus, and dating in its present 
Romanesque basilica form , with its peculiar galleries and an oc- 
tagonal cupola over the high-altar, from the 12th century. The fine 
atrium in front of the church , containing ancient tombstones, in- 
scriptions, and half-obliterated frescoes (some probably by Zenale), 
seems, like the facade, to have preserved the architectural forms of 
the original building and may, perhaps, have been built under Arch- 
bishop Anspert (868-881). St. Ambrosius baptized St. Augustine 
here in 387, and in 389 he closed the doors of this church against 
the Emp. Theodosius after the cruel massacre of Thessalonica(389). 
There is a portrait of the saint on the left side of the principal en- 
trance. The Lombard kings and German emperors formerly caused 
themselves to be crowned here with the iron crown, which since the 
time of Frederick Barbarossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 141). 
The ancient pillar at which they took the coronation-oath before 
being crowned, is still preserved under the lime-trees in the piazza. 

Interior. To the right of the entrance, a marble statue of Pius IX. 
(1880). In the 1st chapel of the left aisle an *Ecce Homo, fresco by B. Luini. 
— On the right and left of the side-entrance in the right aisle: frescoes 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari, representing the Bearing of the Cross, the three 
Maries, and the Descent from the Cross. 2nd Chapel on the right (Cap- 
pella delle Dame) : a fine kneeling Statue of St. Marcellina, by Pacetti (1812). 
5th Chapel on the right : 'Legend of St. George, frescoes by Bernardino La- 
nini. The second door to the left in the large 6th chapel leads to the 
Cappella S. Satiro with mosaics of the 5th cent, (restored). In the chapel 
to the right of the choir is an altar-piece by B. Luini, Madonna and saints 
(very dark); in front, to the right, Lombard School, Madonna and two 
saints. — The '"High-altar still retains its original decoration intact, con- 
sisting of reliefs on silver and gold ground (in front), enriched with enamel 
and gems, executed in the first half of the 9th cent, by Volfoinus, a Ger- 
man (covered, shown only on payment of 5 fr.). The -Canopy over the 
high-altar, which is adorned with reliefs of the 9th cent., recently gilded, 
is borne by four columns of porphyry. The choir contains an ancient 
episcopal throne. In the Tribuna "Mosaics of the 9th cent., earlier than 
those of St. Mark's at Venice : Christ in the centre, at the sides the history 
of St. Ambrose. — At the N. entrance to the Crypt, Christ among the 
scribes, a fresco by Borgognone ; opposite, the tombstone of Pepin, son of 
Charlemagne. The modernised crypt contains the tombs of SS. Ambrose, 
Protasius, and Gervasius. — By the pulpit are a bronze eagle, a figure of 
St. Ambrose (10th cent.?), and an early Christian sarcophagus of the 6th 
century. — Adjacent to the left aisle is an unfinished cloister, designed by 
Bramante (1492), and afterwards rebuilt. 

S. Lorenzo. MILAN. 19. Route. 133 

The Via Lanzonc (PI. C, 6; with the Palazzo Visconti on the 
left) leads hence to the Corso di Porta Ticinese, in which we pro- 
ceed to the right in the direction of the gate. On the left we soon 
perceive a large ancient *Colonnade (PL D, 7) of sixteen Corinthian 
columns, the most important relic of the Roman Mediolanum, near 
which is the entrance to — 

*S. Lorenzo (PL D, 7), the most ancient church in Milan. Whether 
the handsome interior once formed the principal hall of the thermae, 
or of a palace of Maximian (4th cent.), to which the above-mentioned 
colonnade belonged, or a very ancient Christian place of worship, 
like S. Vitale at Ravenna, is uncertain. It was subsequently altered 
at least three times , the last time by Martino Bassi in the 16th 
century. It is octagonal in form, and covered with a dome. On 
the four principal sides are large semicircular apses in two stories, 
each borne by four columns alternately octagonal and round. At the 
back of the high-altar is the Cappella S. Ippolito, containing the tomb 
of Giov. Maria Visconti. — To the right of the church is the Chapel 
of St. Aquilinus, containing mosaics of the 6th and 7th cent. (Christ 
and the Apostles and Annunciation to the Shepherds, the latter 
freely restored), and an ancient Christian sarcophagus supposed to 
be that of the founder, the Gothic king Athaulph (411-16). The 
entrance to the chapel is adorned with an antique marble coping. 

Farther S. is the Porta Ticinese, originally intended to com- 
memorate the Battle of Marengo but inscribed in 1814 'Paci Popu- 
lorum Sospitaa'. Adjacent rises the ancient church of S. Eustorgio 
(PL D, 8), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected in the Gothic style 
in 1278, renewed in the bad taste of the 17th cent, by Richini, and 
recently again restored. The facade is modern. 

1st Chapel to the right, Mural monument of Giac. Stefano Brivio 
(d. 1484), by Tommaso da Gazzaniga and Bened. Briosco ; 4th Chapel to the 
right, Gothic monument of Stefano Visconti (ca. 1337); 6th Chapel, Mon- 
uments of Gaspare Visconti and his wife Agnes (d. 1417). Farther on, on 
the same side, the Cappella de 1 Magi, containing a relief of 1347 and a late- 
Romanesque sarcophagus, in which the 'bones of the Magi' were preserved 
until they were presented to the city of Cologne by Frederick Barbarossa 
after the conquest of Milan in 1162. By the high-altar are reliefs of the 
Passion, dating from the 14th century. At the back of the choir is the 
"Cappella PoHinari, with a fine cupola and a charming frieze of angels, 
built in 1462-66 by Michelozzo of Florence. It contains the magnificent 
Gothic tomb of St. Peter the Martyr by G. Balduccio of Pisa (1339) ; the 
walls are adorned with frescoes of the four Fathers of the Church, scenes 
from the life of St. Peter Martyr, the Annunciation, and the Assumption, 
by Vine. Civerchio. 

S. Maria presso S. Celso (PL E, 8), built in the Renaissance 
style by Oiov. Dolcebuono soon after 1490, possesses a handsome 
atrium, groundlessly attributed to Bramante, and a rich facade by 
Galeazzo Alessi (lately restored). On the right and left of the portal 
are Adam and Eve by Stoldo Lorenzi. 

The Interior is in the form of a basilica with barrel-vaulting over 
the nave, a dodecagonal cupola, and an ambulatory. By the 2nd altar to 
the right, Holy Family and St. Jerome, by Paris Bordone ; Gaudenzio Fer- 
rari, Baptism of Christ (behind the high-altar); at the beginning of the 

134 Route 19. MILAN. S. Alessandro. 

left aisle, Borgognone, Madonna adoring the Child, surrounded by John the 
Baptist, St. Rochus, and the donors of the picture; above it, Sassoferrato, 
Madonna. The 2nd chapel on the left contains a sarcophagus with the 
relics of St. Celsus. The cupola is decorated with frescoes by Appiani 
(1795). — In the sacristy are some fine specimens of goldsmith's work. 

Adjacent to this church is S. Celso, a Romanesque edifice, partly 
removed in 1826 and now possessing few remains of the original 
structure. —The Cokso S. Celso (PL E, 7, 8) leads back from this 
point to the interior of the city. To the right in the Piazza S. Eu- 
fernia is the church of that name (PL E, 7) , dating from the 5th 
cent., but entirely modernised. In the third chapel on the left is a 
Madonna with saints and angels, by Marco da Oggiono. A little to 
the S. is the church of S. Paolo, a richly ornamented and character- 
istic building of the middle of the 16th century. The architectural 
decorations of the facade already illustrate the principles of the 
later baroque style, and this is seen even more strongly in the in- 
terior, which is adorned with frescoes by the brothers Qiulio, An- 
tonio, and Vincenzo Campi of Cremona. 

The Via Amedei leads hence towards the N. to S. Alessandro 
(PL E, 6), erected in 1602, a reduced and in the interior success- 
ful copy of St. Peter's at Rome, with two W. towers. It is the 
most sumptuously decorated church in Milan, but destitute of works 
of art. High-altar adorned with precious stones. — ■ Adjacent is 
the Palazzo Trivulzio, containing a fine art - collection in which 
the most noteworthy objects are a portrait by Antonello da Mes- 
sina, a Madonna by Mantegna (1497), a relief-portrait by Cristo- 
fano Solari, and the tomb of Azzo Visconti (d. 1329) from S. (Jot- 
tardo. The extensive library contains a MS. of Leonardo da Vinci. 

We return by the Via Lupetta and the Via Torino to the Piazza 
del Duomo. To the right in the Via Torino is the small church of 
S. Satiro (PL E, 5, 6), founded in the 9th cent., and re-erected 
by Bramante and his pupil Bramantino, in the 15th century. The ap- 
parent choir is only painted in perspective. The octagonal *Sacristy 
(off the right transept) is also by Bramante, and has a beautiful 
frieze by Caradosso Foppa, putti, and heads in medallions. At the 
end of the left transept is a curious little building with a cupola, 
belonging, like the belfry, to the original structure ; it contains a 
Pieta, in painted terracotta, by Caradosso (covered). 

The church of S. Giorgio al Palazzo (PL D, 6), in the Via 
Torino, contains in the 1st chapel on the right, a St. Jerome by 
Gaud. Ferrari; in the 3rd chapel on the right, *Frescoes by Luini: 
above the altar, Entombment and Crowning with thorns; at the 
sides, Scourging and Ecce Homo; in the dome, Crucifixion. — 
Farther to the N., in the Piazza Mentana, is a Monument by Luigi 
Belli, erected in 1880 in memory ofthe Italians who fell at Mentana. 

To the S. in the Piazza del Duomo, opposite the cathedra], are 
the Palazzo Reale and the Archiepiscopal Palace, both already men- 
tioned (p. 121). The Piazza Beccaria (PI. F, 5), near the Piazza 

Ospedale Maggiore. MILAN. 19. Route. 135 

Fontana which adjoins the Pal. Arcivescovile on thoE., is adorned 
with a statue of Beccaria (d. 1794 ; comp. p. 124) by Grandi, erected 
in 1871. Adjacent is the Palazzo di Oiustizia (PI. F, 5), built by 
Seregni ; on the portal is a tablet commemorating the Italian patriots 
committed by the Austrians to the fortress of Spielberg in 1821. 

The Via Brolo leads hence to the S. to the Piazza S. Stefano, 
with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PI. F, 6). The 
Via dell' Ospedale leads S.W. to the Corso di Porta Romana. 

The *OapedaIe Maggiore (PI. F, 6), a vast and remarkably fine 
brick structure , half Gothic and half Renaissance in style, begun 
in 1457 by Antonio Filarete of Florence , is one of the largest 
hospitals in existence , and contains no fewer than nine courts. 
The extensive principal court, surrounded by arcades, is by Richini 
(17th cent.) ; the court to the right of it is ascribed to Bramante. 
The edifice is entirely covered externally with terracotta, in a style 
frequently observed in other Milanese buildings, but its facade, 
with its rich window-mouldings , is superior to any other structure 
of the kind at Milan. In the chapel are two paintings by Francesco 
de Vico, containing portraits of Francesco and Bianca Maria Sforza, 
the founders of the hospital. 

Farther on, to the S.W. (entrance in the Corso Porta Romana), is 
the church of S. Nazaro (PL F, 6, 7), with a large fresco by Bernar- 
dino Lanini (1546), *Martyrdom of St. Catharine, painted in imita- 
tion of the similar picture in the Brera by Lanini's master Gaud. 
Ferrari (No. 107) ; a handsome carved altar ; and ancient Swiss 
stained-glass windows to the right of the main entrance. A side- 
passage leads to the octagonal sepulchral chapel of the Trivulzi, 
built by Oirolamo della Porta (1519). 

On the N.E. side of the cathedral begins the broad and bustling 
*Corso Vittorio Emanuele (PL F, G, 4, 5), which, with its pro- 
longation, the Corso Venezia, leads to the Giardini Pubblici and the 
station. This is the principal business-street in Milan, containing 
the best shops. At No. 22 is an antique statue, known as 'L'uomo 
di pietra'. Farther on, to the left, is the church of S. Carlo Borromeo 
(PL F, 4), a rotunda in the style of the Pantheon at Rome, con- 
secrated in 1847. The adjacent Oalleria de' Cristoforis, now occupied 
with shops, was erected by Pizzala in 1830-32. 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Corso Venezia (PI. 
G, H, 2-4) and the Via Monforte, is the small church of S. Babila 
(PL G, 4), supposed to occupy the site of an ancient temple of the 
sun. Adjacent is an old Column with a lion, the cognizance of this 
quarter of the town. In the Via Monforte is situated the Palazzo di 
Prefettura (PL G, H, 4), with a modern facade. — To the S. of this 
point, in the Via del Conservatorio, is the church of S. Maria della 
Passione (PL H, 5), with a spacious dome by Crist. Solari (1530), 
and a facade of the 17th century. 

136 Route 19. MILAN. Giardini Pubblici. 

It contains a Last Supper by Gaud. Ferrari fleft transept), a "Pieta, 
by Luini {behind the high-altar; with a predella, representing scenes 
from the life of Constantine and Helena, the earliest known work of 
this master, in the style of Bramantino), and the tomb of Abp. Birago 
by Fusina (1495; right transept). The 14 pilasters are adorned with figures 
of saints by Danitle Crespi, a pupil of Procaccini. The ceiling of the sa- 
cristy was painted by Ambrogio Borgognone. 

The Conservatoire of Music occupies the old monastery buildings. 

In the vicinity is the church of S. Pietro in Oessate (PI. G, 5), 
reconstructed in the 15th cent., and containing frescoes of the 15th 
cent, and the monument of Senator Grifo (d. 1493). 

We now return to the Corso Venezia. On the left, on this 
side of the canal, is the Archiepiscopal Seminary (PI. F, G, 4), with 
a fine court by Gius. Meda (16th cent.). In the Via del Senato, which 
diverges to the left, is (No. 10, to the right) the Palazzo del Senato 
(PI. G, 3), containing the provincial archives, with a colossal eque- 
strian statue of Napoleon III., by Barzaghi, in the court. Then in 
the Corso Venezia, more to the left, Nos. 59-61, the Pal. Ciani (PI. 
G, 3), completed in 1861, with rich ornamentation in terracotta. 
Farther on, on the right, is the Pal. Saporiti (PI. G, 3), another 
modern building, with Ionic columns, and reliefs by Marchesi. 

The *Giardini Pubblici (PI. F , G, 2, 3), between the Porta Venezia 
and the Porta Nuova, and the horse-chestnut avenue of the Bastione 
di Porta Venezia, which skirts the gardens and extends to the Porta 
Nuova, are the favourite promenades of the Milanese, especially on 
Sunday afternoons. Towards sunset they are the scene of a fashion- 
able 'Corso'. Electric light. A broad flight of steps ascends to the 
older part of the gardens, opened in 1785, in the centre of which 
is the — 

Salone (PI. F, G, 4), a square building containing the muni- 
cipal Museo Aktisttco and a small collection of relics of the struggle 
of 1848 (admission, see p. 118). 

Gallery and Room I : Drawings by early and modern masters. To the 
left of the entrance to Room IT, 15. Sodoma, Leda, in red chalk. — Room II: 
Works of the Milan school of the 17th cent. ; the large town banner of 
St. Ambrose; coins, chiefly Milanese from the Roman period onwards; 
fine medals. — Rooms III and IV : Cabinets, wood-carving, etc. — Room V: 
Ceramic collection, old and modern fayence, porcelain, glass, woven fabrics. 
— Room VI: Old paintings. To the left, 52. Paul Potter, Two pigs; 55. 
A. van Dyck, Henrietta Maria, consort of Charles I. of England; 67. P. 
Neefs. Interior of a Gothic church; 81, 82. Zuccarelli, River-scenes; "83. 
Lor. Lotto, Portrait of a youth; 88. Licinio Pordenone, Portrait of a wo- 
man; "95. Ant. da Messina, Portrait; 106. Cariani (more probably Lotto), 
Lot and his daughters; 122. Andrea Schiavone, Venus on a dolphin; 134- 
137. Belotto, Landscapes; 162. Procaccini, St. Gregory carried up by angels 
nn clouds; 200. Foppa, Madonna; s 216. Correggio, Madonna with the Child 
and the youthful John the Eaplist (an early work). — Room VII. To the 
right, Borgognone, large altar-piece, Madonna between SS. Sebastian and 
Jerome; Sassoferrato, Madonna; Oiov. Pedrini, Mary Magdalen. On the op- 
posite wall are remains of frescoes of the Milanese school of the 16th cent- 
ury. — Room VIII. Modern pictures. 

The new part of the Giardini Pubblici, between the Via Palestro 
and Via Manin, is adorned with a statue of the Milanese poet Carlo 

Museo Civico. MILAN. 19. Route. 137 

Porta and an Italia, both by Puttinati. — In the Piazza Cavour, 
outside the S.W. entrance , rises a bronze *Statue of Cavour by 
Tabacchi on a lofty pedestal of granite ; the figure of Olio in front 
is by Tantardini (1865). — The Villa Reale (PI. G, 3) , a plain 
modern building in the Via Palestro, contains a few works of art. 

In the Via Manin, to the Vf., is the Museo Civico (PI. F, 2; 
adm., see p. 118; entrance from the Giardino Pubblico), contain- 
ing natural history collections : on the 1st floor palaeontology and 
ethnography (also a phrenological collection) ; on the 2nd floor zoo- 
logy, comprising one of the finest collections of reptiles in Europe, 
founded by Jan (d. 1866). — Opposite stands the Palazzo Melzi, 
containing paintings by Cesare da Sesto, etc. 

From the Piazza de' Mercanti (p. 129) the new and handsome 
Via Dante (PI. D, 5, 4) leads towards the N.W to the Foro Bona- 
parte, an open space with a large Equestrian Statue of Qaribaldi, 
by Ximenes, in the middle. On the opposite side of the Foro is the 
Via Cairoli, leading to the Piazza di Castello (PI. C, D, 4), which 
is laid out with flower-beds. — Between this piazza and the Piazza 
d'Armi (see below) rises the — 

Castello, once the seat of the Visconti and the Sforza, which 
was originally built by Galeazzo II. in 1368, destroyed by the Mila- 
nese in 1447 on the death of the last Visconte, restored by Fran- 
cesco Sforza after 1450, and again much damaged by an explosion 
of gunpowder in 1521. Down to 1893 it was used as a barrack. 
The handsome building is now again being restored in the ancient 
style from the plans of Luca Beltrami. The remains of the old build- 
ing include the S.W. corner-turrets, part of the wall uniting them, 
two fine interior courts in the early Renaissance style, a communi- 
cation-bridge and loggia by Bramante, and portions of the rear- 
faijade. During the early part of 1894 it was used for a National Ex- 
hibition, and it is ultimately destined to contain the municipal 
collections at present preserved in the Archaeological Museum (p. 128) 
and the Salone (p. 136). 

The Piazza d'Armi (PI. B, C, 3), behind the Castello, is being 
converted into a Park, with an artificial hill and lake. — To the 
S.W. of the Castello lies the Stazione Ferrooie Nord (p. 115) ; to the 
N.W. is the Arena (PI. C, 2), a kind of circus for races, etc., which 
was constructed under Napoleon I. and can accommodate 30,000 
spectators (fee 50 c). 

To the N.W. of the new park rises the Arco del Sempione (PI. 
B, 2; ascent 50 c), a triumphal arch in the Roman style con- 
structed entirely of white marble from designs by L. Cagnola, begun 
in 1804 by Napoleon as a termination to the Simplon route (p. 3), 
and completed by the Emp. Francis in 1838. Most of the sculptures 
are by Pompeo Marchesi. 

138 Route 19. MILAN. Excursions. 

To the N.W. of the city (comp. PI. C, D, 1), reached by the 
Porta Volta tramway (p. 117), lies the northern *Cemetery (Cimttero 
Monumentale ; closed 12-2), designed by C. Maciachini, 50 acres 
in area, enclosed by colonnades, and one of the finest 'campi santi' 
in Italy. (The guide, who speaks French, demands a fee of ll/ 2 fr. 
for each person.) Fine view of the Alps. The numerous and hand- 
some monuments, among which those of the Sonzogno, Turati, Bram- 
billa, Verazzi, Nasoni, Pagnoni, and Cicogna families deserve special 
mention, form a veritable museum of modern Milanese sculpture. 
In the last section is situated the 'Tempio di Cremazione' , for the 
burning of dead bodies (15-20 monthly), presented to the town in 
1876 by a Swiss resident (custodian 50 c). The process of crema- 
tion occupies less than 1 hr. and the cost is 50 fr. Paupers are 
cremated without charge. 

Excursion from Milan to the Certosa di Pavia. 

To visit the Certosa di Pavia we may use either the Railway to Cer- 
tosa, on the Pavia-Voghera line, or the Pavia Steam Tbamway as far as 
Torre di Mangano. The railway starts from the Central Station and takes 
'A hr. (fares 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 45 c. ; return-fares 4 fr. 80, 3 fr. 40, 
2 fr. 20 c). The tramway starts ahout every 3hrs. from the Porto Tici- 
nese (PI. D, 8 ; tramway from the Piazza del Duomo, see p. 117) and takes 
IV3 hr. (return- fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 50 c, or, incl. omn. to the Certosa, 
2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 80 c. ; comp. below). The whole excursion takes V2 day. 

The district traversed between Milan and Pavia consists of alter- 
nate stretches of rice-fields and underwood and offers little of in- 
terest. At (4y 2 M.) Rogoredo the Railway diverges to the S. from 
the line to Piacenza (p. 299). Beyond Rogoredo the Cistercian church 
of Chiaravalle Milanese is seen on the right, a fine brick edifice 
with a lofty domed tower, in the so-called Romanesque Transition 
style, dedicated in 1221 , but partly modernized. The interior is 
adorned with frescoes by Milanese painters of the 16th cent, and 
contains choir-stalls of 1465. — 9y 2 M. Locate; 12i/ 2 M. Villa- 

17y 2 M. Stazione delta Certosa (Fratelli Rizzardi's Restaurant), 
whence two routes lead along the enclosing wall (right and left) 
to the entrance (W. side) of the Certosa (walk of >/ 4 hr. ; also omn. 
from the station, 50 c). 

The Steam Tramway follows the high-road and passes Binasco, 
a small town with an ancient castle, in which, on Sept. 13th, 1418, 
the jealous Duke Filippo Maria Visconti caused his noble and in- 
nocent wife Beatrice di Tenda (p. 52) to be put to death. The 
station of Torre di Mangano (*Alb.-Ristorante Italia, unpretending; 
Alb. Certosa), on the Naviglio di Pavia, lies about l/ 2 M. to the W. 
of the Certosa (omn. 30 c). 

In the neighbourhood of the Certosa is the Hotel - Restaurant 
MUano (R. 2-4, dej. 2'/ 2 -3l/ 2 , I), incl. wine 4fr.). 

The *Certosa di Pavia, or Carthusian monastery, the splendid 
memorial of the Milan dynasties, begun in 1396 by Gian Galeazzo 

CERTOSA DI PAVIA. 19. Route. 1 39 

Visconti (p. 119) in the Gothic style, from the plans of Marco di 
Campione, and suppressed under Emperor Joseph II. in 1782, was 
restored to its original destination in 1844 and presented to the 
Carthusians. Since the suppression of the Italian monasteries it has 
been maintained as a 'National Monument'. — A vestibule, em- 
bellished with sadly-damaged frescoes by Bern. Luini(SS. Sebastian 
and Christopher), leads to a large inner court, at the farther end 
of which rises the celebrated facade of the church. 

The **F, begun in 1491 by Oiov. Ant. Amadeo and finish- 
ed (upper part) by Dolcebuono and Cristofano Solari, is perhaps 
the most masterly creation of its kind of the 15th century. Its 
design , independent of the antique orders of architecture , is in 
the Lombard-Romanesque style of graduated church-fronts, with 
projecting pillars and transverse arcades, while within these well- 
defined structural features it embraces a wonderful and judiciously 
distributed wealth of ornament (Burckhardt). Thirty of the most 
distinguished Lombard masters from the 15th to the 17th cent, had 
a share in its embellishment, the most eminent of whom are : the 
brothers Cristofano and Antonio Montegazza, Oiov. Ant. Amadeo, 
and Andr. Fusina (15th cent.) ; Oiacomo della Porta, Agostino Busti, 
surnamed II Bambaja, and Cristofano Solari, surnamed II Qobbo 
(16th cent.). The plinth is adorned with medallions of Roman em- 
perors, above which are reliefs representing Biblical history and 
scenes from the life of Gian Galeazzo. Below the four magnificent 
windows is a row of angel's heads, and above them are niches with 
numerous statues. This is unquestionably the finest decorative 
work of the kind in N. Italy, although inferior to the facades of the 
cathedrals of Orvieto and Siena , especially as the upper part is 
wanting. The reliefs are on the whole superior to the statues. 

An inspection of the *Interior, which is open from 8 to 5.30 
in summer and from 9 to 4 in winter, takes l 1 ^-^ hrs. (adm. 1 fr., 
Sun. free ; guide imperative, gratuities forbidden). — The beauti- 
ful and spacious building consists of a nave, supported by eight 
handsome pillars, with aisles and 14 chapels, large transepts with 
apsidal endings, and a long choir. The dome above the crossing was 
added in the Renaissance period. The whole is sumptuously and 
tastefully fitted up ; the handsome coloured enrichments were prob- 
ably designed by Borgognone. The fine mosaic pavement is modern. 
The transept and choir are separated from the rest of the church by 
a beautiful screen of iron and bronze. The chapels and altars are 
richly adorned with valuable columns and precious stones. 

We begin in the Left Aisle. The 2nd Chapel once contained a picture 
hy Perugino in six sections, of which the central part, above, representing 
"God the Father, alone remains, the other parts being now in France and 
England. Adjacent are the four great Church Fathers, by Borgognone. In 
the 6th Chapel : Borgognone, St. Ambrose with other saints. Left Tran- 
sept: 'Figures of Lodovico Moro and his wife Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497), 
from the demolished monument of the latter, one of the chief works of 
Crist. Solari, brought in 1564 from S. Maria della Grazie in Milan (p. 131) 

140 Route 19. CERTOSA DI PA VIA. 

and restored in 1891 ; handsome bronze candelabrum (16th cent.). — The Old 
Sacristy, to the left of the choir, has a fine marble portal with seven relief 
portraits of the Visconti and Sforza families ; in the interior is a fine carved 
ivory altar-piece, in upwards of 60 sections, by Leon, degli Ubriachi of Florence 
(16th cent.). — The Choir contains a fine marble altar with carving of the 
16th cent.; beneath, in front, is a charming small Relief-medallion of the 
Descent from the Cross , by Crisl. Solari. The -Choir-stalls are adorned 
with inlaid figures of apostles and saints, from drawings by Borgognone. 
The handsome bronze candelabra on the marble altar-rail are by Libero 
Fontana. — The door to the right of the choir, handsomely framed in 
marble and with four relief-portraits of princesses of the Sforza family, 
leads to the Lavacro, which contains a rich fountain and the Madonna 
and Child in fresco by Bern. Luini. To the right of the Lavacro is a small 
burial-place. — Right Transept: magnificent "Monument of Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti, begun about 1490 by Giov. Cristoforo Romano from the design of 
Galeazzo Pellegrini, but executed chiefly by Antonio Amadeo and Giaeomo 
delta Porta (before 1562). — The adjoining Sagrestia Nuova, or Oratorio, 
has a large altar-piece, an *Assumption by A. Solario (restored), a late work 
showing the influence of Leonardo (the apostles on the wings are specially 
fine). Over the door, Madonna enthroned, with two saints and angels, by 
Bart. Monlagna; the side-pictures by Borgognone. 

The front part of the "Cloisters (della Fontana) possesses slender 
marble columns and charming decorations in terracotta. Fine view from 
the front of the Refectory (W. side) of the side of the church and the right 
transept. — Around the Great Cloisters , farther back, are situated 24 
small houses formerly occupied by the monks, each consisting of three 
rooms with a small garden. — We now re-enter the church. Right Aisle. 
In the 2nd Chapel : Guercino, Madonna enthroned, with two saints (injured). 
3rd Chapel: Borgognone, St. Sirus and four other saints. 4th Chapel: 
"Borgognone, Crucifixion. 6th Chapel : good altar-piece in six sections by 
Macrino d'Alba (1496). 

The round generally ends with a visit to the Distillery, in which 
the old liqueur (Chartreuse) is still prepared. — The Dome cannot be 
ascended without a special 'permesso\ obtained at the prefecture in Pavia. 

The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was taken 
prisoner by Lannoy, a general of Charles V. , took place near the 
Certosa on 24th Feb., 1525. 

Pavia, which lies 8 M. to the S. of the Certosa, and the railway 
thence to Voghera and Genoa, are described in R. 27. 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco. 

a. From Milan to Como via. Saronno. 

28V2 M. Railway in l'/s^'A hrs. (fares 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 65 c. ; 
return-fares, 5 fr., 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 25 c). — The trains start from the Sta- 
zione Ferrovie Nord (p. 115). 

As far as (3 M.) Bovisa, see p. 145. — 5 M. Novate; 6 M. Bol- 
late; 9!/ 2 M. Oarbagnate ; 11 M. Caronno. 

131/2 M. Saronno {Albergo Madonna; Leon d'Oro, well spoken 
of), a large village on the Lura, with 5100 inhab., known in Italy 
for its excellent gingerbread (amaretti). — A quadruple avenue of 
plane-trees leads W. from the station to the Santuario della 
Bkata Vergine, a celebrated pilgrimage-church, built at different 
times between the end of the 15th and the end of the 17th cent., 
chiefly in a pompous baroque style. It contains a series of ad- 
mirable *Frescoes. finstalt 

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MONZA. 20. Route. 141 

The paintings in the interior of the dome represent a concert of 
angels, and are by Gaudenzio Ferrari. Round the drum are several wooden 
statues by Andrea Fusina. The frescoes immediately below the drum are 
by Lanini, those in the next section by Cesare da Sesto and Bernard. 
Luini (SS. Rochus and Sebastian). The remaining frescoes are all by 
Luini, who, as the story goes, sought an asylum in the sanctuary of Sa- 
ronno after killing a man in self-defence, and had to work at the bidding 
of the monks. In the passage leading to the choir are depicted the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin and Christ among the doctors; in the choir itself, 
the "Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation in the Temple. Above, 
in the panels and lunettes, are Sibyls, Evangelists, and Church Fathers. 
A small apse built out from the choir contains paintings of "S. Apollonia 
to the right, and *S. Catharine to the left, each with an angel. 

Saronno is a station on the line from Novara to Seregno (p. 61). 

— From Saronno to Laveno, see p. 157. 

151/-2 M. Bovello; 17 M. Bovellasca; I91/4M. Lomazzo ; 211/4*1. 
Cadorago; 23 M. Fino-Mornasco ; 23 3 / 4 M. Portichetto; 25^2 M. 
Orandate; 27^2 M. Camerlata , at the foot of a mountain -cone, 
bearing the ruined Castello Baradello, once a residence of Frederick 
Barbarossa (p. 144). — 28^2 M. Como. The train stops first at Porta 
del Torre (p. 143), and then goes on to the Stazioue Como Lago on 
the bank of the lake (p. 142). 

b. From Milan to Como and Lecco via. Monza. 

Fboh Milan to Como , 30 M., railway in lV4-l 3 /4 hr. (fares 5 fr. 45, 
3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 45 c; express, 6 fr., 4 fr. 20 c). Through-tickets may be 
obtained at the railway-station of Milan and at the Agenzia Internazio- 
nale (p. 116) for Como, Tremezzo, Cadenabbia, Bellagio, Menaggio, and 
Colico. — From Milan to Leoco, 32 M., railway in l'/2-2 hrs. (fares 
5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 5, 2 fr. 60 c). 

The line traverses a fertile plain, luxuriantly clothed with vine- 
yards, mulberry-plantations, and fields of maize, and intersected 
by innumerable canals and cuttings for purposes of irrigation. 

— 2'/2 M. Greco; 4*/2 M. Sesto San Giovanni. 

8 M. Monza [Alb. del Castello fy Falcone, at the railway-station ; 
Alb. S. Filippo, Via Italia 12) is a town with 11,800 inhabitants. 
Leaving the station and following the Via Italia to the right, we 
pass the church of S. Maria in Jstrada (2nd on the right), with 
a Gothic brick facade of 1327, and soon reach the *Cathbdkal 
(S. Giovanni), the chief object of interest. It was erected in the 14th 
cent, in the Lombard Gothic style by Marco da Campione on the site 
of a church founded in 590 by the Lombard queen Theodolinda, and 
contains" double aisles and transept, flanked with chapels on both 
sides. Above the portal is a very curious relief representing Queen 
Theodolinda amid her treasures ; beSOo^the Baptism of Christ. 

Intekiok. In in the E. transept is a relief representing the coronation 
of Emp. Charles IV. (1355). — The chapel to the right of the choir, 
restored by Beltrami in 1890, contains the plain sarcophagus of Queen 
Theodolinda (beginning of 14th cent.) and frescoes of scenes from her life 
by Zavattari (1444). The celebrated Ikon Ceown, with which the German 
emperors were crowned as kings of Lombardy, is also preserved in this 
chapel. This venerable relic was last used at the coronation of the Emp. 
Charles V. in 1530, of Napoleon in 1805, and of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 1838. 
It consists of a broad hoop of gold adorned with precious stones, round 

142 Boute 20. COMO. From Milan 

the interior of which is a thin strip of iron, said to have been made from 
a nail of the true Cross brought by the Empress Helena from Palestine. 
From the time of Theodolinda onwards it was used as the royal crown 
of the Lombards. In its present form it is, perhaps, a work of the 12th 
century. In 1859 it was carried off by the Austrians, but after the peace 
of 1866 it was restored to its former repository, and until lately preserved 
in the crypt. (Fee for seeing the crown, 5 fr.) — The ''Treasury (fee 
1 fr., 5 fr. for a party) contains several objects of historical interest: a 
hen with seven chickens in gold, representing Lombardy and its seven 
provinces, executed by order of Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, 
fan, and comb; two silver loaves, presented by Napoleon I. after his coro- 
nation; the cross which was placed on the breast of the Lombard kings at 
the moment of their coronation ; a richly-adorned book-cover with an in- 
scription of Theodolinda; reliquary, cross, and missals of Berengarius; 
goblet of sapphire, with a stem of Gothic workmanship ; Gothic goblet of 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti; fine diptychs of the 4-6th cent. ; Gothic carvings 
in ivory; 'ampullee' from the Roman catacombs (vessels with a dark-red 
deposit supposed to be the blood of martyrs); Byzantine pilgrim-flasks from 
Palestine; model of the iron crown. A cabinet outside the church contain 
the mummy of one of the Visconti, who died in 1413. 

The handsome Gothic Municipio , or town-hall , also called 
Palazzo Arengario, dates from the 13th century. The royal Summer 
Palace near Monza is a large huilding with an extensive and beau- 
tiful park , traversed by the Lambro. 

Tramway from Monza to Milan, see p. 117. — A tramway (starting from 
the principal railway-station) also runs from Monza via Trezzo (p. 145) to 
(2i/4 hrs.) Bergamo ; and others run to Treviglio and Caravaggio (p. 176), 
to Curate Brianza, etc. 

The lines to Como and Lecco divide at Monza. The former line 
runs to the N.W., affording pleasant views, to the right, of the 
fertile Brianza (p. 145), with its numerous country-residences. The 
train passes through several tunnels. 11 M. Lissone- Muggio. 
To the right rises the long, indented Monte Kesegone, to the left of 
■which are the Monte Grigna and the mountains reaching to the 
Spliigen. — 12 l / 2 M. Desio. — 14y 2 M. Seregno, a town with 6100 
inhab., is the junction of branch-lines to Novara (p. 61), and to 
(25 M.) Bergamo (in iy 2 h r 0> via Usmate-Carnate (p. 144) and 
Ponte S. Pietro (p. 183). — From (18 M.) Camnago a branch-line 
diverges to Seveso S. Pietro (p. 145). 20i/ 2 M. Carimate ; 21 V2 M - 
Cantu-Asnago ; 24i/ 2 M. Cucciago; 27 M. Albate-Camerlata($. 141). 
— 30 M. Como (Stazione Mediterranea, see below). 

Como. — Arrival. The Stazione Como S. Giovanni or Mediterranea, 
the principal station (St. Gotthard Railway), is 1/2 M. from the quay (omn. 
3Uc, included in through-tickets). The Stazione Como Lago or Ferrovie 
Nord lies 200 yds. to the E. of the quay (branch-lines to Saronno and Milan, 
p. 140, and to Varese and, p. 159). — The Stazione Como Borghi, 
a third station, is of no impoi ;e to tourists. 

Hotels (all in the Piazza Cavour, near the harbour). "Hotel Volta 
(PI. v), R., L., & A. 4-6, B. ii/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 7-10, omn. 1 fr.= Italia 
(PI. i), R., L., & A. 21/2-4, B. li/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 8, omn. 1 fr.; 
Hotel-Pension Suisse (PI. s), U. 2, L. '/ 2 , A. s/ 4 , B. li/ 4 , dej. 2. D. 31/2, 
pens. 8, omn. s/< fr. ; Hot. -Pens. Bellevik (PI. 6), R. from IV2, dej. 2V2, 
1>. 3 1 /.. (both incl. wine), pens. 8 fr., these two have cafe-restaurants and 
are well spoken of. — 'Trattoria Frasconi C'071/almieri, at the corner of 
the Piazza Cavour. — Caffe Plinio, next the Hot. Volta. 

Baths in the lake by the Giardino Pubblico, to the left, outside the pier. 
— Books, photographs, etc. : Schmid, Fruncke, <t Co. ( Libreria Dulp), in the 

to Lecco. COMO. W. Route. 143 

Hot. Volta. — Post Office (PI. P), Via Cinque Giornate, to the S.W. of 
the cathedral. 

Como (705 ft.), the capital of a province, with 11,000 inhab. 
and large silk-factories , the birthplace of the elder and younger 
Pliny and of the electrician and philosopher Volta (1745-1826 ; 
whose Statue by P. Marchesi is in the Piazza Volta, near the quay), 
lies at the S.W. end of the Lake of Como , and is enclosed by an 
amphitheatre of mountains. It was the Roman Comum, and of some 
importance in the middle ages. 

The*CATHEDBAL, begun in the Gothic style in 1396, and altered 
in the Renaissance style by Tommaso Rodari (choir, transept, out- 
side of nave) in 1486, is built entirely of marble, and is one of the 
best in N. Italy. The S. portal is by Bramante (1491); the dome is 
modern. The greater part of the sumptuous plastic ornamentation is 
by Rodari and other contemporary Lombard artists. Over the magni- 
ficent W. portal are reliefs (Adoration of the Magi) and statuettes 
(Mary with S. Abbondio, etc.). At the sides of the main entrance 
are statues of the elder and the younger Pliny, erected in 1498. 

Ihtekiok. The gaudy vaulting , restored in 1838 at a cost of 
600,000 fr. , destroys the effect of the fine proportions , which resemble 
those of the Certosa near Pavia (p. 13S). The windows of the portal 
contain good modern stained glass, representing the history of S. Abbon- 
dio; there are others to the right of the entrance and in the choir. — To 
the right of the entrance is the monument of Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio, a 
benefactor of the town , erected in 1861 . Farther on, to the right, 2nd 
Altar, di S. Abbondio, with handsome wood-carving, and scenes from the 
life of the saint; adjoining (1.) the "Adoration of the Magi, by Bern. Luini, 
and (r.) the Flight into Egypt, by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the (3rd) altar of 
St. Jerome a "'Madonna by B. Luini. In the N. Tkansept the Altare del 
Crocefisso of 1498, with a fine statue of St. Sebastian. In the Choik the 
Apostles, by Pompeo Marchesi. The Sackistx contains pictures by Guido 
Rent, Paolo Veronese, etc. In the Left Aisle, the altar of the Mater Dolo- 
rosa with an Entombment by Tommaso Rodari (1498). At the Altare di 
S. Giuseppe: 1. G. Ferrari, Nuptials of the Virgin, in style resembling 
Raphael ; r. B. Luini, Nativity ; St. Joseph , a statue by P. Marchesi, and 
a bas-relief below, the last work of this master. By the third altar the 
busts of Pope Innocent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Ravelli, Bishop of Como. 

Adjoining the church is the Broletto (now a public office), con- 
structed of alternate courses of different-coloured stones, and com- 
pleted in 1215. Behind the cathedral is the Theatre, erected in 1813. 
In the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, which mns W. from the cathedra], 
is the rear of the Romanesque church of 8. Fedele, with a fine semi- 
circular apse. The chief facade of the church, in the Piazza del 
Mercato, is as little worthy of attention as the completely spoiled 
interior. — The Porta Torre, now known as the Porta Vittoria, a 
massive five-storied structure, is also worthy of note. Outside the 
gate, in the Piazza Vittoria, is a bronze Statue of Garibaldi, by Vela. 

On the promenade outside the town is the church of SS. Annun- 
nata, of the 17th cent., richly decorated with marble and gold ; 
also known as the church Del Crocefisso, from a miraculous image. 
Farther on, on the slope of the mountain, is the fine old Basilica 
S. Abbondio, originally a Lombard structure of the 8th cent., rebuilt 

144 Route -20. COMO. 

in the 11th cent., and restored in 1863-88. Beneath it the remains 
of a church of the oth cent, have been found. — The Castello Bara- 
dello (p. 141), reached by a tolerable footpath in li/ 2 hr., is an 
excellent point of view. 

Excuksions. Beautiful roads, affording a variety of charming views, 
lead along the banks of the lake, to the \V. through the suburb of S. 
Giorgio and past the Villa delV Olmo, to (2 J /z M.) Cemobbio (p. 148), and to 
the E., on the hillside, high above the lake, via, Blevio to (5 M.) Torno 
(p. 148). — A pleasant drive may also be taken through the Val Fresco to 
S. Fermo. — Brunate, see p. 148. The station of the cable-railway (Funi- 
colare), opened in 1894, is near the Stazione Como-Lago (Ferrovie Nord). 
The total length of the line is about 2/3 M., its steepest gradient 55:100 
(fares, up 2, down 172, return 3 fr.). 

From Como to Monte Generoso and Lugano,see p. 13; to Varese, see p. 159. 

Fkom Como to Bellagio via Ebba, about 26 M., one-horse carriage 
in 5-6 hrs. (25 fr., with fee of 3 fr.). The road, which will also repay the 
pedestrian, passes Camnago Volta (a little to the N. of the road; with the 
tomb of Volta), Cassano, and Albesio, and affords views of the Brianza, 
the Montor/ano, several small lakes, and the Plan d'Erba, dominated on 
the E. by the Corni di Canzo (4510 ft.) and the Resegone (see below). — 
11 M. Erba, and thence to Bellagio, see p. 146. 

From Como to Lecco, 26 M., railway in 2 hrs. (4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 35, 
2 fr. 15 c). — 3 M. Albate-Camerlata, see p. 141; 5 M. Albate-Trecallo; 
7 1 /2 M. Cantii; 10 M. Brenna-Alzate , between the villages of these names; 
11 M. Anzano del Parco. To the left lies the Lago d'Alserio. — 13'/2 M. 
Merone-Pontenuovo , the junction of the Milan and Erba line (p. 146). — 
15 M. Mojana; 15 3 /4 M. Gasletto-Rogeno, on the S. bank of the Lago di 
Pusiano; 17 M. Mblteno; I8V2 M. Oggiono, at the S. end of the Lago 
oVAnnone. The train then runs along the E. bank of this lake to (22 M.) 
Sala al Barro, the starting-point for an ascent of Mte. Baro (p. 145; mount- 
ain-railway contemplated), which rises to the E. The Lago d'Annone is 
connected with the Lake of Lecco by the Ritorto, the course of which we 
follow beyond (22'/2 M.) Civate. The Mte. Resegone is prominent to the 
E. — 23'/2 M. Valmadrera. The train then penetrates a tunnel, crosses 
the wide Adda by a new bridge, and reaches (26 M.) Lecco (p. 145). 

The Railway from Monza to Lecco skirts the S.E. slopes of the 
beautiful range of hills of the Brianza (p. 145), studded with nu- 
merous villas of the wealthy Milanese. — 12y 2 M. Arcore. — From 
(15Y2 M.) Vsmate-Carnate, also a station on the line from Seregno 
to Ponte 8. Pietro and Bergamo (p. 142) , an omnibus runs in 
3/4 hr. to Monticello (Hotel Monticello), a summer-resort a little to 
the N.W. — From (19 M.) Cernusco - Merate a pleasant excursion 
may be taken to the lofty Montevecchia, situated towards the N.W. 
(l'/2 hr. ; the church of Montevecchia commands an excellent view 
of the Lombard plain, Milan, Cremona, Novara, and part of the 
Brianza, etc.; good wine, but a poor inn; pleasant return-route by 
Missaglia, with a guide, l'/^r.; thence by carriage to Merate; fine 
views). The village of Merate (Albergo del Sole), 1 M. from the sta- 
tion, was formerly fortified: pretty villas. — 21 M. Olgiate-Molgora. 
Beyond a tunnel a view of the valley of the Adda is obtained to the 
right. The train descends, crosses the river by an iron bridge, and 
joins the Lecco and Bergamo line (p. 183) at (27i/ 2 M.) Calohio. — 
30 M. Miiggiimico, with a prettily situated hydropathic establishment. 

LECCO. 20. Route. 145 

32 M. Lecco. — Albergo-Ristorante Mazzoleni, at the pier, R. 
l'/jfr., well spoken of; Croce di Malta ; Corona d'Italia, unpretending. 
— Bail. Restaurant, clean. — Omn. between the station and the pier 50 c. 

Lecco is an industrial town with 6100 inhab. and silk, cotton, 
and iron manufactories, at the foot of Mte. Resegone (6160 ft.) and at 
the S. end of the Lake of Lecco or E. arm of the Lake of Como 
(p. 147), from which the Adda here emerges. Statues of Oaribaldi 
and Alessandro Manzoni (b. in Milan 1785, d. 1873), the poet and 
head of the romantic school, both by Confalonieri, were erected in 
the piazza in 1884 and 1891. The pedestal of the latter is decorated 
with reliefs from Manzoni's l l Promessi Sposi'. Pleasant walks, ad- 
mirably described in 'I Promessi Sposi', to the hill of S. Oerolamo, 
with a pilgrimage- church and a ruined castle ( 3 /4hr.), etc. The Ponte 
Grande, a stone-bridge of tenarches, constructed in 1335byAzzone 
Visconti, and furnished with fortified towers at the extremities, 
leads S. from Lecco to Pescate, where the road divides : the right 
branch, passing the village of Malgrate (with many silk-factories) to 
the "W. of Lecco, leads to Como (p. 142), the left branch southwards 
to Milan. To the N. of Malgrate is the promontory of S. Dionigio. 

From Lecco we may ascend via Pescate to (2 hrs.) the top of Monte 
Baro (3150 ft.), which may also be ascended from Sala al Barro (p. 144). 
About two-thirds of the way up is an inn. The top affords a fine "View 
of the Brianza. 

Below Lecco the Adda expands into the Lago di Garlate, and further 
down, into the small Lago d'Olginale. A navigable caDal connects Trezzo 
(p. 142) with Milan. — From Lecco to Bellano (-Colico), see p. 147; to 
Bergamo, see p. 183. 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza. 

Railway from Milan to (27^2 M.) Incino-Erba (starting from the Stazione 
Ferrovie Nord, p. 115) in l'A- l 3 /« br. (fares 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 60 c. ; 
return-tickets 6 fr. 80, 4 fr., 2 fr. 70 c). — High-road from Erba to Bellagio. 

Brianza is the name of the undulating, grassy, partially wooded, and 
extremely fertile tract, 12 M. in length, 6 M. in breadth, extending be- 
tween the Seveso and the Adda, and stretching to the N. to the triangular 
peninsula which divides the Como and Lecco lakes. The soil is very 
fertile, and the whole district studded with villas peeping out from vines, 
orchards, and mulberry plantations. In the centre are several small lakes 
(Lago d^Annone, Pusiano, Alserio, Segrino, and Montorfano). 

The Railway from Milan to Incino - Erba traverses a well- 
cultivated and well-watered plain. As far as (3 M.) Bovisa it coin- 
cides with the line to Saronno (p. 140). i l / 2 M. Affori; 5 M. Bruz- 
zano; b v l<i M. Cormanno. The train now crosses the small Seveso. 
6 M. Cusano; l^fo M. Pademo Dugnano ; 9 M. Palazzolo. Beyond 
(10 M.) Varedo the train again crosses the Seveso and reaches 
(11 M.) Bovisio. 12 M. Cesano - Maderno. From (14 M.) Seveso 
8. Pietro a branch-line diverges to (1^4 M.) Camnago (p. 142), a 
station on the Monza-Como railway, which our line crosses near (15M.) 
Meda. 16 M. Cabiate; 17 y 3 M. Mariano- Comense. Near (18y 2 M.) 
Carugo-Oiussano the country becomes hilly. 20 M. Arosio, pleas- 
antly situated amid vine-clad hills, some of which are crowned with 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 10 

146 Route -21. ERBA. 

villages and country-houses. 2l!/ 2 M - Inverigo, a pretty village, in 
the valley of the Lambro. On an eminence rises the *Rotonda, one 
of the finest villas in the Brianza, with a park and admirably-kept 
garden, and commanding an extensive view. The Villa Crivelli is 
famous for its cypresses. The train now ascends the valley of the 
Lambro. 23 M. Lambrugo ; 25^2 M. Merone-Pontenuovo, the junc- 
tion of the Lecco and Como line (p. 144). The Lago d'AUerio is 
passed on the left and the Lago di Pusiano on the right. The train 
enters the charming plain of Erba (Pian d'Erba). 

271/2 M. Incino-Erba, the station for the village of Incino and 
the small town of Erba. Incino, the ancient Liciniforum, contains 
a lofty Lombard campanile. Erba (1020 ft. ; Albergo) lies a little 
to the N., on the road from Como to Lecco, which here traverses 
the fertile and terraced slopes of a small hill. It contains several 
handsome villas , among which is the Villa Amalia, on the N.W. 
side, commanding a charming view of the Brianza. — From Erba 
to Como, see p. 144. 

Fuom Erba to Bellagio , about 15 M. ; a highly interesting 
excursion. — Beyond Erba we cross the Lambro, which has here 
been canalized and is conducted into the Lago di Pusiano , a little 
to the S.E. Immediately afterwards the route to Bellagio diverges 
to the left from the road to Lecco, and runs to the N., past Longone 
on the "W. bank of the narrow Lago del Segrino, to — 

6 M. Canzo (Croce di Malta) , which is almost contiguous to 
(l'/^M.) Asso, the two numbering together 2700 inhabitants. At the 
entrance of Asso is a large silk-manufactory (Cam Versa). 

The road now gradually ascends for a considerable distance in 
the picturesque valley of the Lambro, the Vall' Assina, the slopes 
of which are well wooded; it passes through (2 M.) Lasnigo, (2 M.) 
Barni, and Magreglio, where it becomes steeper; first view of both 
arms of the Lake of Como from the eminence near the (1 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful *Survey of the entire E. arm to Lecco and far be- 
yond, after passing the first church of (iy 4 M.) Civenna (Inn), 
with its graceful tower. The road now runs for 2M. along the shady 
brow of the mountain, which extends into the lake at Bellagio. 
Beyond the chapel good views are obtained of the W. arm of the 
lake (of Como), the Tremezzina with the Villa Carlotta and Caden- 
abbia, the E. arm (Lake of Lecco), a large portion of the road and 
railway on the E. bank, the former supported by masonry and 
embankments, and finally of the entire lake from the promontory 
of Bellagio to Domaso (p. 153), and far below the park of the Villa 
Serbelloni (p. 150), rising above the lake like a molehill. 

The road winds downwards for about 3 M., finally passing the 
Villa Oiulia (p. 151) and the churchyard of Bellagio. From Civenna 
to the hotels at Bellagio on the lake (p. 150) 2 hrs. walk. 

A longer route, which will reward the pedestrian, is by the Monte 
S. Prima (p. 151). Ascent from Canzo with a guide in 4 5 hrs., descent 
to Bellagio 3 hrs. (fatiguing , over de'bris). 

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22. Lake of Como. 

Plan of Excursion. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 155) and the 
Lago Maggiore (E. 25) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously as 
follows: by the St. Gotthard line or the Saronno-Como railway in l'/V 
l'/4 hr. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed by steamboat in the afternoon in 
IV2 hr. to Cadenabbia or Bellagio, the latter the most beautiful point on 
the Lake of Como, and spend the night there. In the evening and next 
morning visit Villa Carlotta and Villa Serbelloni ; by steamboat in 1/4 hr., 
or by rowing-boat, to Menaggio; thence by railway in 1 hr. to Porlezza, 
in time for the steamboat which starts for Lugano (p. 156) , arriving early 
enough to leave time for the ascent of Monte S. Salvatore. From Lugano 
by steamboat in 1'/* hr. to Ponte Tresa and thence by steam-tramway in 
3 /4 hr. to Luino; steamboat from Luino in l'/2 hr. to the Borromean Islands, 
thence in 1 hr. to Arona. Railway from Arona to Milan, see p. 160. The 
Circular Tour Tickets (see p. xvii) issued for this excursion are econom- 
ical and convenient. Return-tickets are valid for one day only. 

Steamboat thrice daily from Como to Colico in 3'/2-5 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 70, 
2fr. 60 c.) ; five times daily from Como to Bellagio, eight times to Torriggia; 
thrice daily from Como to Lecco in 3'/2-4 hrs.; thrice daily from Lecco 
to Colico in 3 3 /4-4 l /2 hrs. The tickets are issued on board the steamers 
(also tickets for the railways in connection and the Swiss diligences). 
Embarkation and landing free (the tickets have a coupon which is given 
to the boatman). Those who embark at intermediate stations must procure 
a check at the pier to be given up when the tickets are taken on board. 
The advertised hours are not rigidly adhered to. Some of the boats are 
handsome saloon-steamers, with good restaurants on board. — In the fol- 
lowing description the stations at which there is a pier are indicated by 
'P 1 , the others (small boat stations) by '!!'. 

Railway on the E. bank from Bellano (p. 152) to (15 M.) Lecco, not 
recommended to tourists; numerous tunnels and viaducts. 

Rowing-boats (barca). First hour H/2 fr., each additional hour 1 fr. 
for each rower. From Bellagio to Cadenabbia and back (or vice versa), 
each rower 2V2 fr. ; Bellagio to Tremezzo, Bellagio to Menaggio, and Bel- 
lagio to Varenna also 2'/2 fr. each rower; Bellagio to Villa Melzi, Villa 
Carlotta, and back, each rower 3 fr. — One rower suffices, unless the trav- 
eller is pressed for time; a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta 
uno ! ' When travellers >are not numerous , the boatmen readily rednce 
their demands. The following phrases may be found useful : Quanto volete 
per una corsa d'un ora (di due ore) 1 Siamo due (ire, qualtro) persone. E 
troppo, vi daro un franco (due franchi, etc.). In addition to the fare, it is 
usual to give a 'mancia' of l /i fr. or 1 fr. according to the length of the 

The *Lake of Como (700 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or II Lario, 
the Lacus Larius of the Romans , is extolled by Virgil (Georg. ii. 
159), and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in N. 
Italy. Length from Como to the N. extremity 30 M. ; greatest width 
between Menaggio andVarenna nearly 2t/ 2 M.; greatest depth 1930ft. ; 
total area 60 sq. M. At Bellagio (p. 150) the lake divides into two 
branches, called respectively the Lakes of Como (W.) and Lecco (E.). 
The Adda enters at the upper extremity and makes its egress near 
Lecco. The "W. arm has no outlet. Numerous villages and the gay 
villas of the Milanese aristocracy, surrounded by luxuriant gardens 
and vineyards, are scattered along the banks of the lake. In the 
forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut and walnut con- 
trasts strongly with the greyish tints of the olive, which to the 
unaccustomed eye bears a strong resemblance to the willow. The 
mountains rise to a height of 7000 ft. — The industrious inhabi- 


148 Route 22. 



tants of the banks of the lake arc much occupied in the production 
and manufacture of silk. Tasteful articles in olive-wood are made 
at Bellagio. — The lake abounds in fish, and trout of 20lbs. weight 
are occasionally captured. The 'Agoni' are small, but palatable. 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E., the Punta 
di Oeno, the beauty of the lake is disclosed to view. 

Lake of Como. 

W Bank. 

Borgo S. Giorgio, the N.W. 
suburb of Como, with the * Villa 
dell' Olmo, formerly Villa Rai- 
mondi, at the N. end, the largest 
on the lake, belonging to the Duke 
of Visconti-Modrone, with splen- 
did halls and fine park (strangers 

Villa Tavernola, beyond the 
mouth of the Breggia. VillaOon- 
zalez ; Villa Cima, in a beauti- 
ful park. 

CernobbiO (P). — "Grand Hotel 
Villa d'Este et Reine d'Angle- 
terbe, B-., L., & A. 3, pens. 10-13 fr., 
with pleasant grounds, frequented 
by English and Americans; Hot. 
Cernobbio et de la Reine Olga, 
R., L., & A. 3-5, B. l'/s, dej. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 8-12, omn. 1 fr. ; Alb. Milano, 
Italian. — Omnibus to and from Como 

Cernobbio is a considerable 
village, surrounded by handsome 
villas : Belinzaghi, Baroggi, and 
others. High above lies the church 
of Rovenna. 

The Monte Bisbino (4390 ft.), with 
a pilgrimage church and a fine view, 
is easily ascended in 3 hrs. from 
Cernobbio or Brienno (p. 149). 

Villa Volpi, on a promontory 
extending far into the lake. 

Moltrasio (P ; Alb. Caramazza), 
in a beautiful situation, with the 
large Palazzo Passalacqua, rising 
above its terraced garden. 

Urio (B); then Carate (P ; Hot.- 
Pens. Lario), Laglio, and (ier- 
rnanello, all with attractive villas. 

E. Bank. 

From Borgo S. Agostino , the 
N.E. suburb of Como, a new road 
(4i/2 M. ; one-horse carr. 8, two- 
horse 15 fr.) and a cable-railway 
(p. 144) lead to Brunate (2400 ft. ; 
*Alb.-Rist. Spaini; Bellavista, B. 
11/4, B. 11/4, dej. 21/2, D. 4fr.), 
commanding a fine view to the 
"W. as far as Monte Rosa. 

Blevio, with the villas Mylius 
and Ricordi, and, beyond the 
Punta di Geno, the villas Ratazzi, 
Cornaggia, etc. Villa Taglioni, 
formerly the property of the fa- 
mous dariseuse; Villa Ferranti, 
once the residence of the cel- 
ebrated singer Pasta (d. 1865); 
Villa Taverna. 

Torno (P ; Alb. Bella Venezia) 
has a pretty church and is sur- 
rounded by villas. 

Road hence to Como , see p. 144. 

Villa Pliniana , in the bay of 
Molina , at the entrance of a 
narrow gorge, erected in 1570 by 
Count Anguissola, is now the 
property of the Marchesa Belgio- 
joso-Trotti. It derives its name 

of Como. 


22. Route. 149 

W. Bank. 

On the bank of the lake is a lofty 
pyramid erected to the memory of 
Dr. Frank, a professor of Pavia 
(d. 1851), with money left by him 
for the purpose. 

Torriggia(P; Ristor. Casarico); 
on the promontory the Villa Elua. 

Brienno (B), embosomed in 

Argegno (P; Alb. & Ristor. 
Telo; Alb. Barchetta), at the 
mouth of the fertile Intelvi Valley. 
A carriage-road leads hence via 
CasHglione d'Inlelvi and S. FedeleoV In- 
telvi (2520 ft. ; Alb. S. Rocco) to 
Lanzo cTIntelvi (p. 156). 

Colonno (B) ; then Sola (B), 
with the small island of Comacina, 
frequently mentioned in the an- 
nals of mediaeval warfare, now 
occupied by a small church of 
S. Giovanni. 

Monte Legnone and Monte 
Legnoncino(j>. 153) are distinctly 
visible towards the N.E. 

Campo , charmingly situated ; 
then the promontory of Lavedo, 
which here projects far into the 
lake. On its extremity (3/ 4 M. 
from Campo or Lenno) glitters the 
Villa Arcomati, with its colonnade 
(visitors admitted; fine view). 

In the bay lie Lenno (B ; Ristor. 
Brentani) and Azzano (B). On 
the slope above, Mezzegra. 

Tremezzo (P; *Alb. Bazioni), 
practically forming with Caden- 
abbia one place including the 
Villa Carlotta (p. 150), is situat- 
ed in the Tremezzina, a beauti- 
ful district justly called the 
garden of Lombardy. 

Interesting excursion (there and 
back, 3-4 hrs.) by Lenno (see above) 
to "8. Maria del Soccorso (1375 ft), 
a pilgrimage church with beautiful 

E. Bank. 
of Pliniana from a neighbouring 
spring which daily changes its 
level, a peculiarity mentioned 
both by the younger and the older 
Pliny. The passages are inscribed 
on the walls of the court. 

Riva di Palanzo (P) and Pog- 
nana (B); then Quarsano and 

Nesso (B), at the mouth of the 
Val di Nesso , which ascends to 
the Piano del Tivano (3800 ft.), 
with a high waterfall in a narrow 
gorge, frequently dry in summer. 

Beyond La Cavagnola we ob- 
tain the first view of Bellagio. 

Near Lezzeno (B) is one of the 
deepest parts of the lake. 
[ Villa Besana. 

S. Oiovanni(B), with a church 
containing an altar-piece by 
Gaud. Ferrari : Christ in glory, 
with saints and donors. VillaTrotti 
(fine garden, visitors admitted). 

Villa Tr ivulzio, formerly Poldi, 
contains the mausoleum of the 
last of the Gonzagas, in the form 
of a round Romanesque tower. 
Fine view. Visitors are admitted 
to the beautiful garden. 

Villa Melzi, i/ 2 M. to the S. 
of Bellagio, erected by Albertolli 
in 1810-15, for Count Melzi 
d'Erile, who was vice-president 
of the Italian Republic in 1802, 
and was made Duke of Lodi by 
Napoleon in 1807. It now belongs 
to the Duchess of Melzi, and 
possesses numerous works of art 
and a splendid garden (adm. 
Thurs. & Sun., 1 fr.). 

150 Route 22. 



W. Bank. 

view (the sacristan sells refresh- 
ments); return by Mezzegra. 

Cadenabbia. — "Bellevue, ad- 
joining the Villa Carlotta, with shady 
grounds on the lake, pens. 11-16 fr. 
(closed Dec. to Feb.); "Belle-Ilk, R., 
L., & A. 2-4, B. 11/4, dej. V/t, D. 
4, pens. 7-10 fr.; "'Britannia, R. 2- 
4, L. 3/ 4 , A. i/ 2 , B. lVs, dej. 3, D. 
41/2, pens. 7-12, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel- 
Pension Cadenabbia, pens. 7-8 fr. — 
Vafi Lavezari. — Hotel-omnibuses at 
the pier. — English Church, with 
services from April to November. 

Cadenabbia, 1 M. to the S. of 
Menaggio(omnibus at the station), 
lies in the most sheltered situa- 
tion on the Lake of Como. — In 
the vicinity (S.W.), in a garden 
sloping down to the lake, stands 
the celebrated * Villa Carlotta, 
formerly Sommariva. In 1843 it 
came into the possession of Prin- 
cess Albert of Prussia, after whose 
daughter Charlotte (d. 1855) it is 
named. The widower of the 
latter, Duke George of Saxe-Mei- 
ningen, is the present proprietor. 
Visitors ring at the entrance to 
the garden and ascend the broad 
flight of steps (accessible from 8 
to 5; 1 fr. each pers.). 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
tains a frieze decorated with cele- 
brated -'Reliefs by Thorvaldsen, re- 
presenting the Triumph of Alexan- 
der (for which a sum of nearly 
375,000 fr. was paid by Count Som- 
mariva); also several statues by 
Canova (Cupid and Psyche, Magda- 
len, Palamedes , Venus) ; Paris by 
Fontana; bust of Count Sommariva; 
Mars and Venus, by Acquisti; Cupid 
giving water to pigeons, by Bien- 
aimi , etc. The Billiard Room 
contains casts , and a small frieze 
in marble on the chimney - piece 
representing a Bacchanalian pro- 
cession, said to be an early work 
of Thorvaldsen. — In the Garden 
Saloon several modern pictures (Ha- 
yez , Romeo and Juliet; Lordon, 
Atala), and a marble relief of Na- 
poleon when consul, by Lazzarini. 
The 'Garden, which stretches to 

E. Bank. 

Bellagio. — "Grande Bretagne, 
frequented by the English, and 
"Grand Hotel Bellagio , R. 372-6, 
L. * A. 2, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, 
pens. 12-16, omn. 3 /4 fr., both well 
fitted up, and the property of com- 
panies , beautifully situated on the 
lake; Villa Serbelloni, now a de- 
pendance of the Grand Hotel Bel- 
lagio, R. 3, pens. 9-14 fr. ; *Ge- 
nazzini, also beautifully situated 
on the lake, R., L., & A. 2'/2-5, 
B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 7-11 fr. 
(tariff in the bedrooms). — Of less 
pretension : "Hotel & Pension Flo- 
rence, R., L., & A. 2'/ 2 -4, B.IV2, dej. 
2'/2, D. 4, pens. 7V2-9, omn. 1/2 fr- : Pen- 
sion Suisse, R. 11/2-2, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B.l, 
dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 6 7 fr.; Pens. 
des Etrangers, dej. 2V2, pens. 7- 
8 fr. ; Albergo del Vapore, all on 
the lake. — Beer at the Cafi-Rest. 
des Etrangers, see above; Rest, de 
V H6t. de Florence. — The large hotels 
send omnibuses to meet the steamers. 

Lace, Silk Goods, and Olive-wood 
Carvings at numerous shops. 

Rowing Boats, see p. 147. 

English Church (services April- 

Bellagio (710 ft.), a small town 
with 800 inhab. , at the W. base 
of the promontory which sep- 
arates the Lake of Como from the 
Lake of Lecco, is perhaps the 
most delightful point among the 
lakes of Upper Italy. 

Higher up stands the *Villa 
Serbelloni (footpath ascends by 
the Hot. Genazzini in 25 miu.), 
the park of which extends to the 
head of the wooded promontory 
(admission for those not residing 
in the hotel 1 fr.). Charming 
glimpses of Varenna, Villa Bal- 
bianello, Carlotta, etc. 

The Villa Belmonte, the prop- 
erty of an Englishman, commands 
another fine view (adm. 1/2 fr-)- 

About 1 M. to the S. of the 
lower entrance to the Villa Ser- 
belloni , beyond the cemetery, 
we reach a small blue gate on 

of Oomo. 


22. Route. 151 

W. Bank. 

the S. to Tremezzo , and to the N. 
towards the Hotel de Bellevue, con- 
tains the most luxuriant vegetation ; 
on the S. side of the Villa is a 
splendid magnolia ; pleasant view 
towards Bellagio. At the end of the 
garden-wall is the mortuary chapel 
of the Sommarivas, with marble 

Behind Cadenabbia rises the 
rock of II Sasso S. Martino. 

Halfway up stands the Madonna 
di S. Martino, a small church, com- 
manding a beautiful view ; ascent 
i'/s hr. (we proceed via Griante to 
the small chapel of S. Rocco and 
then follow the paved track). 

The Monte Grocione (5370 ft.), a 
more lofty mountain to the W., com- 
mands a striking view of the Lake 
of Oomo and Bellagio (a fatiguing 
ascent of 3'/2-4 hrs. ; guide 5 fr. ; in 
order to avoid the heat the traveller 
should start at 2 a.m.). A finer view 
of the alps of Valais is obtained from 
the "Monte Galbiga (5600 ft.), to the 
W., which may be reached in 50 min. 
from Monte Crocione by following 
the crest. From Monte Galbiga we 
may descend via the Ponna Alp to 
(3 hrs.) Osleno (p. 155). 

Here, at the Punta di Bellagio, the S.W. and S.E. arms of the 
lake unite. The latter, the Lago di Lecco, though inferior to the 
other in picturesqueness and luxuriance of vegetation , presents 
grander mountain scenery. The E. bank is skirted by the railway 
mentioned at p. 147. Steamers ply on the lake from (Como) Bel- 
lagio to Lecco and back, and from Colico to Lecco and back (comp. 
p. 147). The steamboat-stations are Lierna, Limonta, Vassena, 
Onno, Mandello, Abbadia, and Lecco (p. 145), some of which are 
not always called at. 

On the chief arm of the Lake of Como, as we proceed towards 
Colico, the first steamboat-stations are Menaggio (W. bank) and 
Varenna (E. bank). 

E. Bank. 
the left, leading to the Villa 
Giulia, the property of Count 
Blome of Vienna, with beautiful 
*Gardens (adm. on Sun. and 
holidays; fee i/ 2 -l fr. ). 

A pleasant excursion may be taken 
hence to Civenna (p. 146 ; one-horse 
carr. 8 fr. ; 3 hrs. there and back), 
with which a visit to the Villa Giulia 
may conveniently be combined. 

The highly interesting ascent of 
the "Monte S. Primo (5555 ft.) may be 
made in 4'/^ hrs. from Bellagio (with 
guide, 10 fr.). The route leads past 
the Villa Giulia and Casate , and at 
(2 hrs.) a chapel forks. We follow the 
narrow road to the right to the alps 
of Villa and Borzo, whence a foot- 
path leads to the (2 l fc hrs.) summit. 
Magnificent view of the Lake of Como 
and the Brianza, backed by a grand 
mountain-panorama. Descent to 
Canzo, see p. 146. 

W. Bank. 
Menaggio (P). — Piers. One, to 
the S., beside the Hotel Menaggio, 
for the Steam Tramway to Porlezza 
(Lugano; see p. 155); another beside 
the Hotels Victoria and Corona. 
Hotel-omnibuses meet the steamers 
at both. 

Hotels. *Gkand Hotel Victo- 
ria, R., L., & A. 41/2, B. IV2, dej. 3, 
D. 5, pens. 8 11 fr. (English Church 

E. Bank. 
Varenna (P ; *Alb. Reale-Mar- 
cionni, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 2, 
de'j. 3, D. 5, psns. 7-9, omn. 
1/2 fr.) is charmingly situated 
on a promontory, surrounded by 
gardens (Isimbardi, Lelia, Ve- 
nini), at the mouth of the Val 
d'Esitw. Above, beside the small 

152 Route 25. 



W. Bank. 
Service); "Hut. Menaggio, Italian, 
R., L., &A. 3i/2 -5«/«, B. IV2, dej. 3, 
D. 5, pens. 8-li fr. , both beauti- 
fully situated, with gardens on the 
lake; Corona, Italian, second class. 

Menaggio (1000 inhab.), with 
an extensive silk manufactory, 
commands a fine view of Bellagio. 
On the lake, to the S. of the vil- 
lage, is the handsome Villa My- 
lius. — A good road, diverging 
to the right from the CadenabMa 
(Como)road, ascends in windings 
to (1/2 hr.) LovenoSuperiore, near 
the church of which stands the 
Villa Vigoni, formerly Mylius, 
commanding a magnificent view 
of Bellagio, Menaggio, and of the 
three arms of the lake (apply to 
the gardener; fee 1 fr.). The 
garden-saloon contains two re- 
liefs by Thorvaldsen and a group 
in marble by Argenti, On a moun- 
tain-spur, I1/4 M. farther, is the 
chapel of Madonna della Breglia. 
— The Villa Massimo d'Azeglio 
contains paintings by the poet 
Marchese Massimo d'Azeglio 
(d. 1866). Villa Garoviglio. 

The steamer next passes a 
wild, yellowish-brown cliff, the 
Sasso Rancio ('orange -rock'), 
which is traversed by a danger- 
ous footpath. The Russians under 
Bellegarde marched by this route 
in 1799, though with heavy losses. 

S. Abbondio. — Mastenna. 

Rezzonico (B), with a restored 
castle of the 13th century. 

Cremia (B), with the hand- 
some church of S. Michele (altar- 
piece *St. Michael, by Paolo Ve- 
ronese). The old church of S. 
Vito contains a fine Madonna and 
angels by Borgognone. 

Then Pinnello. 

E. Bank. 
village of Vezio, are the ruins of 
the Torre di Vezio, with a beauti- 
ful view (ascent 1 /2 h- r 0- l n the 
vicinity both road and railway 
pass through several tunnels. 
Most of the marble quarried in 
the neighbourhood is cut and pol- 
ished in the town. 

About 3/ 4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Fiume Latte ('milk 
brook', from its colour) is preci- 
pitated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft. , forming an 
imposing cascade in spring, but 
sometimes dried up in summer. 

The 'Monte Grigna (7905 ft.; 8 hrs.) 
is a very fine point. From Varenna 
a bridle-path leads on the right bank 
of the Eiino via Perledo to (2'/s hrs.) 
Esino ("Alb. Monte Godeno, moder- 
ate), prettily situated. Thence (guide 
desirable ; to the club-hut 4, Monco- 
dine 7 fr.) to the Alp Cainallo l'/s, 
Alp Prada l'/z, Rifugio of the Italian 
Alpine Club (5930 ft.) '/ 2 hr., and to 
the top of the Grigna Setlentrionale or 
Moncodine in 2hrs.more(the last part 
rather trying). Superb view of the 
whole Alpine chain from the Mte.Viso 
to the Ortler (the Mte. Rosa group 
particularly fine), and of the plains 
of Lombardy to the distant Apen- 
nines. We may descend to the W. 
(steep) to the club -hut Capanna di 
Releggio (5840 ft.) in the Val Neria 
and to Mandello, or to the E. to 
Pasturo in the Val Sassina (p. 153). 

Oittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of 
Regoledo, situated 500 ft. above 
the lake (cable-railway). 

Bellano (P; Roma, Bellano, 
both on the lake), with 1400 in- 
hab. and considerable factories, 
is the present terminus of the 
Lecco and Colico line (p. 147). 
By the pier is a monument to 
Tom. Orossi, the poet, who was 
born at Bellano in 1790 (d. 1853), 
by Tantardini. A wide street 
leads hence to the (8 min.)sta- 

of Como. 


22. Route. 1 53 

W. Bank. 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso (B) are situated the 
ruins of three castles, Eocca di 
Musso , the residence of Giov. 
Giac. de' Medici in 1525-31, 
'the Castellan of Musso', who from 
this spot ruled over the entire 
Lake of Como. 

Dongo (P ; Alb. Dongo) , a 
large village in a sheltered sit- 

Gravedona (P; Alb. Grave- 
dona, well spoken of; Alb. del 
Lauro), with 1600 inhab., is pic- 
turesquely situated at the mouth 
of a gorge. The handsome Pa- 
lazzo del Pero with four towers, 
at the upper end, was built in 
1586 by Pellegrino Tibaldi for 
the Milanese Cardinal Tolomeo 
Gallio. Adjoining the venerable 
church of S. Vincenzo rises the 
Baptistery of St. Maria del Tiglio, 
an interesting building of the 
12th cent., with campanile, con- 
taining two Christian inscriptions 
of the 5th century. 

A bridle-path leads to tlie W. 
through the Val di Qrawdona and 
over the Passo di S. Jorio 16420 ft.) 
to (9 hr3.) Bellinzona (p. 6j. 

E. Bank. 
tion. Following the Via Cavour 
to the left by the Albergo Eoma, 
then turning to the right and then 
to the left again, we reach the 
church of S. Giorgio and the Or- 
rido di Bellano } a rocky gorge in 
which the Ptoverna forms a lofty 
waterfall (adm. t/ 2 fr.). 

A narrow road leads through 
the Val Sassina, which opens at Bel- 
lano, via Taceno to (6 M .) Corlenova 
and thence via Introbbio to Lecco. 

Aequaseria (P) is the chief vil- 
lage in the commune of S. Ab- 

Dervio (B), at the mouth of the 
Varrone, is situated at the base 
of the abrupt Monte Legnone 
and its spur, the MonteLegnoncino 
(5680 ft.). 

Monte Legnone (8506 ft.), the high- 
est mountain of Lombardy, may be as- 
cended hence in 7 hrs. (fatiguing but 
interesting). Bridle-path to (2 hrs.) 
Sueglio (2590 ft.; Osteria Pinetta, fair) 
on the slope of Mte. Legnoncino, 
and through ValleLavade to the (2 hrs.) 
Rifugio of the Italian Alpine Club 
(4460 ft. ; good accommodation) by the 
Roccoli Lorla, on the paddle between 
Legnone and Legnoncino; thence 
(with guide) to the (2'/4 hrs.) Ca- 
panna Alpina (7010ft.; no beds) and 
the (1 hr.) summit, with magni- 
ficent view. — The ascent on the N. 
side, from Delebio (p. 154), is easier. 
A bridle-path leads through the Val 
delta Lesina to the (4 hrs.) Alp Gap- 
pello, and thence across the Bocchetta 
di Legnone in 3 hrs. to the summit. 

Corenno, Dorio, and Ogliasca, 
all picturesquely situated , with 
ruined castles. 

Colico (Isola Bella; Hotel Risi, 
R. 21/2, B. 1 fr., both in the Ita- 
lian style), comp. p. 15. 
over the Spliigen to Coire , see K,. 4. 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio. 

Feom Colico to Sondrio, 257z M., railway in ly 2 -l 3 /4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 
65, 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 10 c); from Sondrio to Bormio, 41 M., diligence once 
daily (to Tirano, several times daily) in 10 hrs. 

The Val Tellina, which is now traversed by a railway, belonged to the 
Grisons down to 1797, then to Austria, and since 1859 has been united to 

Domaso (P) possesses several 
handsome villas. — Finally Gera 

From Colico to Chiavenna, and 

1 54 Route 22. TIRANO. 

Italy. The broad valley is watered by the Adda (p. 14), the inundations of 
which often cause considerable damage, and make the lower part of the 
valley marshy and unhealthy. An aromatic red wine is yielded by the 
vines on the slopes of the valley. 

4V'2 M. Delebio, on the Lesina, which descends from Mte. Legnone (ascent 
of Mte. Legnone, see p. 153j. — 8 M. Cosio-Valtellino-Traona, the latter 
place lying at the base of the mountains beyond the Adda. — 10 M. Mor- 
begno (850 ft. ; Ancora), with 2500inhab., is noted for its silk-culture and 
has a church of the 17th cent, with a few good pictures. — 12 M. Tala- 
mona. The line then crosses the Adda, here joined by the Masino, and 
skirts the base of the mountains to the north. 14 M. Ardenno- Masino; 
1972 M. San-Pietro- Berbenno ; 22'/2 M. Castione-Andevenno. Farther on the train 
skirts the hill of Sassella, noted for its wine and crowned with a church. 

25VaM. Sondrio (1140 ft. ; "Posta, with a garden, R., L., & A. 41/2, D. 
4 fr. ; Maddalena ; Eistor. Marino, with rooms), with 4000inhab., the capital 
of the Val Tellina, situated on the Malero, an impetuous torrent, at the 
mouth of the picturesque Val Malenco. A large building outside the town, 
once a nunnery, is now private property. The old residence of the bailiffs 
is now a barrack. Sondrio is a good centre for excursions, and it is visited 
for the grape-cure in the season. 

Beyond Sondrio the High Road continues to ascend the Val Tellina. 
The churches of Montagna and Pendolasco rise on the left. Between S. 
Giacomo and Tresenda, about halfway up the N. slope of the valley, rises 
the ancient watch-tower of Teglio (2945 ft.), which gives its name to the 
valley ( Val Teglino). At (IOV2 M.) Tresenda the road over the Passo dAprica 
diverges to the right (p. 198). The road next crosses the Poschiavino, which 
descends from the Bernina glaciers, and soon reaches Madonna di Tirano 
(1500 ft. ; "Alb. S. Michele, R. 3, B. 1 fr.), a small village with a large and 
handsome pilgrimage-church of the 16th century. The mountain-road 
which here diverges to the left leads to Poschiavo, and across the Bernina 
Pass to the Upper Engadine (see Baedeker's Switzerland). The ' Confine 
Svizzero' is 3 /< M. to the N.W. of Madonna di Tirano. About '/4 h r - after 
leaving Madonna di Tirano we reach — 

I6V2 M. Tirano (1505 ft.; Albergo Italia, by the post-office, R., L., 
& A. 3, D. 4 fr.; Posta or Angelo ; Stelvio, by the lower bridge), a small 
town of 3000 inhab., with old mansions of the Visconti, Pallavicini, and 
Salis families. 

The road now ascends more rapidly along the vine-clad slopes, pass- 
ing Semio, Lovero, and Tovo. To the N. rises the precipitous Monte 
Masuccio (9240 ft.), a landslip from which in 1807 blocked up the narrow 
channel of the Adda, and converted the populous and fertile valley into 
a vast lake. At(5'/2M.) Mazzo (1845ft.) the road crosses to the right bank 
of the Adda, and at the large village of (l'/4 M.) Grosotlo (Alb.Pini) it crosses 
the Boasco, which here issues from the Val Grosina. To the right, at the 
mouth of the latter, is the imposing ruined castle of Venosta. Beyond 
(IV4 M.) Grosio (2170 ft.) the road recrosses to the left bank. In l'/2 hr. 
more we reach — 

28>/ 2 M. Bolladore (2840 ft. ; Posta or Angelo, R. I1/2 fr. ; Hdlel des Alpes). 
On the hill on the other side of the river rises the picturesque church of 
Sondalo. Beyond Mondadizza we again cross the Adda. The valley now 
contracts ; to the E. lies LePrese (3103ft.), at the mouth of the Val diRezzo. 
We now enter the defile of Serra di Morignone, about 1M. in length, which 
separates the Val Tellina from the 'Paese Freddo\ or 'cold region', of 
Bormio. We cross the Adda for the last time by the Ponte del Diavolo. 
The road enters the green Valle di Sotto, passes the hamlets of Morignone 
and <S'. Antonio, and at Ceppina reaches the level, green valley of Bormio, 
enclosed by lofty mountains, the lower slopes of which are clothed with 
pines, and the upper in part with snow. The road traverses the valley, 
crosses at (2 M.) S. Lucia the muddy Frodolfo, just above its confluence 
with the Adda, and in 20 min. more reaches — 

41 M. Bormio, Ger. Worms (4020 ft.; "Posta or Leon d'Oro; 'Alb. della 
Torre), an antiquated little Italian town, with numerous dilapidated 

OSTENO. 23. Route. 1 55 

towers, picturesquely situated at the entrance to the Val Furva. — The 
diligence goes on hence, ascending in windings, to (2 M.) the — 

'New Baths of Bormio or Bagni Nuovi (4380 ft.), a handsome building 
on a terrace commanding a fine survey of the valley of Bormio and the 
surrounding mountains (Engl, church service in summer) The Bagni 
Vecchi, or old Baths of Bormio, are a little higher up (4750 ft.), perched 
on the rocks below the road ; a picturesque footpath, shorter than the 
road, ascends to them in '/i h»- Both baths are much frequented in July 
and August, and are closed in the middle of October (E. , L. , & A. 3'/2-4, D. 4 f r.). 
The springs, containing salt and sulphur (92-100° Fahr.), rise in the Dolo- 
mite cliffs near the old baths, whence the water is conducted to the new 
baths in pipes. They are mentioned by Pliny as known to the Romans. 
The old baths hewn in the rock are interesting. — From Bormio over 
the Stelvio to Meran or Innsbruck, see Baedeker's Eastern Alpi. 

23. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano 
to Luino on the Lago Maggiore. 

42 M. Steam Tkamway from Menaggio to Porlezza, 8 M., in 1 hr. (fares 
2fr. 65, 1 fr. 45 c). Steamboat from Porlezza to Lugano, 11 M., in 1 hr., and 
thence to Ponte Tresa, 15M., in IV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 70 c). Steam 
Tramway from Ponte Tresa to Luino, 8 M., in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 45 c). 
Through-tickets 9 fr.80, 5 fr. 60 c. ; return, Sunday, and circular tickets at a 
reduced rate (to be had on board any of the steamers). — Swiss custom- 
house examination on board the steamers in the Lake of Lugano, Italian cus- 
tom-house at Porlezza or Ponte Tresa (usually also on board the steamers). 

Menaggio, see p. 151. The railway-station is at the S. end of 
the village; the ticket-office is in the Hotel Menaggio. The train 
waits for the steamer when the latter is late. The line at first as- 
cends rapidly (5 : 100) to the hills above the lake, then turns sharp- 
ly, and runs towards the N. Fine -view to the right of the central 
part of the Lake of Como, with Bellagio in the middle. Farther on 
the line describes a wide bend, affording a view (right) of the Val 
Sanagra, with Loveno and the Villa Vigoni in the foreground 
(p. 152). We then thread a tunnel 110 yds. long. At (3M.) Orandola 
(1260 ft.) we reach the highest point of the line, 610 ft. above the 
Lake of Como, whence the train descends rapidly (4 : 100), via, Bene- 
Qrona, Piano (on the small Lago del Piano), 8. Pietro, and Tavordo. 
It next crosses the Cuccione and Beggo, and reaches — 

8M. Porlezza (Alb. del Lago), on the N. arm of the Lake of Lu- 
gano, with the Italian custom-house for travellers in the other direc- 
tion. The railway-station is close to the steamboat-pier. 

The *Lake of Lugano (900 ft.) , called by the Italians Lago 
Ceresio after its doubtful Latin name, is scarcely inferior in beauty 
to its more celebrated neighbours Como and Maggiore, though its 
scenery is of a somewhat severer cast. The steamer (poor restau- 
rant) proceeds towards Osteno, sometimes calling at Cima, at the 
foot of the steep hills on the N. bank. 

Osteno ( Hotel du Bateau ; Rist. della Orotta), on the S. bank 
of the lake , is frequently visited from Lugano on account of its 
remarkable grotto, the Orrido di Osteno (return-fare 2 fr. 35 c. ; 
ticket for the grotto, obtained on board the steamer, 75 c.). 

156 Route 23. LANZO. From Menaggio 

The "Grotto of Osteno (locally called the Pescara, 'fishermen's gorge') 
is 7 min. from the landing-place. We pass through the village; outside 
the gate we descend to the right before the stone-bridge, and cross the 
brook. The mouth of the gorge, in which there are two small water- 
falls, is near a projecting rock. Visitors embark in a small boat and enter 
the grotto, the bottom of which is occupied by the brook. The narrow 
ravine through which we thread our way is curiously hollowed out by the 
water. Far above, the roof is formed by overhanging bushes, between which 
glimpses of blue sky are obtained. The gorge is terminated by a waterfall. 
— The Tufa Qrotloes of Rescia may also be visited if time permit (1 hr. 
there and back) before the steamer returns from Porlezza. Boat (with 
two rowers, 2 fr. each) round the promontory to the E. of Osteno in '/j hr. 
to the hamlet of Rescia; thence by a narrow path to the grottoes in 5 min. 
(torches >/z fr.). The dome-shaped grottoes, encrusted with calcareous 
sinter and stalactites, are connected by a low passage (caution necessary). 
From the second is seen a pretty waterfall in a gorge. In the vicinity are 
tufa-quarries, containing interesting fossils. 

A road leads from Osteno to the S.W. to (6 M.) Lanzo d'Intelvi 
(3115 ft.; Caffe Centrale, moderate, dej. 2 fr.). H/4 M. above it is 
the "Hdt. Belvedere (pens. 8-10 fr.), a pleasant spot for some stay (English 
Church Service in summer), with a fine view of the Lake of Lugano and 
the Alps with Mte. Rosa. (Those whose destination is the Hotel Belvedere 
take the footpath to the right, about 3 /4 M. before reaching Lanzo, which 
soon joins the road ascending to the hotel.] A road also leads to Lanzo from 
(8 M.) Maroggia (p. 12), and another from Argegno on the Lake of Como 
(12 M. ; see p. 149). Near Lanzo (20 min.) are the baths of Paraviso. 
Bridle-path to Mte. Generoso (p. 12), 5>/2 hrs. 

The steamer now steers obliquely across the lake, leaving to the 
right Cresogno and Loggio on the N. bank, to S. Mamette (Stella 
d! Italia), beautifully situated at the mouth of the picturesque 
Val Soldo, with Castello high above it (p. 11). 

The finest part of the lake lies between S. Mamette and Lugano. 
Beyond Oria, with the Villa Bianci, the station for Albogasio, we 
enter Switzerland. Bellarma, to the right, is the first village on Swiss 
soil ; the slopes of Mte. Caprino (p. 10), to theS., are also in Switzer- 
land. The steamer touches at Gandria [Pension; p. 10), at the foot 
of Mte. Bre (p. 10), with its gardens borne by lofty arcades and its 
vine-terraces, and then turns into the pretty bay of Lugano, leav- 
ing Castagnola (p. 10) to the right. The Mte. S. Salvatore rises 
conspicuously on the S. side of the bay. 

Lugano (three piers), see p. 7. The station of the St. Gott- 
hard Railway lies high above the town, 1 M. from the lake (cable- 

As we leave Lugano we enjoy a fine retrospect of the town, with 
Mte. Bre (p. 10) to the N. The steamer rounds the promontory of 
S. Martino, the spur of Monte S. Salvatore, on the right; to the 
left rises Monte Caprino (p. 10). On some trips the steamer calls 
at Campione, an Italian enclave in Swiss territory. To the left rise 
the steep flanks of Mte. Generoso (p. 12). The arch of the viaduct 
(p. 12) through which the boat now passes, with lowered funnel, 
frames a picturesque glimpse of scenery. The vessel touches at 
Melide on the W. and sometimes at Bissone on the E. bank. 

At this point a fine view is obtained of the arms of the lake 
opening to the S.E. and the S.W., with Mte. S. Giorgio (3590 ft.) 

to Luino. PONTE TRESA. 23. Route. 157 

rising between them. The steamer enters the S.W. arm (on the E. 
qank, the hamlet of Brusin-Arsizio) and stops at Morcote (Hdt.-Pens. 
Baggi-Kaufmann, pens. 5 fr.), a small town with arcaded houses, 
picturesquely situated on the vine-clad slopes of Monte Arbostora 
(2710 ft.) and commanded by a church and a ruined castle. 

The vessel now crosses the lake to Porto Ceresio , the port of 
Varese (railway, see p. 159), situated on Italian soil in a bay of the 
S. bank. Farther on, the lake bends to the N. On the W. (Italian) 
bank lies Brusin-Piano , which is not called at by the express- 
steamers. Opposite is Figino , to the N.E. of which Mte. S. Sal- 
vatore again comes into sight. Turning to the left, the vessel now 
steers through the Stretto di Lavena, a narrow channel leading into 
the westernmost bay of the lake , which is almost completely en- 
closed by mountains , with the village of Lavena on the left, and 
the sheer Monte Caslano (1730 ft.) on the right. At the W. end 
of the bay is — 

Fonte Tresa, consisting of two villages, the larger of which is 
Swiss and the smaller Italian, divided by the river Tresa which 
issues from the lake here. The railway-station and steamboat- 
quay are on the Italian side. Italian custom-house examination. 

The Road fkom Lugano to Ponte Tbesa (6 M.). which may be re- 
commended to pedestrians, ascends to the Restaurant du Jardin in Sorengo 
(see p. 9), descends past the small Lake of Muzzano, and traverses the 
broad valley of the Agno. Crossing this stream, which flows into the W. 
arm of the Like of Lugano, we reach the small town of Agno, beyond 
which the road crosses the Magliato and passes the church of Magliasina. 
Finally we pass through the Swiss part of Ponte Treia, cross the bridge 
to the left, and reach the railway-station. 

The Steam Team-way from Ponte Tresa to Luino , at first 
ascending a little, follows the fertile green valley of the rapid and 
clear Tresa, which here forms the boundary between Italy and 
Switzerland. Several torrents are crossed, and numerous villages 
and churches are seen perched among the rocks. Beyond the station 
of (3'/2 M.) Cremenaga (833 ft.), the train passes through two tun- 
nels and crosses the river, the right bank of which is now also 
Italian. The valley contracts, and the banks become steeper. 6>1. 
Creva (745 ft.), with important manufactories. Crossing finally the 
Bellinzona - Novara line (p. 58; station to the left), we arrive at 
(8 M.) Luino, where the station adjoins the Lago Maggiore steam- 
boat-quay (see p. 163). 

24. From Milan to Laveno and Arona. 

1. From Milan to Lavbno. 

a. Via. Saronno and Varese. — 451/2 M. Railway in 2'/4-3 hrs. 
(fares 7 fr., 4 fr. 70, 2 fr. 80 c). The trains start from the Stazione Fcr- 
rovie Nord (p. 115). 

From Milan to (13'/2 M.) Saronno, see p. 140. — The line fol- 
lows thence the Milan and Laveno road, passing(16M.) Oerenzano, 
(17i/ 2 M.) Cislago, (19y 2 M.) Mozzate, (20i/ 2 M.) Locate, (22 M.) 

158 Route 24. VARESE. 

From Milan 

Abbiate Guazzone, and (22'/2 M.) Tradate. Then follow: 24</ 2 M. 
Venegono Inferiors; 26 M. Venegono Superiore; 27i/ 2 M. Vedano. 

About IV2 M. to the W. of Venegono Superiore, and s/ 4 M. to the 
S.W. of Vedano, is Castiglione Olona (Albergo S. Antonio), with 600 in- 
hab. and some interesting works of art. The choir of the high-lying Col- 
legiate Chdkch contains 'Frescoes painted about 1428 for Cardinal Branda 
Castiglione by Masolino of Florence, master of Masaccio (p. 458) : at the 
sides of the windows scenes from the life of St. Stephen; on the vaulting, 
Birth of Christ, Annunciation, Assumption of the Virgin, Marriage of 
the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, and Angels playing musical instruments ; 
on the left is the monument of Card. Branda Castiglione by Leonardos 
Qriffus (1443). The sacristy contains some valuable church-furniture and 
an Annunciation on panel ascribed to Masolino. — The sacristan (1 fr.) con- 
ducts visitors across the court to the Baptistery, in which there are well- 
preserved frescoes by Masolino (about 1435). Outside, the Annunciation; 
within, on the right, the daughter of Herodias begging the head of John 
the Baptist and bearing it to her mother. The rocky cave in the back- 
ground is the saint's tomb ; on the vaulting, early fathers ; farther to the 
right, John the Baptist in prison, and preaching before Herod. On the 
rear wall is a "Baptism of Christ (the three figures undressing themselves 
to the right are interesting indications of the awakening study of the hu- 
man form); below, on the left, John preaching Christ as the Messiah ; 
above, God the Father between angels. — In front of the Chiesa di S. Se- 
polcro, in the lower part of the town, stand two gigantic figures of saints. 

29 M. Malnate (p. 159). 

32 M. Varese. — Hotels. 4 Grand Hotel Varese (Excelsiob), a 
large establishment, in an open situation 1 M. from the town, near the 
station of Casbeno (p. 159) , with a splendid view of the whole chain of 
the W. Alps, R., L., & A. 5'/ 2 , B. 1'/=, d<*j. 3>/z, D. 5, pens. 9-11, omn. 1 fr. — 
In the town : Italia; Eoropa ; Leon d'Oro, Gambero, both unpretending; 
etc. — Cafes under the arcades in the main street. — Station on the rail- 
way from Varese to Gallarate (p. 160). 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Varese. 

Varese (1250 ft.) is a thriving place with 5800 inhab. and 
silk, paper, furniture, and other manufactories. In summer the 
pleasant environs attract a number of wealthy Milanese families, 
who possess villas here and in the neighbourhood. The church of 5. 
Vittore, rebuilt about 1600, with a tower 246 ft. in height, contains 
a St. George by Crespi, and a Magdalen by Morazzone. In the 
Municipio is a collection of prehistoric and other antiquities. The 
Oiardino Pubblico, finely laid out in the old Italian style, commands 
fine views. Among the villas may be mentioned : Villa Litta, on 
the road to Biume Superiore; Villa Ponti, to the N.E., on the 
road to Biume Inferiore ; then, near the latter village, Villa Litta 
Modignani, which still bears traces of a skirmish fought here on 
26th May, 1859. 

Walks. To the Colle Campiglio, l'/j M. to the W., on the road to 
Masnago and Laveno, commanding a fine view ; thence via, Masnago and 
Casciago (where the Villa Castelharco affords a fine "View of the five 
lakes and the chain of Mte. Rosa) to Luinate, whence a beautiful view 
to the S.W. is obtained of the Lake of Varese and the small adjacent 
Lake of Biandrvne , and also of the farther distant lakes of Monate and 
Comabbio. To <S. Albino, l 3 /t M. to the S. of Varese, with a view of the 
lake ; to the Lago di Varese (Osteria della Schiranna), 2'/2 M. ; then, skirting 
the lake, to Groppello, Oltrona, Voltorre (where there is an old monastery 
of the Canonici Lateranensi with interesting Romanesque cloisters), and 
Gavirale, 7>/ 2 M. (see p. 159). 

to Arona. LAVENO. 24. Route. 159 

The most interesting excursion, however, is by S. Ambrogio and Fo- 
gliaro to the -Madonna del Monte (2885 ft.), a resort of pilgrims, V/iM. to 
theN.E. (carriage-road to the first chapel, where there is a clean inn; carr. 
there and back 8-10 fr. ; then a bridle-path in 1 hr.). Fourteen chapels or 
stations of various forms, adorned with 17th cent, frescoes and groups in 
stucco, have been erected along the broad path by which the monastery 
and church on the mountain are attained. Several taverns adjoin the 
monastery. The view hence is not less celebrated than the peculiar 
sanctity of the spot. The small lakes of Comabbio, Biandrone, and 
Monate, that of Varese, two arms of the Lago Maggiore, part of the Lake 
of Como, and the expansive and fruitful plain as far as Milan are visible. 
— A far more comprehensive view, including the glacier-world also, is 
obtained (best by morning-li^ht) from the Tre Grooi (3965 ft.), 1 hr. to the 
N.W. of the Madonna. 

From Varese to Como, 18'/2 M., railway in l'/4 hr. — The line crosses 
the Olona. At (3 M.) Main ale the line to Milan (p. 158) branches off to 
the right. — 6'/2 M. Solbiale. — 10 M. Olgiatt is the highest point on the 
line (about 790 ft. above the Lake of Como), in a fertile region with 
numerous villas. — HV2 M. Lurate-Caccivio; l2>/2 M. Civello; I31/2 M. Gran- 
date; 15 M. Camerlata. Finally (17'/2 M.) Como Borghi (Porta del Torre) and 
(I8V2 M.) Como Lago (Stazione Ferrovie Nord, on the lake ; comp. p. 142). 

From Varese to Gallarate (Milan), see p. 160. 

Feom Varese to Porto Ceresio, 9'A 31., railway in 30-40 minutes. This 
interesting line is the continuation of that from Galarate to Varese (p. 160). 
The train crosses the Olona by a lofty viaduct, and passes the entrance of 
the picturesque Val Ganna , through which a beautiful road leads past the 
Lago di Ganna and Lago di Ghirla to Ponte Tresa (p. 157). 2'/2 M. Induno- 
Olona, with the Villa Medici. Turning to the E., the line skirts the S. 
foot of Mte. Monarco (2S15 ft.) and passes through a tunnel just before 
(4V2 31.) Arcisate-Brenno. It then describes a wide curve and again turns 
to the N. 6'A M. Bisuschio- Viggiii, the next station, lies at the foot of 
Mte. Userio (1810ft), halfway between these villages. At Bisuschio, 1 31. 
to the W., is the Villa Cicogna, with a large park in the Italian style 
and a splendid view of the Lake of Lugano. The train next passes Besano 
and reaches (9 1 /! M ) Porto Ceresio on the Lake of Lugano (p. 157). 

The next railway-stations beyond Varese are (34 M.) Casbeno 
and (3772 M.) Barasso , with numerous villas. The train then 
passes near the N.W. extremity of the Lago di Varese and reaches 
(3872 M.) Oavirate , near which are quarries of 'marmo majo- 
lica', a kind of marble used for decorative purposes. View of Monte 
Rosa. 4O1/2 M. Cocquio; 42 M. Gemonio. Farther on , the Boesio 
is crossed, and, beyond (43 M.) Cittiglio , its right bank skirted. 
The line then leads past the S. base of the Sasso del Ferro to — 

4572 laveno (p. 164), on the E. bank of the Lago Maggiore, a 
station on the Bellinzona and Genoa line (p. 58) and also a steam- 
boat-station. Boat to the Borromean Islands, see pp. 160, 165-168. 

b. Via Gallarate. — 45>/2 M. Railway in 2-2 3 / 4 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 50, 
5fr., 2 fr. 95 c). — Steam Tram wat to Gallarate (passing many of the 
railway-stations) in 2 3 A hrs. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c); to Saronno and 
Tradate in 21/2 hrs. 

Milan, see p. 115. — 4 M. Musocco ; 9 M. Rho (p. 62), with 
the church of the Madonna dei Miracoli by Pellegrino Tibaldi ; 
1172 M. Vanzago; 15 M. Parabiago. — 177 2 M. Legnano (5400 
iiihab.), where Frederick Barbarossa was defeated by the Milanese 
in 1176; the principal church of S. Magno, ascribed to Bramante, 
contains a large *Altar-piece, one of the best works of Luini. — 21M. 

160 Route 24. ARONA. 

Busto Arsizio (Alb. del Vapore, clean), a town with 9300 inhab., the 
church of which, designed by Bramante, contains frescoes by Gaud. 
Ferrari. Branch -line to Novara and Seregno (p. 61). — 25y 2 M. 
Gallarate (Alb. Leon d'Oro), a town with 4400 inhab., at the S.E. 
base of a range of hills which form the limit of the vast and fruitful 
Lombard plain, contains a technical school and carries on large 
manufactures of textile fabrics. The line to Arona (see below) 
diverges here. 

From Gallarate to Vakese, 12 M., railway in l /z hr. (fares 1 fr. 70, 
1 fr. 5, 50 c). The train passes through a mountainous region. — 6 M. 
Albizzate; 9V'i M. Oazzada. — 12 M. Varese, see p. 158. 

291/2 M. Besnate ; 31 V2 M. Crugnola-Cimbro ; 35 M. Temate- 
Varano, on the little lake of Comabbio ; 381/2 M. Pregano-Trave- 
dona , the latter being on the E. bank of the little lake of Monate , 
40y 2 M. Besozzo; 43i/ 2 M. -Son Qiano. 

45 1 /2 M. Laveno, see p. 164. 

2. Fbom Milan to Arona. 

42 M. Railway in 2-2'/ 2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 80. 4 fr. 55, 2 fr. 65 c.}. 

From Milan to (25'/ 2 M.) Qallarate, see above. — 28 M. Case- 
rate. 301/2 M. Somma Lombardo, where Hannibal overthrew P. 
Cornelius Scipio in B.C. 218. — 33 M. Vergiate. Tunnel. — 36M. 
Sesto Calende , junction of the line from Bellinzona to Genoa 
(p. 58). The train now crosses the Ticino, which issues here from 
Logo Maggiore, and then skirts the S. bank of the lake. 

42 M. Arona. — "Albergo Reale d'Italia & Posta, r., l., & 
A. 3-4, B. l>/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; "Alb. San Gottardo, 
R., L., & A. 2-2>/ 2 , B. l*/«i d <y- 2 'A, D - 4 > P ens - 7fr -> tooth on the quay; 
Ancora, behind the S. Gottardo. — Cafi adjoining the Albergo Eeale; 
Cafi du Lac, near the quay ; Caffe delta Stazione. — Munich beer opposite 
the station. 

Arona (740 ft.), an ancient town with 3300 inhab., lies on the 
"W. bank of the Lago Maggiore, about 3 M. from its S. extremity. 
In the principal church of S. Maria, the chapel of the Borromean 
family, to the right of the high-altar, contains the *Holy Family 
as an altar-piece, by Gaudenzio Ferrari (1511) ; it is surrounded by 
five smaller pictures, the upper representing God the Father, at 
the sides eight saints and the donatrix. The adjacent Gothic church 
of SS. Martiri contains a high-altar-piece by Ambr. Borgognone. 

On a height overlooking the entire district , 1/2 hr. to the N. of 
the station and pier, is a colossal Statue ofS. Carlo, 70 ft. in height, 
resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour of the 
celebrated Cardinal, Count Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan 
(born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). The head, hands, 
and feet of the statue are of bronze, the robe of wrought copper. 
The enterprising visitor may enter the interior (50 c.) and climb 
to the head of the statue, but the ascent is far from pleasant. The 
adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The extensive 
building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

From Arona to Oleaaic <Y::vara ■>, jifj^n Ra 


25. Lago Maggiore. 

Plan for a circular tour round the three lakes, see p. 147. The finest 
part of the Lago Maggiore is the W. bay, with the Borromean Islands, 
which are best visited from Pallanza, Stresa, or Baveno by small boat. 

Railways. — Fkom Bellinzona to Locarno, 14 M., in '/i hr. (fares 
2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 15 c). Through-tickets including the steamboat on 
Lago Maggiore are issued for Pallanza (5 fr. 90, 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 15 c), etc. 
(comp. p. 165). 

From Bellinzona to-Sesto-Calende via Luino, 47>/2 M., in 13/ 4 -2 3 /4 hrs. 
(fares 8 fr. 45, 5 fr. 95, 3 fr. 90 c); to Luino in 1-1 Vs hr. (fares 4 fr. 
50, 3fr. 20, 2fr. 10 c). — Intermediate stations: 2>/2 M. Giubiasco; 5>/2 M. 
Cadenazzo; 10'/2 M. Magadino; 12>/2 M. <!?. Nazzaro; 14'/2 M. Ranzo-Oera; 
17 M. Pino, the first Italian station; 21 M. Maccagno; 25 M. Luino, with 
both the Italian and the Swiss custom-houses; 29 M. Porto Valtravaglia ; 
34 M. Laveno; 36'/2 M. Leggiuno-Monvalle; 40'/2 M. Ispra; 43'/2 M. Taino- 
Angera; 47 M. Sesto Calende. Stations on this line are denoted by a 
capital E. in the following description. 

From Luino to Lugano, see pp. 157, 156; from Laveno to Varese, see 
pp. 159, 158. 

Steamboat twice daily in summer from Locarno to Laveno, and seven 
or eight times daily from Laveno to Intra, Pallanza, the Borromean Is- 
lands, Stresa, and Arona. From Locarno to Arona 5'/2 hrs.; from Luino to 
Isola Bella 2'/4 (from Laveno l>/0 hrs. ; from Isola Bella to Arona iy t hr. 
(fare from Locarno to Arona 5 fr. 85 or 3 fr. 20 c, from Luino to Isola Bella 
2 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 30 c, from Isola Bella to Arona 1 fr. 70 c. or 1 fr., landing 
and embarking at small-boat stations included; comp. p. 147). The steam- 
boat is the best and cheapest conveyance to Isola Bella. Strict punctual- 
ity is not always observed. Some of the boats are saloon-steamers, with 
restaurants on board (dej. 3, D. 4>/2 fr.). — Stations are indicated in 
the following description by heavier type. The only stations always 
touched at are: Locarno, Brissago, Cannobbio, Luino, Intra, Laveno, Pal- 
lanza, Baveno, Isola Bella, Stresa, Belgirate, Lesa, Meina, and Arona. 

Boat (barca). For 2 hrs., 2'/2 fr. for each rower; for 1-3 pers. 2 rowers 
are required; 4-6 pers. 3, more than 6 pers. 4 rowers. More favourable 
terms may sometimes be obtained, and in every case a bargain should be 
struck before the boat is entered. A small fee is usually expected in ad- 
dition to the stipulated fare (comp. p. 147). 

From Bellinzona to (fares , see above). The train 
follows the Lugano line (p. 7) as far as (2'/2 M.) Qiubiasco , then 
diverges to the right and traverses the broad lower valley of the 
Tieino. — 5y 2 M. Cadenazzo, the junction of the line skirting the 
E. bank of the lake to Luino, Novara, and Genoa (R. 12); change 
carriages for Locarno. — The Locarno branch crosses the Tieino 
below Cugnasco, and the Verzasca, which dashes forth from a gorge 
on the right, beyond (10 M.) Gordola. It then skirts the Lago Mag- 
giore to (14 M.) Locarno. 

Locarno. — *Grand Hotel Locakno, with English Chapel, B., L., 
& A. 5-6, B. l'/z, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-12i/z fr.; "Hotel-PENsioN du Parc, 
B. 2-5, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6-10 fr. Both these have views and fine 
gardens. — -Hot.-Pens. Reber, with garden on the lake, moderate, pens. 
6-7 fr. ; 'Corona, near the lake, R., L., & A. 2-3>/2, B. i'/ 4 , d(5j. 2V2, D. 
3i/ 2 -4y„ pens. 6-7 fr., in the Italian style. — Hot. Suisse, in the chief piazza, 
R. l'/2-2, L. & A. 1, B. 1-174, D. 3, pens. 6-7, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Hotel Belvedere, 
well spoken of; Pension Villa Rhigetti, on the way to the Madonna del 
Sasso ; Pens. Villa Mdralto, 5 fr.; Albergo S. Gottardo, near the station, 
R., L., & A. from I1/2, B. 1, dej. incl. wine 2'/2, D. incl. wine 3, board 4 fr. — 
Furnished rooms at Oiul. BorghetWs. — Restaurants : Ca/4- Restaurant Lo- 
carno, beside the Hot. Corona; Rail. Restaurant. — Baths on the lake. 

Baedekei 11 

162 Route 25. LOCARNO. Lago Maggiore. 

Locarno (680 ft. ; pop. 3400, Rom. Cath.) , suitable for a pro- 
longed stay, is situated at the mouth of the Maggia, the deposits 
of which have formed a considerable delta. Politically Locarno has 
been Swiss (Canton Ticino) since 1513, but the character of the 
architecture, scenery, and population is thoroughly Italian. The ex- 
pulsion of the Protestants in 1553 arrested the development of the 
town, which was of considerable importance in the middle ages. 
From the pier we proceed to the "W. to the market-place, in which 
are the Government Buildings and the Post Office ; the houses have 
arcades on the groundfloor. A fountain in* front of the church of 
/S. Antonio commemorates the Marchese Marcacci (d. 1854), a bene- 
factor of the town ; and another monument has been erected to the 
deputy Mordasini (d. 1888). Great national festival on 8th Sept., 
the Nativity of the Virgin. 

The pilgrimage-church of *Madonna del Sasso (1170 ft.), on a 
wooded eminence above the town (Y2 hr. ; steep paved path passing 
to the left of the 'ScuolaNormaleFemminile'), contains an Entomb- 
ment, by Ciseri (to the left), and a Flight into Egypt, by Braman- 
tino (to the right). Ascending beyond the church to the left , and 
turning to the left again, we reach (10 min.) a Chapel, commanding 
a charmingly picturesque retrospect of the Madonna del Sasso. The 
chapel contains a painted terracotta group of the Resurrection by 
Rossi (1887). Still higher up is the chapel of Trinita del Monte, 
whence we have a view of the upper part of the Lago Maggiore. The 
whole walk (best towards evening) may be easily made in 1 '/^ hr. 

The *Iago Maggiore (645 ft.; greatest depth 2800 ft.), the Lacus 
Verbanus of the Romans , is about 37 M. long and averages 2-3 M. 
in width (area 81 sq. M.). The N. portion of the lake belongs to 
Switzerland; the W. bank beyond the brook Valmara, and the E. 
bank from Dirinella belong to Italy. Its principal tributaries are on 
the N. the Ticino (Tessin) and the Maggia, and on the "W. the Tosa. 
The river issuing from the S. end of the lake retains the name of 
Ticino. The banks of the N. arm are bounded by lofty mountains, 
for the most part wooded, whilst the E. shore towards the lqwer 
end slopes gradually away to the level of the plains of Lombardy. 
The W. bank affords a succession of charming landscapes. The water 
is of a green colour in its N. arm, and deep blue towards the S. 

Opposite Locarno , at the mouth of the Ticino, lies Magadino 
(R. ; Hotel Bellevue, Pens. Viviani , pens. incl. wine 5 fr., well 
spoken of, both on the lake), comprising two villages, Magadino 
Inferiore and Superiore, at the foot of the Monte Tamaro (6443 ft.). 

To the S. of Locarno we have a view into the valley of the Maggia, 
which has formed a large delta at its entrance into the lake. Farther 
on, the W. bank of the lake is studded with country-houses, villages, 
and campanili. On the bank of the lake runs the road from Lo- 
carno to Pallanza. In an angle lies Ascona (small-boat station), 
with a ruined castle and several villas ; higher up, on the slope, 

Lago Maggiore. LUINO. 25. Bowie. 163 

Eonco. Passing the two small IsolediBrissago, the steamer reaches 
Gera (R.) on the E. bank , and then , on the W. bank , Brissago 
(Hotel Suisse), a delightful spot, with picturesque white houses and 
villas in luxuriant gardens, and a fine group of old cypresses near 
the church. The slopes above are covered with fig-trees, olives, 
and pomegranates, and even the myrtle flourishes in the open air. 
Brissago is the last Swiss station. The Italian custom-house examina- 
tion is made on board the steamer. To the S. of Brissago is a large 
'international' tobacco factory. 

Opposite Brissago , on the E. bank , lies the Italian village of 
Pino (R.). 

S. Agata and Cannobbio (*H6tel Cannobbio, R. 2 l /2-3, pens. 
Gfr. ; Albergo delle Alpi, moderate ; * Villa Badia, IY2M. to the S., 
260 ft. above the lake, pleasant and quiet, pens. 6-7 fr.) are also 
on Italian territory. Cannobbio (1800 inhab.) is one of the oldest 
and most prosperous villages on the lake, situated on a plateau at 
the entrance of the Val Cannobbina, and overshadowed by richly- 
wooded mountains. In the church della Pieth, the dome of which 
is in the style of Bramante, is a*Bearing of the Cross, with a pre- 
della representing worshipping angels, by Gaud. Ferrari (about 1 525). 

Pleasant walk of >/2 hr. (also omn.) up the beautiful Val Cannobbina 
to the hydropathic of La Salute (open from June to Oct.), and thence to 
the (20 min.) Orrido, a rocky chasm with a waterfall to which boats can 
ascend (boatman to he brought from Traffiume, Va-l fr.). 

The steamer now steers to the E. bank (to the "W. the Castelli 
di Cannero appear in the lake; p. 164), and stops at Maccagno 
(R. ; Alb. della Torre'), with a picturesque church and an ancient 
tower, whence we may visit the (2 hrs.) loftily situated Lago d'Eglio 
(2950 ft.; *Hotel; fine view). Farther on, the viaducts and tunnels 
of the St. Gotthard Railway are seen skirting the lake. Passing 
Casneda, in a wooded ravine, we next reach — 

Luino (R.). — The Steamboat Piee adjoins the waiting-room (dej. 
incl. wine 2^2, D. incl. wine 4>/2 fr.) of the Steam Tramway to Ponte Tresa 
(Lugano; see p. 7). By passing to the left of this station and the statue 
of Garibaldi and following the wide 'Via Principe di Napoli' we reach 
(10 min. ; omnibus 40, trunk 50, smaller package 25 c.) the Stazione Inter- 
nazionale, the station of the Bellinzona and Genoa line, where the Italian 
and Swiss custom-house examinations take place ("Restaurant, dej. 3 fr.). 

Hotels. "Gkand Hotel (Simplon & Teeminos), on the lake, to the S. of the 
town, with a garden, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5. pens. 10, 
omn. 3/4 fr.; Hotel Poste & Suisse, R., L., & A. 21/2-3V2, B. l'l/i, dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 8, omn. 3/ 4 fr. ; Vittoeia, R., L., & A. 4, B. iy 4 , dej. 2 ] /2, D. 4, 
pens. 8, omn. 3 /< fr. ; these two near the steamboat-pier. — Near the 
Stazione Internazionale : Milano, R. I1/4, L. & A. 1 fr., B. 80 c, dej. incl. 
wine 2, D. incl. wine 3, pens. 7 fr. ; Ancoea. — Cafe" Clerici, next the 
Hotel Poste. 

Luino or Luvino, a busy little town with 1800 inhab., is situat- 
ed at the base and on the slopes of the mountain, a little to the N. 
of the mouth of the Tresa. It affords good headquarters for a pro- 
longed stay on account of its ample railway and steamer facilities. 
The Statue of Garibaldi, near the pier, commemorates his brave but 


164 Route 25. LAVENO. Lago Maggiore. 

futile attempt to continue the contest here with his devoted guerilla 
band after the conclusion of the armistice between Piedmont and 
Austria on Aug. 15th, 1848. The principal Church is adorned with 
frescoes by Bernardino Luini, a native of the place (c. 1470-1530). 
Among the numerous tasteful villas in the vicinity is the Palazzo 
CriveUi, to the N. , surrounded by pines. Pleasant walk to Maccagno 
(p. 163). — At the mouth of the Margorabbia , !/ 2 M. to the S., 
lies Oermignaga, with the large silk-spinning (filanda) and winding 
(filatoja) factories of E. Stehli-Hirt of Zurich. 

On the W. bank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Castelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borrorueo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the five brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. — Cannero (Alb. Nizza; Alb. 
Cannero) is beautifully situated in the midst of vineyards and 
orchards. Beyond it is the little village of Barbe, with its slender 
campanile. The next stations are Oggebbio, built in terraces on 
the mountain-slopes, and Ghiffa (small-boat station ; Hotel Ghiffa), 
on the W. bank , and Porto Valtravaglia (R. ; Osteria Antica) on 
the E. In a wooded bay beyond the last lies Calde, with the an- 
cient tower of the Castello di Calde on an eminence. To the S. 
appears the green Sasso del Ferro (see below), and to the W. the 
Monte Rosa and Simplon groups. Then, to the E., — 

Laveno (R. ; *Posta, R. 2, A. 1/2, B. 1%, D. 3'/ 2 fr., Italian), 
beautifully situated on the slopes of the two-peaked Monte Boscero, 
on a bay at the mouth of the Boesio, formerly a fortified harbour 
for the Austrian gunboats. The steamboat quay is close beside the 
Varese-Milan Station (p. 159), while the St. Gotthard Station (Bel- 
linzona-Genoa line, R. 12) lies i/ 2 M. farther on in the same direc- 
tion (omnibus). A monument near the quay commemorates the 
Garibaldians who fell in 1859. The site of Fort S. Michele (to the 
left as the steamer approaches) is now occupied by a considerable 
pottery belonging to the Societa Ccramica Italiana. The Villa Pull'e, 
above it, with a belvedere, contains a few relics of 1859. 

Behind Laveno rises tlie green Sasso del Ferro (3485 ft.) , the most 
beautiful mountain on the lake, easily ascended in 2>/2-3 hrs., and com- 
manding a magnificent view of the lake, the plain as far as Milan, and 
the Monte Rosa chain. — About 7 M. to the N.E. of Laveno, behind the 
Sasso del Ferro, lies the hamlet of Vararo (2625 ft.), whence we may 
ascend the "Monte Nudo (4052 ft.; l'/2 hr.), perhaps the finest view-point 
in the district, commanding an imposing survey of the Lago Maggiore, 
the Lago di Lugano, the Lago di Varese, and the Valaisian Alps. — In- 
teresting excursion to the convent of S. Caterina del Sasso, l l /^ hr. from 
Laveno , high above the lake. We may go either via Cerro , to which a 
road diverges to the right beyond the bridge over the Boesio and a little 
short of the St. Gotthard station (see above), and thence by a picturesque 
footpath; or direct by boat from Laveno. Imbedded in the vaulted roof 
of the church is a rock, which fell upon it in the 17th century and has 
remained there ever since. View of the Borromean Islands and the snow- 
mountains to the W. 

From Laveno to the Borromean Islands and Pallanza (pp. 107, 168), boat 
with three rowers, 10-12 fr. ; to Isola Bella iy« hr. ; thence to Isola 51a Ire, 
20 min., to Pallanza 20 min. more. 

Lago Maggiore. INTRA. 25. Route. 165 

From Laveno via Oallarate to Milan, and via Varese to Milan or Como, 
see R. 24. 

The steamboat now approaches the W. bank again, at first dis- 
closing a view of the N. neighbours of Monte Rosa : first the Strahl- 
horn, then the Mischabel and Simplon. 

Intra (*H6tel Vitello (TOro, Leone d'Oro, and de la Ville, now 
united, R. & A. 2y 2 -3y 2 , B. iy 4 fr.; Hotel Intra ; Agnello ; Cafe 
Monti; Omnibus to Pallanza-Gravellona, see p. 166), a flourish- 
ing town (5700 inhab.) with manufactories chiefly belonging 
to Swiss proprietors, is situated on alluvial soil, between two 
mountain-streams, the S. Oiovanni and 8. Bernardino. Near the 
quay is a marble statue of Garibaldi; and close by is a war-mon- 
ument for 1859. In the square in front of the theatre is a bronze 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., by Barsaglia. Intra contains both a 
large Roman Catholic church and a Swiss Protestant church. In the 
vicinity are several fine villas with beautiful gardens. The Villa of 
Count Barbb, i/ 2 M. to theN., and the Villa Ada ofM. Ceriani, 3 / 4 M. 
farther on, are both noteworthy for their wealth of vegetation. To 
the S. is the red Gothic Villa Ashburner ; and farther on, on the pro- 
montory of Castagnola, is the little old church and villa of S. Bemigio. 

Pleasant walk from Intra to the N. by the new road (carr. with 2 
or 3 horses, 25 fr. ; shaded short-cuts for walkers), via Arizzano to (33/« M.) 
Bee (1935 ft.; "Alb. Bee), with a fine view of Lago Maggiore, and to (311.) 
Fremeno (2600 ft. ; "Hdtel- Pension Premeno, pens. 8 fr. ; Bistor. Tornico, with 
rooms). Above it (10 min.) is the Tornico, a platform laid out in honour 
of Garibaldi, with a good spring and a beautiful view of the Alps. A few 
min. higher is the * Bellavista, an admirable point of view, commanding 
the lake to the E., and the beautiful and fertile Val Intragna to the W., 
with its numerous villages. 

To the S. of Intra the Punta della Castagnola , with its wealth 
of luxuriant vegetation, stretches far into the lake ; upon it is situ- 
ated the Hotel Eden (see below). As soon as we double the cape 
and enter the wide W. bay of the lake, we obtain a *View of the 
Borromean Islands : near the S. bank is the Isola Bella, to the W. 
of it, the Isola dei Pescatori, in front the Isola Madre. The little 
IsolaS. Giovanni, nearPallanza, with its chapel, house, and garden, 
is also one of the Borromean Islands. Behind the Isola dei Pesca- 
tori rises the blunt pyramid of the Mottarone (p. 169), crowned with 
its hotel; farther to the W. appear the white quarries nearBaveno; 
while the background is filled up by the snow-clad mountains be- 
tween the Simplon and the Monte Rosa. 

Pallanza. — Hotels (omnibus from the quay, 1 fr.). "Grand Hotel 
Pallanza, a large house, finely situated, 1 /2 M. from the landing-place, 
with the Villa Montebello and several other dependances, R. & L. 2'/2-12, 
A. 1, R. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, warm bath 2Vs, lake-bath I1/2, board in summer 
1V»"12i/j, in winter 7-10'/z fr. ; "Grand Hotel Eden (see above), with ex- 
tensive view to the E., S., & W., R., L., & A. 3^2-1, B. l>/«, dej. 3, D. 
5, pens. 8-12 fr. — *Posta (Engl, landlady), R., L., & A. from 2'/ 2 , B. l'/ 2 , 
dej. 21/2, D- i, pens. 5-8 fr. ; Hot. Milan, R. 2, B. V/i, D. incl. wine 
3Vs fr., well spoken of, these two near the quay, with gardens on the 
lake; "S. Gottaedo, a little to the W., unpretending. — *Pens. Villa 
Maggiore, R. 2 fr., L. 30 c, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 5-6 fr. — "Cafi 
Bolongaro, near the steamboat pier. 

166 Route 25. PALLANZA. Logo Maggiore. 

Diligence (office in the Alb. S. Gottardo) to (61.) Gravellona, 4 times 
daily, in 1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 65 c; coupe' or banquette 21/2 fr. ; 33 lbs. of 
luggage free), in connection with the diligence thrice daily to Intra (p. 165), 
in 25 min. (50 c). The H6tel Pallanza also sends a private omnibus to 

Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre and back 2>/2, with two 4V2 fr., 
to Isola Bella and back 372 or 6; to both islands and back 4 or 7; to 
Stresa and back 3>/2 or 6 ; to Laveno and back 3Va or 7, etc. The traveller 
should ask to see the tariff before embarking. The hotels also possess 
boats, for which the charges are similar. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Pallanza (April-Oct.). 

Pallanza, a thriving little town with 3200 inhab., delightfully 
situated opposite the Borromean Islands, commands a view of them, 
and of the lake as far as the snow-covered Swiss Alps. As the 
most sheltered and warmest spot on the Lago Maggiore, it enjoys 
a repute as a winter-resort, especially as an intermediate stage 
between the Riviera and more northerly climes. Opposite the 
quay is the market-place, with the Municipio and the church of 
S. Leonardo , the campanile of which stands on the foundations of 
an old castle. The road to the right passes the -villas Branca, Boz- 
zotti (right), and Montehello (left; p. 165), and the interesting 
nursery gardens of Rovelli (left), and then leads round the promon- 
tory of Castagnola to Intra, passing the large hotels mentioned at 
p. 165. — In the street running inland from the market-place is the 
Post Office (on the right), and at the end of the town, to the left, 
is the church of Santo Stefano, with a Roman inscription built into 
the wall to the left of the portal. The broad Viale Principe Um- 
berto, straight in front, leads past the bathing-establishment of Ca- 
prera (alkaline springs) to the C/4 hr.) domed church of the Madonna 
di Campagna, at the foot of the Monte Rosso (2270 ft). 

Ciecuit of the Monte Rosso (3V2-4 hrs. ; only bread and wine to be 
obtained on the way). We proceed straight on from the Madonna di 
Campagna; 1 /t hr. bridge over the <S. Bernardino (p. 165; footpath ascends 
on the left bank); 20 min. Intra road, where we turn to the left; 6 min. 
Trobaso; we turn to the left in the village; in 12 min. the road forks, 
the right branch leading to Unchio (see below), the left recrossing the 
S. Bernardino by a line bridge; l /i hr. Santino, beyond which the traveller 
should enquire the way, which is in poor condition; */2 br. Bieno; then 
by a steep and stony path to O/2 hr.) Cavandone, passing by the pilgrimage 
church below the village; the lake soon comes into view once more; 
l'/'2 hr. Sunct (see below). — By following the right arm of the road 
beyond Trobaso (see above) to O/4 hr.) UncMo and (40 min.) Cossogno, and 
then laking the 'Via Solferino' (to the left), we soon reach (stony path) the 
O/4 hr.) Roman Bridge over the romantic gorge of the S. Bernardino. Paths 
with steps lead hence to (1/4 hr.) the church of Rovegro. To reach the 
village we turn to the right. In the village we turn to the left and then 
follow a stony path along the ridge, (with a boy as guide) to (1 hr.) San- 
lino (see above). — Comp. also the excursions from Intra (p. 165). 

To the W. of Pallanza the road leads along the lake to (1 M.) 
Sana (small-boat station ; *Pens. Camenisch ; Alb. Pesce) and to 
(3 M.) Fondo Toce, the latter situated at the mouth of the impetuous 
Tosa (Toce). A road, diverging here to the right, leads to the small 
Lago di Mergozzo. Farther on we pass the granite-quarries of Monte 
Orfano (2595 ft.) and then cross the Tosa, by a five-arched bridge, 

G-ravelicma wro c e 

Logo Mayghre. BORROMEAN ISLANDS. 25. Route. 167 

to the railway-station of Oravellona (p. 170), 6 M. from Pallanza 
(omnibus, see p. 166). 

The next steamboat-station (small-boat landing), though seldom 
called at, is Feriolo, 2 3 / 4 M. from Gravellona (p. 170 ; omn. to Stresa, 
see p. 168). The large granite -quarries extending along the hills 
between Feriolo and Baveno have for ages yielded a splendid build- 
ing material, which has been used for the columns in the Cathedral 
of Milan, the church of S. Paolo fuori le Mura at Rome, the Galleria 
Vitt. Emanuele at Milan, and many other important structures. A 
visit may be paid to the Stabilimento Nic. Delia Casa, about 3 / 4 M. 
from Baveno, where the granite is hewn and polished. — Then — 

Baveno. Hotels. *Grand Hotel Bellevue, E., L., & A. 3-7, B. l>/2, 
dej. 272, D. 5, pens. 7-12 fr. ; 'Grand Hotel Baveno, E. from 2V2, B. l'/ 2 , 
de'j. 3, D. 5, pens, from 8, omn. ! /» fr., both these with beautiful gardens; 
^Beacrivage, also with garden; ^Hotel-Pension Suisse (beer), E. from 
i'/a, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3, pens, from 5 fr. — Diligence to Gravellona (p. 170; 
5 M.) thrice daily in 40 min. (fare 1 fr. 15 c, coupe" or banquette l 3 /4 fr.). 

Boats, see pp. 161, 147. Halfway between Baveno and Stresa is a 
ferry, where the charge for the short crossing (10 min.) is 1-2 fr. 

English Chuech in the garden of the Villa Clara. 

Baveno, a small place commanding a fine view of the Borromean 
Islands, is frequently chosen for a stay of some time. Near the 
village, on the side next Stresa, is the Villa Clara, in the early- 
English style, formerly belonging to Mr. Henfrey; it was occupied 
by Queen Victoria for some weeks in the spring of 1879 and by 
the Crown Prince Frederick of Germany in Oct., 1887 (no admission 
at present). 

The most beautiful feature in this "W. bay of the lake is formed 
by the *Borromean Islands, the scenery in the neighbourhood of 
which rivals that of the Lake of Como in grandeur and perhaps 
surpasses it in softness of character. The westernmost, the Isola 
dei Pescatori or Superiore (Hotel-Ristorante d' Italia, pens. 5-6 fr.), 
is almost entirely occupied by a fishing- village, but commands some 
picturesque views. The steamers touch here only occasionally, but 
all of them call at the — 

*Isola Bella (*H6tel du Dauphin or Delfino, R., L., & A. 3, 
B. I1/4, D. 4, pens. 7 fr. ; Ristorante del Vapore, fair), the best- 
known of the four islands, which was formerly a barren rock with a 
church and a handful of cottages, until Count Vilaliano Borromeo 
(d. 1690) transformed it in 1650-71 by the erection of a chateau and 
the laying out of a garden. The huge Chateau, of which the N. wing 
is unfinished, contains a series of handsome reception rooms, a 
gallery hung with tapestry of the 17th cent., and numerous other 
treasures of art (see p. 168). The view through the arches of the 
long galleries under the chateau is very striking. The beautiful 
Garden, laid out in the old Italian style, rises in ten terraces 100 ft. 
above the lake, and is stocked with lemon-trees, cedars, magnolias, 
orange-trees, laurels, cork-trees, camphor-trees, eucalypti, magni- 
ficent oleanders, and other luxuriant products of the south, while 

108 Route 25. STRESA. Lago Maggiore, 

shell-grottoes, arbours, and statues meet the eye in profusion. The 
traveller coming from the N. cannot fail to he struck with the love- 
liness of the bank of the lake as seen from here, studded with 
innumerable habitations , and clothed with southern vegetation 
(chestnuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives), the extensive lake with 
its deep blue waters and beautiful girdle of snowy mountains 
combining the stern grandeur of the High Alps with the charms 
of a southern clime. — The island is open to the public daily, ex- 
cept Mon., from March 15th to Nov. 15th, from 9 to 3, 4, or 5 ac- 
cording to the season. A servant shows the apartments (fee !/ 2 fr-j 
for a party 1 fr.), and a well-informed gardener shows the garden 
for a similar fee. 

The Picture Gallery, amidst its numerous copies, contains a few 
good Lombard pictures : Giov. Pedrini, Lucretia and Cleopatra ; Gaud. Fer- 
rari, Madonna; Giulio Cesare Procaccini, Head of St. John; "Boltraffio, 
Portrait of a woman; Borgognone, Christ blessing; Gregorio Schiavone 
Madonna between John the Baptist and St. Justina (an interesting work 
wrongly ascribed to Bernardinus Betinonus). — - The Private Chapel. 
which is not always shown, contains the handsome tombs of three mem- 
bers of the Borromeo family, brought from Milan. The two earlier (Gio 
vanni and Camillo Borromeo) are probably by Giov. Ant. Amadeo (d. 1485), 
while the third is said to be a work of Bambaja (ca. 1515). 

The usual charge for a boat to Isola Madre and back with two 
rowers is 3 fr. 

The *Isola Madre (not a steamboat-station), also belonging to 
the Borromeo family, on its S. side resembles the Isola Bella, and 
is laid out in seven terraces with lemon and orange-trellises ; on 
the upper terrace is an uninhabited 'Palazzo' (beautiful view). On 
the N. side there are charming walks in the English style, with 
most luxuriant vegetation (fee 1 fr.). — To the N.W. of the Isola 
Madre is the Isola 8. Oiovanni, already mentioned at p. 165. 

Opposite Isola Bella, on the W. bank, lies — 

Stresa. — Hotels. "'Hotel des Iles Borromees, i/a M. from the land- 
ing-place, comfortable, with beautiful garden, R. 2-41/2, L. 3 /4, A. I, B. l'/2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12, omn. i fr. — -Hotel Milan, with garden, near 
the steamboat-pier, R., L., & A. 3-5, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. — Albergo Reale 
Bolongaro, Italian, R., L., & A. 21/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7 fr. ; Hot. 
d'Italie & Pens. Suisse, R., L., & A. 2-2>/2, B. V/t, dej. 21/2, D- 31/a, pens. 
5 fr. (R. extra); S. Gottardo, with garden, R. from I1/2, pens. 5-6 fr. These 
three are also good. — Ristorante Zanini, with beds. 

Boat (barca) with one rower 2 fr. for the first hour, and 50 c. for each 
additional V2 hr. Comp. also p. 161. 

Diligence to Gravellona (p. 170; 71/2 M.) thrice daily in l>/ 4 hr. (fare 
1 fr. 80 c, coupe or banquette 2 fr. 70 c). 

Photographs : B. Biischi, Via Principe Tommiso. 

English Church Service at the Hotel des Iles Borrome'es (April-Sept.). 

Stresa, cooler and more breezy than the other places on the 
lake, occupies a picturesque and attractive situation, with the 
country-houses of many of the Italian noblesse, and is a suitable 
spot for a lengthened stay during the summer months. The Villa 
Ducate, adjoining the Alb. Milano on the W., belongs to the Duch- 
ess of Genoa (nee Princess of Saxony) , and the new building in 
the park belongs to her son the Duke of Genoa. — About 10 min. 

Logo Mayyiore. MONTE MOTTARONE. 25. Route. 169 

above the village, to the S. (reached by ascending from the Alb. 
Reale), stands the handsome Rosminian Monastery (875 ft.), now a 
school. The church contains the monument of Ant. Rosmini (d. 1855), 
with an admirable statue by Vela. The front of the church com- 
mands a beautiful view of Pallanza, Intra, and the islands. — Above 
the lake, V2 M. to the S., is the beautifully situated Villa Palla- 
vicino, and Y4 M. farther is the Villa Vignolo, both with fine gardens 
(visitors admitted). 

The Mte. Mottakoke is easily ascended from Stresa or Baveno in 
31/2-4 hrs. (guide 5 fr., convenient; mule 5 fr., with attendant 8 fr. ; one- 
horse mountain-car from Stresa to the Alb. Alpino 10 fr.). The route from 
Baveno leads by Romanico, Loita, and Campino, mostly through wood, to 
Someraro (1500 ft.), where it joins a route ascending from the road along the 
lake opposite the Isola Bella, and to (l 3 /4-2 hrs.) the hamlet of Levo (1915 ft.; 
"Hotel Levo, pens. 6-7 fr.). A road leads hence towards the left to (25 min.) 
the Alb. Alpino (see below). The route to the Mottarone farther on ascends 
across pastures, past the Alpe Giardino (3057 ft.), to the (1 hr.) chapel of 
/S. Eiirosia (3685 ft.), where we turn to the right. 20 min. Alpe del Motta- 
rone, surrounded by line beeches and elms ; 1/2 hr. Albergo Mottarone (see 
below). — Tho3e who start from Stresa at first follow the road diverging 
from the main road a little to the E. of the Hotel des lies BorromCes. 

1 hr. Ristorante Zanini (a de'pendance of the establishment in Stresa), a 
hut on an open meadow adjoining the Sasto Marcio. A finger-post points 
to the right to Levo (see above), while the carriage-road goes on to Oi- 
gnese. We, however, follow the road which diverges to the right, 25 min. 
from the Ristorante Zanini, before we reach Gignese, and leads to OA hr.) 
the "Albergo Alpino (2756 ft. ; pens. 772-8 fr.), with a view of Pallanza, 
Intra, and Baveno. Thence we proceed across pastures and the Alpe del 
Mottarone (see above) to (l 3 /4 hr.) the * Albergo Mottarone (4678 ft. ; R., L., 
& A. 3, B. li/j, dej. 3'/2, pens, with wine 9 fr.), kept by the brothers Gug- 
lielmina, 10 min. below the turf-clad summit of the ''Monte Mottarone 
or Motterone (4892 ft.), the culminating point of the Margozzolo Group. 
The view from the top, the 'Rigi of Northern Italy', embraces the Alps, 
from the Col di Tenda and Monte Viso on the W., to the Ortler and 
Adamello on the E. (panorama by Bossoli, in the hotel). The most con- 
spicuous feature is the Mte. Rosa group (especially fine by morning light); 
to the right of it appear the Cima di Jazzi, Strahlhorn, Rimpfischhorn, 
Allalinhorn, Alphubel, Mischabel (Taschhorn , Dom, Nadelhorn), Pizzo 
Bottarello, Portjengrat, Bietschhorn, Mte. Leone, Jungfrau, Helsenhorn, 
Fiescherhorner ; then more distant, to the E. of the peaks of Mte. Zeda, 
the Rheinwald Mountains, Bernina, Disgrazia, Mte. Legnone, Mte. Generoso, 
Mte. Grigna. At our feet lie seven different lakes, the Lake ofOrta, Lago 
di Mergozzo, Lago Maggiore, Lago di Biandrone, Lago di Varese, Lago di 
Monate, and Lago di Comabbio ; farther to the right stretch the extensive 
plains of Lombardy and Piedmont, in the centre of which rises the cathe- 
dral of Milan. The Ticino and the Sesia meander like silver threads 
through the plains. 

On the W. side a path, rather steep at places (guide advisable) , de- 
scends direct to (2 hrs.) Omegna (rail, stat., see p. 170). Travellers bound 
for Orta (4>/2 hrs.) soon reach a broad bridle-path on the S. side of the 
hill (guide unnecessary), which after 1 hr. passes above the Alpe Cortano 
(below, to the right) and in 40 min. more in front of the Madonna di Luci- 
ago. In 2 J /i hrs. (from the summit) they reach Chiggino (2120 ft.), whence 
another 74 hr. brings them to Arnieno (1720 ft. ; Alb. al Mottarone) on the 
high-road. They follow the latter to the S., and in 12 min. reach a point 
where the road forks , the left branch leading to Miasino (p. 170) , while 
the right, crossing the railway to Gravellona (station of Orta to the left), 
runs via Carcegna and the Villa Crespi (p. 171) to Orta (O/4 hr. from Ar- 
nieno). To reach the Albergo Belvedere (p. 171), we turn to the right, 

2 min. beyond the Villa Crespi. 

110 Route 26. GRAVELLONA-TOCE. From Domodossola 

Beyond Stresa the banks of the Lago Maggiore become flatter, 
and Monte Rosa makes its appearance to the W. The next place 
on the W. bank is Belgirate (*Orand Hotel Belgirate), surrounded 
by the Villas Fontana, Principessa Matilda, and others. — Then 
follow Lesa and Meina (Albergo Zanetta) , and, on the E. bank, 
Angera (rail, stat.), with a chateau of Count Borromeo. 

Arona , and thence to Milan, see p. 160 ; to Novara (Genoa, 
Turin), see pp. 61-59. 

26. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta. 

56 M. Railway in 3V2 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 30, 7 fr. 15, 4 fr. 60 c.) ; to Gra- 
vellona, the station for the Lago Maggiore (omn. to Pallanza and to Stresa, 
•see pp. 168, 166), I81/2 M., in I1/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 65 c.). 

Domodossola , see p. 4. The railway runs straight through the 
Vol d'Ossola, skirting the base of the mountains on the W. and 
following the right bank of the Tosa (Toce), which separates into 
several arms and fills the whole valley with its debris. At (3^2 M.) 
Villa, or Villadossola, the Antrona Valley opens on the right. 

Near (5 M.) Pallanzeno (748 ft.) the train hugs the river for a 
short distance and then traverses an open expanse of meadow. At 
(7 M.) Piedimulera (797 ft.; *Alb. Piedimulera; *Corona) the Vol 
Anzasca , leading up to Macugnaga at the foot of Monte Rosa (see 
Baedeker s Switzerland') , opens to the right. The railway crosses 
the Anza at (8 M.) Bumianca and the Tosa at (9 M.) Vogogna 
(740 ft. ; * Corona) , a small town at the base of precipitous rocks, 
with a ruined castle. — IOV2 M. Premosello. Beyond(13M.) Cuzzago 
the Tosa is crossed. On the hill to the left, near (1572 M.) Orna- 
vasso (Italia ; Croce Bianca), are important marble-quarries. 

I81/2 M. Gravellona-Toce (Rail. Restaurant), with large cotton- 
mills, situated at the junction of the Strona with the Tosa. Pas- 
sengers for the Lago Maggiore leave the railway here. The road to 
(6 M.) Pallanza runs via, Fondotoce and Suna (see p. 166 ; omn., see 
p. 166; carr. with one horse 5, with two horses 10 fr.). For the road 
to (5M.) Baveno (viaFeriolo) and Stresa, see pp. 167, 168 (omn., see 
p. 168 ; carr. to Baveno 4, to Stresa 5 fr., with two horses 8 or 10 fr.). 

The railway runs to the S. through the fertile valley of the Strona. 
Beyond (21 M.) Crusinallo it crosses the river and immediately 
afterwards the Nigulia Canal, which drains the Lake of Orta. 

23 M. Omegna (Alb. Manin; Croce Bianca), with a large paper- 
mill, lies at the N. end of the charming Lake of Orta (951 ft. above 
the sea ; 7>/2 M. long), now known as the Lago Cusio from its (some- 
what doubtful) ancient name. — The line runs high above the lake, 
commanding beautiful views of it. Beyond (27 M.) Pettenasco we 
cross the Pescone, and then the imposing Sassina Viaduct. 

28V2 M. Orta, also the station for Miasino. 

The railway-station lies about 1 M. above Orta. On leaving it we 
turn to the left, pass below the railway, and proceed in a straight direction. 
About halfway to the town we pass the Villa Crespi, in a Moorish style, 

to Novara. OKTA. 26. Route. 171 

beyond which, a guide-post points to the right to the Monte (TOrla and 
the (>/i hi-.) Alb. Belvedere. 

Hotels. "Alb. Belvedere, on the W. slope of the Monte d'Orta, with 
fine view, E. & A. 3, D. 4 fr. (Engl. Ch. Serv. in the season). — Alb. 
S. Giulio, Alb. Okta, both in the Piazza, by the lake, I1/4 M. from the 
railway-station. — Boats for hire at the Piazza. 

The little town of Orta, consisting mainly of a Piazza, open on 
the side next the lake, one long narrow street, and a number of 
tasteful villas lining the road to the station, lies opposite the small 
Isola S. Giulio, at the S.W. base of the Monte d'Orta (1315 ft.), 
or Sacro Monte, a beautifully wooded hill, stretching out into the 
lake. The ascent of the Sacro Monte may be made either from a point 
halfway between the town and the station (see above) or from the 
Piazza, through the grounds of the Villa of Marchese Natta (50 c). 
In the 16th cent. 20 chapels were erected here in honour of St. Francis 
of Assisi, each containing a scene from his history in painted life- 
size figures of terracotta, with a background 'al fresco'. Though of 
little artistic value, these groups are on the whole spirited and effect- 
ive. The best are in the 13th, 16th, and 20th chapels; in the last 
is represented the canonisation of the saint. Various points on the 
hill command charming surveys of the lake, while the panorama from 
the Campanile at the top (50 c.) includes the snowy Monte Rosa, 
rising above the lower hills to the W. 

A boat to the Isola S. Giulio and back costs H/z fr. The ancient church 
here was founded by St. Julius, who came from Greece in 379 to convert 
the natives, and has been frequently restored. It contains several good 
reliefs, old frescoes, and a fine Komanesque pulpit. In the sacristy are a 
Madonna by Gaudenzio Ferrari and some old vestments, while the crypt, 
below the high-altar, contains a shrine of silver and crystal, with the 
body of St. Julius. 

Picturesque Excursions may be made from Orta to the (1 hr.) Madonna 
delta Bocciola (1565 ft.) , situated on the hill above the station, to the 
W., and to the (f/4 hr.) Torre di Buccione (see below; boat to Buccione 
l 1 /* fr.), to the S., both points commanding good views. By Pella (p. 172) 
to p/2hr.) Alzo, with extensive granite-quarries (branch-railway fromGoz- 
zano, see below), and to (lhr.) the Madonna del Sasso (2090ft.), the pretty 
church of the hamlet of Boletto, on a lofty cliff, commanding a fine view. 
— The Monte Mottabone may be ascended from Orla in 5 hrs. via Car- 
cegna, Armeno, and Cheggino (see p. 169; arrows on the houses, 'al Mot- 
tarone' or 'al Mergozzolo'); guide 6, donkey 10 fr. ; over the Mottarone to 
Baveno or Stresa, 10 and 15 fr. 

Beautiful views of the lake as we proceed. In the centre lies the 
island of S. Giulio, and on the steep cliffs of the W. bank is the 
church of Madonna del Sasso (see above). Beyond (30'/2 M.) Cor- 
conio the train traverses a cutting on the W. side of the Castello di 
Buccione, a conspicuous old watch-tower at the S. end of the lake. 
3iy 2 M. Bolzano. 33Y2 M. Gozzano (branch-line to Alzo , see above). 
We now traverse the fertile Val d'Agogna. 36'/2 M. Borgomanero 
(Alb. del Ramo Secco); 41 M. Cressa-Fontaneto ; 43 M. Suno; 
46!/ 2 M. Momo; 50 V2 M. Caltignaga; 53 V2 M. Vignale. 

56 M. Novara. From Novara to Milan, railway in IV4 nr -) see 
pp. 61, 62; to Laveno in l 1 /? hr., see p. 159. 

172 Route 2(5. VARALLO. 

From Orta over the Colma to Varallo, 4'/ 2 hrs., a beauti- 
ful walk (donkey 6, to the Colma 3 fr. ; guide, 5 fr., unnecessary). 
On the W. hank of the lake , opposite Orta , the white houses of 
Fella (Alb. del Pesce , unpretending) peep from amidst chestnuts 
and walnuts (reached by boat from Orta in 20 min. ; fare 1 fr.). 
We here reach the new road leading along the slopes from Alzo 
(p. 171) to Pella and (1 hr.) Arola (2015ft.). At Arola we obtain 
a fine retrospect of the lake of Orta. We turn to the left 5 min. 
beyond the village, descend a little, and then keep on for i/ 2 hr. 
on the same level, skirting the gorge of the Pellino, which here 
forms a pretty waterfall. We next ascend through wood, between 
crumbling blocks of granite, to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) wooded Col di Colma 
(3090 ft.). An eminence to the left commands a splendid view, 
embracing Monte Rosa. In descending (to the right), we overlook 
the fertile Vol Sesia, with its villages. . The path leads through 
groves of chestnuts and walnuts to( 3 / 4 hr.) Civiasco (2350 ft.; several 
Cantine), whence a fine new road (short-cut by the old path to the 
left), affording a magnificent view of Mte. Rosa, leads to ( 3 / 4 hr.) — 

Varallo (1480 ft. ; *Italia, R., L., & A. 3% B. 1% de'j. 2 l / 2 , 
D. 4, pens. 7-8, omn. ^ fr. ; *Croce Bianca, good cuisine ; Posta, 
R. & A. 2i/ 2 , B. 11/2, D. 4 fr., well spoken of), the capital of the 
Vol Sesia, with 2300 inhab., at the mouth of the Val Mastallone 
(p. 173). ThePiazza Vitt. Emanuele, at the entrance to the town from 
the station, is embellished with a monument to Victor Emmanuel. 
Over the high-altar of the collegiate church of S. Qaudenzio is a Mar- 
riage of St. Catharine by Gaud. Ferrari (1471-1546), a native of the 
neighbouring Val Duggia. The church of S. Maria delle Grazie 
contains a series of 21 *Scenes from the life of Christ (rood-screen) 
and other frescoes by this master, while there is also an Adoration 
of the Holy Child by him over the portal of the church of 8. Maria 
di Loreto, about 3 / 4 M. from the village. A marble statue of Ferrari, 
by P. Delia Vedova, stands at the beginning of the ascent to the 
Sacro Monte. Beyond the Mastallone bridge is the *Grande Stabi- 
limento Idroterapico , a large and well-equipped hydropathic (open 
from June to end of Sept.; pens. 9-11 fr.). — Varallo is the ter- 
minus of a railway from Novara (see p. 61). 

The "Sacro Monte (Santuario; 1995 ft.), rising in the immediate vici- 
nity of the town, is ascended from S. Maria delle Grazie (see above) in 
20 min. by a paved path shaded by beautiful chestnuts, and commands 
a delightful view. On the top of the hill and on its slopes are a church 
and 46 Chapels , or oratories, containing scenes from sacred history in 
painted life-size figures of terracotta, with supplementary frescoes, begin- 
ning with the Fall in the 1st chapel, and ending with the Entombment of 
the Virgin in the 46th. These are the work of Gaudenzio Ferrari (No. 5. 
The Magi, 38. Crucifixion) and later masters of this school, mainly from 
the upper valley of the Sesia. This 'Nuova Geruialemme nel Sacro Monte 
di Varallo 1 was founded in 1486 by Bernardino Caloto , a Milanese noble- 
man, with the sanction of Pope Innocent VIII.; but as a resort of pil- 
grims it did not become important until after the visits of Cardinal Bor- 
romeo (p. 160), who caused the handsome church to be built by Pelle- 
grino Tibaldi in 1578. On the top, adjoining the church, is a Cafi-Restaurant. 


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PA VIA. 27. Route. 173 

A road ascends the pretty Val Mastallone, passing the (3 M.) picturesque 
Ponte delta Gula, to (lO'/a M.) the charming village of Fobello (2880 ft. ; 
Posta; Italia), whence an easy bridle-path crosses the Coldi Baranca (5970 ft. J 
to (6 hrs.) Pontegrande and Macugnaga (see Baedekers Switzerland). 

From Varallo to Alagna, 23 M., omnibus daily in 5 hrs. The road 
ascends the fertile Val Sesia by Valmaggia and Vocca to (5 M.) Balmuccia 
(1900 ft.), at the mouth of the Sermenza (see below), and next leads via 
Seopa, Scopello, Pila, Piode, and Cainpertogno to (10 M.) Mollia (2887 ft. ; 
"Alb. Valsesiano). Thence through the narrowing valley to (5'/2 M.) Riva 
Valdobbia (3628 ft. ; "Hotel delle Alpi), with an elaborately decorated church, 
and (2'/2 M.) Alagna. (3955 ft. ; "H6tel Monte Rosa; Gr.-Hdlel Alagna), situated 
at the S.E. base of Monte Rosa, and frequented as a summer-resort. An 
easy bridle-path leads hence over the Col d'Olen (9420 ft.) to (6>/2 hrs.) Gres- 
soney-la-Triniti (p. 39); another, still easier, from Riva (see above) over 
the Col di Valdobbia (8360 ft.) to (7 hrs.) Gressoney-St-Jean. On the latter 
route, in the Val Vogna, l'/s M. from Riva, is the Cata Janzo (4593 ft. ; 
*Inn), another favourite resort. 

From Balmuccia (see above) a road ascends the picturesque Val Ser- 
menza by (l>/2 M.) Boccioleto (2188 ft. ; 'Fenice) and Ferrera to (l'/2 SI.) 
Fervenlo (Restaurant), whence a bridle-path leads to (1 hr.) Rimasco (2870 ft. ; 
two Inns), where the valley divides: in the branch to the right (E.; Val 
d"Egua) lies (2 hrs.) Carcoforo (4280 ft. ; Monte Moro, plain), while in the 
Val Piccola, to the left (W.), are Rima S. Giuseppe and (2 hrs.) Rima 
(4650 ft. ; "Alb. Tagliaferro). For the passes hence to Macugnaga and other 
details, see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

27. From Milan to Genoa via Favia and Voghera. 

94 M. Railway in 3-7 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, 11 fr. 95, 7 fr. 70 c. ; express 
18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 15 c.) ; to Pavia, 22i/z M., in 35-60 min. (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 
85, 1 fr. 85 c. ; express 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c). 

From Milan to (17 M.) Certosa, see p. 138. 

22!/ 2 M. Pavia. —Hotels. "Ckoce Bianca (PI. a; B, 4), R., L., & A. 
2-3, B. IV2, de'j. incl. wine 2i/ 2 , D. 4, omnibus 1/2 fr. ; Tre Re (PI. c ; B, 
5). — Cafi Demetrio, Corso Vittorio Emanuele; Caffe-Rist. Mangiagalli, in 
the Mercato Coperto, well spoken of. 

Gab per drive 80c, per hour 1 fr., at night 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 50 c. — 
Omnibus to the town 25 c. — Steam Tramway to Milan (comp. p. 117), start- 
ing from the Piazza Petrarca (PI. B, 3). 

The names of most of the streets have been altered recently; the 
old names are generally given in red lettering below the new. — A visit 
to the chief points of interest in the town occupies about 3 hrs. 

Pavia, with 27,800 inhab., capital of the province of the same 
name, situated near the confluence of the Ticino and the Po, the 
Ticinum of the ancients, subsequently Papla, was the capital of 
the Lombards from 572 to 774. In the middle ages it was the 
faithful ally of the German emperors, until it was subjugated by the 
Milanese in 1315. The victory gained here by Charles V. over 
Francis I. of France is described at p. 140. Part of the old ram- 
parts and bulwarks are still preserved. 

Leaving the railway-station, we enter the Corso Cavoue. (PI. 
A, 4) through the Porta Cavour (in a wall to the right is the statue 
of a Roman magistrate), and following the Via Jacopo Brossolaro to 
the right reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The Cathedral (PI. 4 ; B, 4), begun by Cristoforo Rocchi in 
1486 on the site of an ancient basilica and continued with the co- 
operation of Bramante, but never completed, is a vast 'central' 

174 Route 27. PAVIA. From Milan 

structure (comp. p. 421) with four arms. It is now undergoing a 
thorough restoration. The dome is modern. 

In the Intekiok, on the right, is the sumptuous "Area di S. Agoslino, 
adorned with 290 figures (of saints, and allegorical), begun, it is supposed, 
in 1362 by Bonino da Campiglione (p. 204). To the right of the entranec is 
a wooden model of the church as originally projected, by Rocchi. 

The gateway to the left of the church is in the late-Romanesque 
style. Adjoining it rises a massive Campanile, begun in 1583. 

We may now proceed to the Conso Vittorio Emanuele, a street 
intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. to S., from the 
Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese, and leading to the Covered 
Bridge (14th cent. ; a pleasant promenade with picturesque view) 
over the Ticino. A chapel stands on the bridge, halfway across. 

S. Michele (PI. 7; B, 5), to which the third side-street to the 
right leads (coming from the bridge), a Romanesque church errone- 
ously ascribed to the Lombard kings, belongs to the latter part of the 
11th century. 

The facade is adorned with numerous very ancient reliefs in sand- 
stone , in ribbon-like stripes, and a curious gabled gallery. The interior, 
restored in 1863-76, is supported by eight pillars, from which rise double 
round arches. The short choir, under which there is a crypt, terminates 
in an apse. Over the centre of the transept rises a dome. The pillars of 
the nave bear traces of ancient frescoes. 

The traveller may now ascend the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, passing 
the handsome Mercato Coperto, or Galleria (PI. 32; B, 4), completed 
after Balossi's designs in 1882 , to the University (PI. 31 ; 

B, 4), founded in 1361 on the site of a school of law, which had 
existed here since the 10th century. The building is much hand- 
somer than that of Padua ; the quadrangles of the interior are sur- 
rounded by handsome arcades and embellished with numerous 
memorial tablets, busts, and monuments of celebrated professors 
and students. In the first court are statues of the professors Bordoni, 
Porta , and Panizzi ; in the second a statue of Volta and several 
memorial reliefs of professors attended by students. — Opposite the 
university, in the Piazza d'ltalia, rises a statue of Italia. 

The Corso next leads in a N. direction, past the Theatre, to the 
Piazza Castello, with a monument to Garibaldi, by Pozzi, and to the 
old Castle (PI. C, 3), erected by the Visconti in 1360-69, now used 
as a barrack, and containing a handsome court of the 14th century. 
— Adjacent, at the corner of the Passeggio di S. Croce, is the 
church of S. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro, with a Romanesque facade. 

At the back of the university lies the Ospedale Civico, and 
farther E., in the Via Defendente Sacchi is the church of S. Maria 
di Canepanova (PI. 15; C, 4), a small dome-covered structure de- 
signed by Bramante (1492), with a passage round the top. — More 
to the N., at the corner of the Corso Cairoli (formerly Contrada del 
Collegio Germanico) , is the Gothic church of S. Francesco (PI. 8 ; 

C, 4), of the 14th cent., with a rich but mutilated facade. In the 
vicinity stands the Collegio Ohislieri (PI. 18; C, 4), founded in 

to Genoa. VOGHERA. 27. Route. 175 

1569 by Pius V. (Ghislieri), a colossal bronze statue of whom has 
been erected in the piazza in front. 

In the Via Roma, to the "W. of the university, to the right, is 
the Jesuits' Church (PI. 11 ; B, 4). — At the end of the short Via 
Malaspina is the Palazzo Malaspina, at the entrance to the court of 
which are busts of Boethius and Petrarch. The interior contains the 
Museo Munieipio, a collection of engravings, paintings (including 
a Holy Family, an early work of Correggio, and a portrait by Anto- 
nello da Messina), antiquities, etc. 

Tradition points this out as the place in which BoUhius, confined by 
the Emperor Theodoric, composed his work on the 'Consolation of Philo- 
sophy', and Petrarch once spent an autumn here with his daughter and 
son-in-law. His grandson, who died at the Pal. Malaspina, was interred 
in the neighbouring church of S. Zeno. A short poem of Petrarch in allu- 
sion to this event, in six Latin distiches, is one of the many inscriptions 
on the wall opposite the entrance. 

The "Via Roma terminates in the Piazza del Carmine, with the 
church of 8. Maria del Carmine (PI. 6 ; B, 4), a brick edifice of 
fine proportions, flanked with chapels, and dating from 1375. 

In the S.B. part of the town is the Collegio Borromeo (PI. 16 ; 
C, 5, 6),] with its beautiful court, founded by St. Carlo Borromeo 
in 1563; the vestibule is decorated with frescoes by Fed. Zuccaro. 

From Pa via to Alessandria via Torre-Bereetti and Valenza, 40'/2M., 
railway in 2 l /2 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 35, 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 35 c). The line crosses the 
Ticino and intersects the broad plain of the Po, in a S.W. direction. Un- 
important stations. — Torre-Berrelti, see p. 58; Valenza, see p. 59. 

Feom Pavia to Beesoia via Cremona, 77'/2 M., railway in 4 3 /4-6 hrs. 
(fares 14 fr. 20, 9 fr. 95, 6 fr. 40 a). — The line intersects the fertile plain 
watered by the Po and the Olona. — 9'/2 M. Belgiojoso, with a handsome 
chateau. — 27 M. Casalpusterlengo, where the line unites with that from 
Piacenza to Milan (R. 41). — 30 M. Codogno (9000 inhab.) possesses large 
cheese-manufactories (to Piacenza, see p. 299). Near (34 1 /2 M.) Pizzighetlone, 
a fortified place, the Adda, which is here navigable, is crossed. — 46 M. Cre- 
mona (p. 176) is a terminus, from which the train backs out. To Treviglio 
(Milan and Bergamo) and Mantua, see p. 176. — 77'/2 M. Brescia, see p. 185. 

Feom Pavia to Stradella, via Bressana-Botlarone (see below), 20 M., 
railway in l'/4 hr. Stradella, see p. 59. 

From Pavia to Vercelli, see p. 58. 

The Railway to Genoa crosses the Ticino by a bridge 1 /^ M. 
long, and almost immediately afterwards, beyond (26 M.) Cava Ma- 
nara, it crosses the Po. At (31 M.) Bressana-Bottarone diverges 
the above-mentioned branch to Stradella (p. 59]. 34 M. Calcababbio. 

38i/ 2 M. Voghera (Italia), with 10,800 inhab. (perhaps the an- 
cient Irid), on the left bank otihe Staffora, was once fortified by Gian- 
galeazzo Visconti. The church of S. Lorenzo, founded in the 11th 
cent., was remodelled in 1600. Steam-tramway to Stradella (p. 59). 

On the high-road from Voghera to Casteggio (p. 59), to the S. of the 
railway, lies Montebello, famous for the battle of 9th June, 1800 (five days 
before the battle of Marengo). Here, too, on 20th May, 1859, the first 
serious encounter between the Austrians and the united French and Sar- 
dinian armies took place. 

At (44 M.) Pontecurone we cross the impetuous Curone (dry in 

summer). Country fertile. 

176 Route 28. CREMONA. From Milan 

49 l /z$fi.. Tortona (Croce Bianca), the ancient Dertona, a town of 
7100 inhab., on the Scrivia. The Cathedral, dating from 1584, con- 
tains a tine ancient sarcophagus. Above the town are the ruins of a 
castle destroyed in 1155 by Frederick Barbarossa. — From Tortona 
to Turin via Alessandria, see R. 13. — Steam-tramway to Sate (p. 54). 

54 M. liivalia Scrivia; 58 M. Pozzolo Formigaro. 

60 M. Novi, and thence to (93!/ 2 M.) Genoa, see pp. 54, 55. 

28. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona. 

100 M. Railway in 5-0 hrs. ; fares 18 fr. 10, 12 fr. 65, 8fr. 20 c. (to Cre- 
mona, 60 M. ; fares 11 fr., 7 fr. 70 c, 5 fr.). 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 183. Our train diverges 
here from the main line to the S.E. — 24'^ M. Caravaggio, a town 
of 6100 inhab., with the pilgrimage-church of the Madonna di Ca- 
ravaggio, was the birthplace of the painter Michael Angelo Amerighi 
da Caravaggio (1569-1609). It is also connected with Milan and 
Monza by a steam-tramway, running via Treviglio. — 27 M. Capralba; 
29!/ 2 M. Casaletto-Vaprio. 

34'/2 M. Crema (Alb. Pozzo), an industrial town (8300 inhab.) 
and episcopal residence , with an ancient castle. The Cathedral 
has a fine Romanesque facade , and contains a St. Sebastian by 
Vine. Civerchio (2nd altar on the left). The church of S. Maria 
delle Orazie is adorned with interesting frescoes. — About 8/4 M. 
from the town stands the circular church of *S. Maria della Croce, 
with effective subsidiary buildings in brick , . built about 1490 by 
Oiov. Bait. Battaggio of Lodi, under the influence of Bramante. The 
interior, octagonal in form, is adorned with paintings by Campi. 
— Steam-tramways to Brescia (p. 185) and to Lodi (p. 299). 

40 M. Castelleone ; 45 M. Soresina ; 50 Y2 M. Casalbuttano ; 5472 M - 
Olmeneta ; 60 M. Cremona, the station of which is outside the Porta 
Milanese (PI. B, C, 1). 

Cremona. — 'Italia (PI. b ; E, 3) ; Roma, in the S.E. angle of the 
Piazza Roma (PI. E, F, 3), R. li/a-2, A. '/a, B. 1 fr. 20 c, dej. H/2, D. 21/2, 
omn. 1/2 fr. ; Cappello (PI. c; E, 4), R., L., & A. 2-3 fr. — Gaf&s Roma and 
Soresini. — Cab per drive V2 fr., for V2 hr. 1 fr., each additional 'ft hr. V2 fr. 

Cremona (155 ft.), the capital of a province and an episcopal 
see, with 29,000 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of 
the Po, and carries on considerable silk-manufactures. 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at various periods , the first of which was 
at the beginning of the second Punic war (B.C. 218). It suffered seri- 
ously during the civil wars, and was several times reduced to ruins, but 
was restored by the Emp. Vespasian. The Goths and Lombards, especial- 
ly King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts between Guelphs 
and Ghibellines, did great damage to the town. Cremona espoused the 
cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crema, and subsequently 
came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco Sforza, after 
which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince Eugene surprised 
the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. In 1799 the 
Austrians defeated the French here. 

to Mantua. CREMONA -28. Route. 177 

The manufacturers of the far-famed Violins and Violas of Cremona 
were Andrea Amati (1510-80) and Niccolo Amati (1596-1684), Giuseppe Guar- 
neri (c. 1690), and Antonio Stradivari (1644-1728). 

In Painting, Boccaccio Boccaccino, who also worked in Venice, was 
prominent in Cremona ahout 1500. In the 16th cent. Cremona possessed 
a school of art of its own, which appears to have been influenced by Ro- 
manino (p. 186) and Pordenone (p. 242) especially, and also by Giulio Ro- 
mano. Cremona was the birthplace of Sofonisba d' Anguissola (1535-1626), 
who, like her five sisters, practised the art of painting, and was highly 
esteemed by her contemporaries. She afterwards retired to Genoa, and even 
in hei old age attracted the admiration of Van Dyck. 

In the Piazza del Comunb (PI. F, 4) rises the Torrazzo, a tower 
397 ft. in height, erected in 1261-84, and connected with the cathe- 
dral by a series of logge. Extensive view from the top. — Oppo- 
site the tower is the Gothic *Palazzo Pubblico (now the Municipio~) 
of 1245 (restored), containing a few pictures by masters of the 
Cremona school and a rich marble chimney-piece by G. C. Pedone 
(1502). Adjacent is the Gothic Palazzo de 1 Oonfalonieri or de' Giu- 
reconsulti, of 1292. 

The *Cathedkai (PI. F, 4), a vaulted structure in the Roman- 
esque-Lombard style, erected in 1107-90, has a rich main facade 
embellished with columns (partly remodelled in 1491) and tasteful 
brick facades on the transepts, especially the S. 

The Interior with its aisles, and transepts also flanked with aisles, 
is covered with frescoes by Romanino (1519-20). Pordenone (1520-22), and 
masters of the Cremcpft School, such as Boccaccio Boccaccino and his son 
Camillo, and the later masters Campi, Altobello Melone, Bembo, and Gatti. Over 
the arches of the nave, on both sides, are long series of frescoes. Left wall, 
above the first four arches : Boccaccio Boccaccino, Life of the Virgin, in eight 
scenes; 5th arch, Gian Francesco Bembo, The Magi, and Presentation in 
the Temple ; beyond the organ, Altobello Melone, Flight into Egypt, and 
Massacre of the Innocents ; above the last arch, Boccaccino, Christ teaching 
in the Temple. The colossal figures in the apse are also by Boccaccino. 
Right wall : Melone, Last Supper, Christ washing the Disciples' feet, Christ 
on the Mt. of Olives, Christ taken by the soldiers, Christ before Caiaphas ; 
above the 4th and 5th arches, Romanino, Christ led out to be crucified, 
Scourging of Christ, Crown of Thorns, Ecce Homo ; above the last three 
arches, towards the facade, Pordenone' s three celebrated 'Passion Scenes: 
Christ before Pilate, Christ and Veronica, Christ nailed to the Cross. On 
the front wall a colossal Crucifixion and Entombment by Pordenone. — 
The two pulpits are embellished with important Lombardic reliefs, from 
an old altar, ascribed to Amadeo (1482). — The choir contains fine Re- 
naissance stalls by Giov. Maria Platina and Pietro da I la Tarsia (1482-90). 
— In the right transept stands the sarcophagus of SS. Peter and Mar- 
cellinus, by Bened. Briosco (1507). — First Chapel to the right: altar-piece 
by Pordenone, Madonna between two saints, with the donor worshipping. 

In the vicinity are the octagonal Battistero (PL F, 4) of 1167, 
and the Campo Santo (PL F, 4), with curious old mosaics (Hercules 
and Nessus; Piety wounded by Cruelty; Faith tearing out the 
tongue of Discord, etc.). 

The adjacent Piazza Roma (PL E, F, 3) is laid out with gardens 
(music on Sun. and Thurs. evenings). No. 1 in this square, indi- 
cated by a memorial tablet , is the house in which Antonio Stradi- 
vari made his violins for many years and died in 1728. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 12 

178 Route28. CREMONA. 

A few hundred yards to the N.W. of the Piazza Roma, in the Piazza 
dell' Ospedale, stands the old Palazzo Dati, erected about 1580 in the Ba- 
roque style and now part of the hospital. The court is very fine. — To 
the E., near the Porta Venezia (see below), is the church of S. Abbotidio (PI. 
G, 2), with a good high-altar-piece by Giulio Campi (Madonna with SS, 
Nazarius and Celsus). In the sacristy are some cabinets of platina. 

From the Municipio the Via Ala Ponzoni leads to the W. to the 
Palazzo Beale (formerly Ala di Ponzone), which contains natural 
history and other collections, coins, and a few pictures (daily 9-3, 
except Sun.). In front of the palace is a Marble Statue of Amilcare 
Ponchielli, composer of 'Gioconda', by Pietro Bordini (1892). — 
Farther up the Corso Vitt. Emanuele , in the second cross-street to 
the left , is the richly-painted church of S. Pibtro al Po (PI. E, 
5), built in 1549-70 by Ripari. Over the third altar to the right, 
Madonna and four saints, by Oian Franc. Bembo (1524). The rich 
ceiling-decorations are by the brothers Campi. 

In S. Agostino e Giacomo in Braida (PI. D, 3), 14th cent., 
with aisles and barrel-vaulting : first chapel on the right, Pieta, 
by Oiulio Campi; last side-altar but one, Madonna and two saints 
by Perugino (1494) ; left, between the third and fourth altars, por- 
traits of Francesco Sforza, and between the fourth and fifth, of his 
wife Bianca Maria Visconti, frescoes (retouched) by Bonif. Bembo. 

The Via Guido Grandi (passing on the right the small church 
of that name, built and painted by Oiulio Campi, 1546 ; and, farther 
on, to the left, No. 1, the Palazzo Trecchi, in the early-Renaissance 
style) leads hence to the Piazza Garibaldi (PI. C, D, 2) with a 
Monument of Garibaldi, by Malfatti, and the church of S. Agata 
(by the entrance-wall, Monument of the Trecchi, in the Renaissance 
style, by Cristoforo Romano, 1502 ; beside the high-altar, four large 
frescoes by Oiulio Campi, painted in 1536 in the style of Porde- 
none), whence the Corso Garibaldi leads N.W. to the Porta Milano 
(PI. C, 1) and the station. 

Near the Porta Milano, in the Via Bertesi, stands the Pal. Crotti 
(formerly Raimondi) , an early-Renaissance structure, containing 
sculptures by Pedone. In the Via Palestro (PI. D, 1) is the Pal. 
Stanga, with a Baroque facade and a fine fore-court of the early 

About l'/2 M. to the K. of the Porta Venezia, near the Mantua road, 
is the church of S. Sigismondo, with frescoes and pictures by Campi, Boc- 
caccino, and other Cremonese masters ; "Altar-piece by Oiulio Campi, Ma- 
donna with saints, and below, Francesco Sforza and his wife, founders 
of the church. S. Sigismondo is a station on the tramway from Cremona 
to Casalmaggiore (p. 1?4). — Near the village of Le Torri lies the beautiful 
Villa Sacerdoti. 

From Cremona to Piacenza (steam-tramway five times dailyin2i/ 4 hrs.). 
The road intersects the plain on the right bank of the Po, after crossing 
the river with its numerous islands , passes Monticelli, S. Nazzaro, and 
Caorso , and crosses the river formed by the Chiavenna and Riglio. At 
Roncaglia we cross the Nure and proceed to the W. to Piacenza (p. 300). 

From Cremona to Breicia or Pavia, see p. 175. 

66 M. Villetta-Malagnino ; 70 M. Qazzo - Pieve - San- Qiaeomo ; 

w pa 

m *n 53 3 M 

MO N« 

P P 

^ n n 

P P 

BERGAMO. 29. Route. 179 

75 M. Torre de' Picenardi. — 79 M. Piadena, the junction of the 
Brescia and Parma line (p. 184). 

81 M. Bozzolo, with an old castle of theGonzagas. Before (88 M.) 
Marcaria we cross the Oglio. — 93!/2 M. Castellucchio. 

About 2'/2 M. to the E. of Castellucchio, 5 M. from Mantua, is the 
church of S. Maria delle Orazie, founded in 1399, a famous resort of pil- 
grims, containing curious votive offerings in the form of life-size figures in 
wax, bearing the names of Charles V.', 'Ferdinand I.', 'Pope Pius II.', the 
'ConneHable de Bourbon', etc. Also a few monuments. 

The train now crosses the Mincio. — 100 M. Mantua, see p. 214. 

29. From Milan to Bergamo. 

33V2 M. Railway in l'/2-2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 15, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the left. — Steam Tramwat via Trevifflio, see p. 117; via, 
Monza, see p. 142. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 183. Our line here di- 
verges to the N.E. — 26 M. Verdello; 3372 M - Bergamo. 

Bergamo. — Hotels. Ale. d'Italia, Via Venti Settembre (PI. C, 5), 
R., L., & A. 2V2-3'/2, B. I1/2, d<y. 3, D. 4, pens. 10, omn. 1 fr.; Concordia, 
Viale Napoleone III. (PI. D, 5, 6), well fitted up, with a trattoria, a garden, 
and electric light, R., L., & A. 2-3 fr. ; Alb. & Ristorante Cavoer, Strada 
Vitt. Emanuele (PI. D, 5), near the Piazza Cavour; Cappello d'Oro, 
Viale Napoleone III. (PI. D, 5), R. IV2-21/2, A. »/« fr i a11 four ln tue new 
town, the last two unpretending. — In the old town : Alb. & Rist. del Sole, 
Piazza Garibaldi ; Alb. & Ristor. Giardinetto, at the Porta S. Agostino, 
with garden and view, R. & A. 1V2-3 fr., L. 30 c, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 31/2, 
pens. 7 fr. 

Cafes. NazionaU, Centrale, both in the Piazza Cavour ; Walker, Piazza 
Garibaldi, all three unpretending. Beer at the Ganibrino, Piazza Cavour. 

Tramways from the Porta S. Bernardino (PI. C, 6) by the Via Venti 
Settembre and the Piazza Cavour to the Porta S. Caterina (PI. E, 2), and 
from the railway-station via the Piazza Cavour to the station of the Cable 
Railway (PI. C, 3). Fare 10 c. — Cab, per hr., 2'/2 fr. — Cable Tramway 
(Funicolare) from the Strada Vitt. Emanuele (PI. C, 3) to the old town (15 c). 

Bergamo (1245 ft.), the ancient Bergomum , a Venetian town 
from 1428 to 1797, now a provincial capital with 23,800 inhab., 
lies at the junction of the Valle Brembana, watered by the Brembo, 
and the Valle Seriana, named after the rapid Serio. This is one of 
the busiest of the smaller trading and manufacturing towns in Italy. 
The once famous fair (Fiera di S. Alessandro, middle of August to 
middle of September) has lost its importance. The town consists of 
two distinct parts, the Citta Alia, picturesquely situated on hills 
(cable-tramway recently opened), and the much larger new quarters 
in the plain (Borgo S. Leonardo, Borgo Pignolo, Borgo S. Tommaso), 
with cotton, silk, and other factories, an interesting piazza (la Fiera; 
PI. D, 4), attractive shops, lively cafe's, and a new Protestant church. 

From the railway-station (PI. D, E, 6) the broad Viale Napo- 
leone III. leads to the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 5), with a statue of 
Victor Emmanuel by Barzaghi (PI. 19). The Via Borfuro leads hence 
to the left to 8. Alessandro in Colonna (PI. 5 ; C, 5) , containing a 
fine Assumption by Romanino. To the right we reach the Via Tor- 


180 Route 29. BERGAMO. S. Maria Maggiore. 

quato Tasso, with the church of S. Bartolommeo (PI. 8; D, 4). 
Behind the high-altar is a large altar-piece by Lor. Lotto (1516), 
*Madonna surrounded by ten saints. — Farther on is S. Spirito (PI. 
17; E, 4), a fine Renaissance building -without aisles. 

Interior. Left, second altar : large "Altarpiece by Borgognone (1508) : 
Descent of the Holy Ghost, God the Father, Annunciation; on the left, 
The Baptist and St. Jerome ; on the right, SS. Augustine and Francis. 
Left, fifth altar: Scipio Laudensis, Madonna between SS. Peter and Paul. 
Right, 4th Chapel: "Lotto, Madonna and four saints; above, angels in a 
glory (1521); 5th chapel, Previtali, Madonna and four saints (1525); 
above, by the same, Resurrection with four saints (finished by Ag. Caver- 
segno). To the right of the high-altar is Previtalis masterpiece: John 
the Baptist, surrounded by SS. Bartholomew, Nicholas of Bari, Joseph, and 
Dominic (1515). 

Farther on, in the Via di Pignolo, are S. Bernardino in Pignolo 
(PI. 10; D, 3), containing a high-altar-piece by *Lotto, Madonna 
and Saints (1521), and 8. Alessandro della Croce (PL 6, D 3; 
Moroni, Madonna; in the sacristy, Lotto, Trinity; Moroni, portrait; 
Previtali, Crucifixion , dated 1514). — The Via Nuova runs in a 
straight direction to the Porta S. Agostino , while the Via di S. 
Tommaso leads to the right to the Aceademia Carrara (see p. 181). 

The Strada Vitt. Emanuele (cable-tramway, see p. 179 ; lower 
station 8 min. to the E. of Piazza Cavour) connects the new town 
with the high-lying Citta Alta, the ramparts (Bastioni) of which 
have been converted into promenades and afford fine views of the 
plain of Lombardy and the Bergamasque Alps. 

From the terminus of the cable-tramway we proceed in a straight 
direction to (3 min.) the Piazza Garibaldi, the former market- 
place, -with the Palazzo Nuovo (PL 22; 0, 2), in the Renaissance style, 
by Scamozzi, but unfinished. The palace is now the Reale Istituto 
Tecnico Vitt. Emanuele. Opposite is the Library, in the Gothic 
Palazzo Vecchio, or Broletto (PL 23 ; C, 2), the groundfloor of which 
consists of an open colonnade, in which is the Monument of Tor- 
quato Tasso (whose father Bernardo was born at Bergamo in 1493). 
In the middle of the piazza is a Bronze Monument ofOaribaldi (1885). 

Behind the library is the Romanesque church of S. Maria 
Maggiore (PL 16; B, C, 2, 3), of 1137, with ancient lion-portals on 
the N. and S. 

The Interior (entrance on the S. side) contains ancient wall-paintings 
under thick tapestry (much injured) and fine carved "Choir-stalls by the 
Bergamasque artists, Franc. Capodiferro and Fra Damiano. The "Intarsia 
work in the central panels (usually covered) was partly designed by Lor. 
Lotto. This church contains the tomb of Cardinal Alessandri (d. at Avignon, 
1319 ; modern canopy) and the monument of the famous composer Donizetti 
of Bergamo (d. 1848), by Vine. Vela; opposite, that of his teacher Qiov. 
Simone Mayr (d. 1845). In the treasury (above the sacristy) are a large 
crucifix (5 ft. high) of the 13th century (?) and several works in niello. — 
The adjoining "Cappella Colleoni (shown by the sagrestano), in the early- 
Renaissance style, has a lavishly sculptured "Facade; the modernized in- 
terior contains the tomb of the founder Bart. Colleoni (d. 1475; p. 275), 
by 0. Ant. Amadeo. The reliefs represent the Bearing of the Cross, Cruci- 
fixion, and Descent from the Cross; at the ends, the Scourging and the 
Resurrection ; below runs a frieze of Cupids, above which are the An nun- 

Accademia Carrara. BERGAMO. 29. Route. 181 

ciation , Nativity , and Magi ; and on the top is the gilded equestrian 
statue of Colleoni by a German master. Adjacent is the smaller, but 
beautiful monument of his daughter Medea. Above the altar on the right 
are good sculptures ; to the left, a Holy Family by Angelica Kaufmann; 
fine intarsia-work (covered) ; ceiling-paintings by Tiepolo. 

The adjoining Cathedral (PI. 13; C, 2) was built from designs by 
Carlo Fontana in 1689 on the site of an earlier edifice. First altar 
to the left: Madonna and saints by G. B. Moroni; in the choir a 
Madonna by Savoldo and behind the high-altar a *Madonna, a late 
work of Oiov. Bellini (1512; generally covered). The adjacent Bap- 
tistery, by Giovanni da Campione (1340), restored in 1864, is 
best viewed from the passage leading to the sacristy. 

We now return to the station of the cable-tramway and proceed 
thence through the Strada Porta Dipinta, passing (right) the church 
of S. Andrea, which contains a Madonna enthroned with four saints, 
by Morelto (altar to the right; covered). Fine view. The street 
leads to a small and hilly piazza with the church of 8. Michele al 
Pozzo Bianco (PI. 18, D2; usually closed), which contains good 
frescoes by Lor. Lotto, representing the Purification and Marriage of 
the Virgin (chapel to the left of the choir). — We may proceed to 
the right through the Via Osmano to the ramparts (p. 180), or con- 
tinue to follow the Strada Porta Dipinta to the left to the Porta S. 
Agostino (PI. D, 2), near which is the old Gothic church of the same 
name (now a barrack). — Just below tha gate is a footpath, lined 
with acacias, descending to the — 

Accademia Carrara (PL 1 ; E, 2), situated a short way outside 
the Porta S. Caterina (tramway, see p. 179), a school of art and 
*Picture Gallery [Galleria Carrara, Gal. Morelli, and Gal. Lochis ; 
open on 1st Sun. and 3rd Thurs. of each month, but daily from 
30th Aug. to 18th Sept. ; shown at other times by the custodian, 
gratuity i/ 2 - l &•)■ Lists of the pictures are provided. Catalogue of 
the Gal. Carrara and the Gal. Lochis 1 fr., of the Gal. Morelli 60 c. 

Galleria Carrara. I. R.: Engravings and Drawings. The paintings 
here include: 25. Previtali, Descent of the Holy Ghost; opposite, 49. Be- 
lotto, Arch of Titus ; 45-48. Zuccarelli, Landscapes. — II. R. : to the left on 
entering, '-66. Lotto, Betrothal of St. Catharine (1523; landscape cut out); 
68. Previtali, Madonna and saints ; 67. Cariani, Invention of the Cross ; 70. 
Francesco da S. Groee, Annunciation (1504; early work); 75-83. Moroni, 
Portraits (80, 4 82, 83, best; 81, an early work). Then, beyond a series of 
portraits ("91 the best) by Ohislandi, the Bergamasque Titian of the 18th 
cent., 97. Previtali, St. Anthony, with SS. Peter, Paul, Stephen, and Law- 
rence ; 98. Gaudenzio Ferrari, Madonna and Child ; 100. Moroni, St. Jerome 
(in Moretto's manner). — III. R. : to the left, 137. Caroto, Massacre of the 
Innocents; 165. Marco Basaiti, Head of Christ (1517) ; *153. Mantegna, Ma- 
donna; farther on, 159. P. Brueghel the Elder, The Woman taken in 
adultery (1565) ; 168. School of Leon, da Vinci, Betrothal of St. Catharine ; 
no number, "Lor. Lotto, Portrait, with fine moonlight landscape ; 183. Pre- 
vitali, Madonna with saints ; farther on, 188. Moroni, Madonna and saints. 

Galleria Morelli, bequeathed in 1891 by the well-known art-critic. — 
I. R. To the left, 3. Vine. Civerchio, Annunciation ; 6. Niccold da Foligno, 
Angel; 7. Bern. Luini, Madonna; Franc. Pesellino, 9. A judgment, "11. 
Marriage of Griselda to' the Lord of Saluzzo (after Boccaccio's Decameron) ; 
17. Vitt. Pisano, Portrait of Lionello d'Este ; 20. Luca Signorelli, Madonna ; 
21. Sandro Botticelli, Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici; 22. Bollraffio, Christ, 

182 Route 2.9. BERGAMO. 

a half-figure; 23. Baldovinelti, Portrait of himself; 26. Ambrogio de Predis, 
Portrait of a man; 27. Giov. Bellini, Madonna; 31. Ercole Grandi, St. John; 
35. Benedetto da Majano, Angel (figure in clay); 41. Giov. Bellini, Madonna; 
44. Bart. Montagna, St. Jerome; farther on, 49. In the style of Lor. di Credt, 
Madonna; 53. Donatello (?), Relief of the Madonna. — II. E. To the left, 

60. Sodoma (?), Madonna; "61. Basaiti, Portrait (1521); 62. Bacchiacca, 
Cain and Abel ; 64. Gavazzola, Portrait ; farther on, 70. Elsheimer, Land- 
scape, with St. Jerome ; 75. A. van Ostade, Boors in a tavern ; s 77. B. 
Fabritius, Satyr and peasant; 79. Mc. Maes, Portrait; 80. Rembrandt, Por- 
trait of a woman (1635); 83. Frans Hals, Portrait of a man; farther on, 
83. Brueghel the Elder, Boors brawling; 88. J. van der Meer of Haarlem, 
Landscape; 91. Empress Frederick of Germany, Transitoriness (1882); 90. 
Lenbach, Portrait of Morelli ; farther on, 98. Morelto, Christ and the Wo- 
man of Samaria; 103. Small water-colour copy of Giorgione, Madonna with 
SS. Eochus and Anthony (original in Madrid). 

GalleriaLochis. I. E. : entrance-wall, 2. Cariani, Portrait of a woman; 
opposite, 55. Moretto, Holy Family. — II. R. : entrance-wall, 179. Giorgione, 
Landscape with mythological accessories ; above the exit-door, 49-51, 84. 
G. Ferrari, Cupids; to the left, 32-34. A. Schiavone, Studies of saints; 35. 
Moroni, Madonna, two saints below; 67. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Agnes 
(a sketch in colours); to the right, 69. Ghislandi, Portrait of a boy; 60, 

61. P. Longhi, Venetian scenes; 47. Tiepolo, Sketch for an altar-piece; 
above, 41, 42. Paris Bordone, Vintage; opposite, 93, 94. Guardi, Views of 
Venice. — III. R. To the left of the entrance, 140. Giov. Bellini, Madonna 
(an early work ; retouched) ; 128. Montagna, Madonna between SS. Se- 
bastian and Rochus (1487); 129. C. Crivelli, Madonna; 138. Giov. Bellini, 
Pieta (an early work); 130. Luini, Holy Family; '137. Boltraffio, Ma- 
donna and Child; 131. Zenale (more probably Ambrogio Borgognone), 
Madonna and Child ; 233. Cosimo Tura, Madonna; 153. Sebast. del Piombo (?), 
Portrait; 151. After Bellini, The doge Loredan (original in London); 154. 
Mantegna (Bonsignoril), Portrait of Vespasiano Gonzaga; 160. Giovenone, 
Madonna with saints ; Mantegna (more probably Gregorio Schiavone), 159. 
St. Alexius, 161. St. Jerome; 168. Pensabene, Adoration of the Child; 235. 
Carpaccio, Nativity of the Virgin ; 170. Caroto , Adoration of the Magi ; 
169. School of Mantegna, Resurrection; 185. Lor. Lotto, Holy Family with 
St. Catharine (1533); 184. Cariani, Portrait of a man; 174. Moroni, Portrait 
of a man; "183. Palma VeccMo, Madonna between SS. John and Mary 
Magdalen; 177. Morelto (not Titian), Christ appearing to a donor (signed 
1518); 223. Garofalo, Madonna and SS. Eochus and Sebastian; 221. Giac. 
Francia, Bearing of the Cross; 207. Raphael, St. Sebastian (early work, 
painted in Perugino's school) ; 222. Antonello da Messina , St. Sebastian ; 
218. Dosso Dossi, Madonna with St. George and a canonized bishop; 225. 

Vine. Foppa, St. Jerome. 

A more extensive view than that from the ramparts (p. 180) is 
obtained from the old Castello (PI. A, 1), about 3/ 4 M. to the N.W. 
of the Porta S. Alessandro (PI. B, 2). Strangers are generally ad- 
mitted. There is a small osteria at the top. — About H/4 M. to the 
W. of the Castello is the Pasco dei Tedeschi, commanding a good 
view of the Valle Brembana. 

Steam Tramway from Bergamo to Romano and Soncino (p. 185) ; from 
Bergamo to Monza, see p. 142. 

From Bergamo (railway - station ; PI. E, 6) to Ponte della Selva, 
18 M., railway in li/2-l 3 /.,hr., through the picturesque and industrial Valle 
Seriana. The train descends into the valley of the Serio. 41/4 M. Alzano 
(where S. Martino contains one of Lotto's best works , Death of Peter 
Martyr; good wood-carvings in the sacristies). 6 M. Nembro ; 8 M. Albino. 
The line ascends, supported at places by arches over the bed of the Serio. 
10'/2 M. Cene; 11 M. Gazzaniga-Fiorano, the latter at the entrance of the 
pretty valley of Gandino. 12y 2 M. Vertova. The train follows the brawling 
Serio, crosses the Bondo descending from the left, the road, the Riso and 
then the Nossa at (17 M.) Ponte di Jfossa. 

P.ONDIONE. 29. Route. 183 

18 M. Fonte della Selva ('Inn) is at present the terminus of the line. 
Road thence by Cluaone (Alb. Oambero, fair; Alb. Reale), with its inter- 
esting church, to Lovere (p. 197). 

Interesting excursion from Ponte della Selva or from Clusone to the 
Bergamasque Alps. — From Clusone we proceed via Ogna and Ardesio to 
the (4V2 M.) Ponte diBriallo, where we reach the road running up the left 
bank of the Serio from Ponte della Selva. We then go on via, (2 l /-z M.) 
Gromo (2198ft.; Osteria deiTerzi; guides, Is. Bonetti, II. Zamboni, A. Scacchi) 
and (4 M.) Fiumenero (2560 ft. ; Inn) to (3 M.) Bondione (2920 ft. ; "Alb. della 
Cascata, above the village, unpretending; guide, Plac. Bonacorsi), the last 
village in the Val Seriana. Bridle-paths lead from here on both banks of 
the Serio (that on the left bank preferable), passing picturesque cascades 
and ravines (Goi di foncc, Goi del ca), to the (2 hxs.) magnificent 'Cascata 
del Serio, which descends in three leaps from a height of about 1000 ft. 
into a romantic caldron environed by snow-clad mountains (best view from 
the Belvedere, with its iron railing). Above the falls is the Pian del Bar- 
bellino (6175 ft.; 3 hrs. from Bondione), with the refuge-hut Ricovero del 
Barbellino, the finely situated starting-point for the ascents of Monte Gleno 
(9460ft.; 31/2-4 hrs.), the Pizzo di Coca (10,015 ft.; 5 hrs.), and the Pizzo 
del Diavolo (9600 ft. ; 5 hrs.). The belvedere (see above) may be visited 
from the refuge-hut in I1/2 hr. — The passage from the Ricovero Barbel- 
lino over the Passo di Caronella (8570 ft.) into the Val Tellina takes 7-8 hrs. 
(guide necessary). The route passes the small Barbellino Lake (6995 ft.) 
and the sources of the Serio and ascends steeply to (3 hrs.) the head of 
the pass, to the W. of Monte Torrena; we then descend through the Valle 
di Caronella to (3 hrs.), Carona (3710 ft. ; accommodation at the Cure's) and 
(l'/ 2 hr.) Tresenda (p. 154). 

From Bergamo to Lovere, 28 M., diligence once daily. — The road 
at first follows the direction of the railway to Brescia and then runs via (8M.) 
Tretcorre, 2 M. to theN.E. of station Qorlago (see below; diligence), with 
frequented sulphur-baths, into the Val Cavallina. [Near Trescorre is the 
Villa Suardi, with admirable frescoes by Lor. Lotto, dating from 1524.] 
The road ascends the Val Cavallina, passing Spinone and the pretty lake 
of the same name, and finally descends to (28 M.) Lovere (p. 197). 

Kailway to Seregno via Ponte S. Pietro (see below) and Usmate-Carnale, 
see p. 144. From Seregno to Saronno, Busto-Arsizio, and Novara, see p. 61. 

From Lecco to Brescia via Bergamo. 
52 M. Railway in 3-3>/2 hrs. (fares 9fr. 40, 6fr. 60, 4fr. 25c). 
Lecco, seep. 145. — 2y 2 M. Maggianico ,-4y 2 M. Caloluo($. 144). 

— 10M. Cisano Bergamasco ; 12y 2 M. Pontida; 14 M. Mapello. — 
16 M. Ponte S. Pietro, with a pretty church and an old castle, the 
junction for Seregno (see above). — We cross the Brembo. 2CH/2 M. 
Bergamo (p. 179). — Near (23</ 2 M.) Seriate the Serio is crossed. 
28 M. Qorlago; Sl^M. Orumello del Monte. The Oglio, descending 
fromLago d'Iseo, is next crossed. 34 M. Palazzolo (branch to Para- 
tico, p. 196); 391/2 M. Coccaglio, with the monastery of Mont' Or- 
fano on a height; 40!/ 2 M. Rovato (p. 184); 44!/ 2 M. Ospitaletto. 

— 52 M. Brescia, see p. 185. 

30. From Milan to Verona. 

93 M. Railway in 3-5V« hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c, 
express, 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10 c). — Railway Stations in Verona, see p. 201. 

Milan, see p. 115. — 7M. Limito; 9y 2 M. Vignnte; 12M. Melzo. 
At (16M.) Cassano d'Adda, a considerable place with handsome 
houses and 3500 inhab., we cross the blue Adda. 

184 Route 30. S0LFER1N0. 

20 M. Treviglio (Regina d'lnghilterra), a town of 10,000 inhab., 
is the junction of lines to Cremona and Bergamo (pp. 176, 179) and 
is also connected by steam-tramways with Milan and Monza (p. 142), 
Bergamo (p. 179), Caravaggio (p. 17(3), and Lodi (p. 299). 

22 l /> M. Vidalengo; 25y 2 M. Morengo. The train crosses the 
Serio, a tributary of the Adda. 28 M. Romano di Lombardia ; 32 M. 
Calcio. The Oglio , which issues from Lago d'Iseo , is crossed. 
36Y2M. Chiari, an old and industrious town of 6000 inhab. ; 401/2 M. 
Rovato (Rail. Restaurant), junction of the Bergamo-Brescia line 
described at p. 183 ; 44y 2 M. Ospitaletto. 

52 M. Brescia, see p. 185. 

From Brescia to Parma , 57 M. , railway in 2 3 /4-3 3 /4 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 
30, 7 fr. 20, 4 fr. 65 c). — The chief intermediate stations are Viadcma 
(14 M. ; p. 2l8),Piadena (31>/» M.; p. 179), junction of the Cremona and 
Mantua line, and (42 M.) Casalmaggiore ip. 178), connected with Cremona 
by steam-tramway. — 57 II. Parma, see p. 304. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. 56 M. Rez- 
zato. The Chiese is crossed. 6IY2 M. Ponte S. Marco. Beyond 
(65 M.) Lonato a short tunnel and a long cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to (68 M.) Desemano 
(p. 191). Admirable survey in clear weather to the left of the blue 
Logo di Oarda and the peninsula of Sermione (p. 192). 

72 M. S. Martino delle Battaglie. A monument on the right 
commemorates the battle of Solferino, where the French and Pied- 
montese under Emp. Napoleon III. and King Victor Emmanuel de- 
feated the Austrians under Emp. Francis Joseph, 24th June, 1859. 

The village of Solferino lies on the S. W. margin of the hills bordering 
the Lago di Garda on the S. , about 7>/2 M. to the S. of Desenzano and 
about 5 M. to the S.W. of S. Martino. It formed the centre of the 
Austrian position, and was taken about 1 p.m. by the French guards. The 
ground northeastwards to the banks of the Lago di Garda was held by 
General Benedek , who repulsed the attacks of the Piedmontese until 
nightfall, and only abandoned his position on receiving the order to retreat. 
The left wing of the Austrian army, attacked by the French under 
General Niel, also maintained its position until late in the afternoon. 
— Hurried travellers content themselves with a visit to the Tower of 
S. Martino, 3 /4 M. to the S. of the railway-station of that name (see 
above). This structure, erected to commemorate the battle of Solferino 
and converted into a military museum in 1893, stands upon a platform 
65 ft. in width and rises to a height of 243 ft. We first enter a circular 
chamber, in the centre of which is a statue by Ant. Dal Zotlo, represent- 
ing Victor Emmanuel II. as the commander of the Italian troops at 
Solferino. On the walls are scenes from the life of the King, and on 
the vaulting are eight allegorical figures representing the chief cities of 
Italy, all painted in wax-colours by Via. Bressanin. The side -chapels 
contain busts of the eight Italian generals who fell in the wars of inde- 
pendence. From the round chamber an easy staircase, ascending through 
two passages, with bronze tablets containing the names of the 650,000 fight- 
ers for the unity of Italy, leads to seven rooms, one above another, 
each containing a battle-painting and reminiscences of one of the seven 
campaigns of the wars. Froin the uppermost room we emerge Ton the 
platform of the tower, which not <;nly commands the I attlefield (chief 
points indicated by arrows) but also affords an extensive "View of the 
Lago di Garda and the chain of the Alps. Near the tower is a Charnel 
House, surrounded by cypresses. 

BRESCIA. 31. Route. 185 

77 M. Peschiera. The station (Restaurant, de"j. orD. 2-3 fr. J lies 
1/2 M. to the E. of the town (*Tre Corone); the pier is near the 
gate, to the right (omn., see p. 194). Peschiera, a strong fortress 
with 1700 inhab., lies at the S.E. end of the Lago di Garda, at 
the efflux of the Mincio , which the train crosses. On 30th May, 
1848, the place was taken by the Piedmontese after a gallant de- 
fence by the Austrian General Rath, which lasted six weeks. 

79^2 M. Castelnuovo di Verona; 83 '/^ M. Sommacampagna ; 
91 M. Verona Porta Nuova. The Adige is crossed ; fine view of the 
town to the left. 93 M. Verona Porta Vescovo, see p. 201. 

31. Brescia. 

Hotels. Hotel Bkescia (formerly Gappello; PI. d, C 3), well spoken 
of; Albeego d'Italia (PI. c; C,3), R., L., & A. 21/2-31/2, B. I1/2, dej. 2i/ 2 , 
D. 31/2, pens. 9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Fenice (PI. a; C, 2, 3), Piazza dei Duomo, 
not too clean, E. 2, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, omn. 3 /t fr. ; Gambeko (PI. b ; C, 3), 
Corso del Teatro, E. & A. 2V 2 , D. 4, B. 1, omn. 1/2 fr. 

Cafes adjacent to the theatre, in the Piazza del Duomo, etc. — ''Railway 

Photographs : Capitanio, near the Porta Venezia. 

Cabs (Cittadine): 85c. per drive, l'/2fr. per hour. 

Tramway from the railway station and Porta Milano to Porta Venezia. 
— Steam Tramway via, Orzinuovi, Soncino (p. 182), Crema (p. 176), and Lodi 
(p. 299) to Milan (p. 115) ; vizGuidizzolo, on the battlefield of Solferino (p. 184 ; 
2 3 /4 hrs.), to Mantua (p. 214; 4'/4 hrs.); to Gardone-Val-Trompia (IV2 hr.); 
via Piatone (with a celebrated Madonna by Moretto in 1he mountain- 
chapel, V* M. above the village) and Tormini to Said (p. 192; 21/2 hrs.), 
and thence in *j\ hr. more to Gardone-Riviera (p. 192); via Tormini to 
Barghe (p. 195) and to Vestone (p. 195). 

Railway to Verona and to Milan, see E. 30; to Bergamo and Lecco, 
p. 183; to Iseo, p. 196; to Cremona and thence via, Codogno to Pavia, 
p. 175, or to Piacenza, p. 299 ; to Parma via, Piadena, p. 184. 

Principal Attractions (1 day). Municipio (p. 187) ; S. Giovanni Evan- 
gelista (p. 187); Cathedral (p. 186) ; Tosio and Martinengo Galleries (pp. 189, 
190); SS. Nazzaro e Celso (p. 190); S. Francesco (p. 190); S. Clemente 
(p. 189); Museum of Antiquities (p. 188); walk near the Castello (p. 191). 

Brescia (460 ft.), with 43,400 inhab., capital of a province, is 
beautifully situated at the foot of the Alps, and its numerous foun- 
tains of limpid water lend it an additional charm. Iron wares, 
and particularly weapons (hence 'Brescia armata'), form the staple 
commodities, many of the fire-arms used by the Italian army being 
made here. The woollen, linen, and silk factories are also worthy of 

Brescia, the ancient Gallic Brixia, afterwards a Eoman colony, vied 
with Milan at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest 
cities of Lombardy, but in 1512 was sacked and burned by the French 
under Gaston de Foix (p. 352) after an obstinate defence. Five years later 
it was restored to Venice, to which it belonged till 1797, but it has 
never recovered its ancient importance. On 1st April, 1849, the town was 
bombarded and taken by the Austrians under Haynau. — Arnold of Brescia, 
a pupil of Abelard, was one of the most prominent leaders of the reforming 
movement in Italy in the middle ages; he attacked the secular power 
and wealth of the clergy, and after being excommunicated by Hadrian IV., 
was executed in 1155. 

Brescia is noteworthy in the history of art as the birthplace of 

186 Route 31. BRESCIA. Duomo Nuovo. 

Alessandro Bonvicino, surnamed il Mokktto (1498-1555), who appears 
to have studied exclusively at his native place, and whose teacher is said 
to have "been Floriano Ferramola of Brescia. There seems to be no ground 
for the assumption that he was influenced by Titian and the Roman school. 
Like the Veronese masters, he is distinguished from the Venetian school, 
with which he has erroneously been classed, by the comparative soberness 
of his colouring ('subdued silvery tone'), although he vies with the Vene- 
tians in richness and brilliancy, while he snmetirnes reveals a full measure 
of the ideality of the golden period of art. Bonvicino began his career 
as a painter in his 18th year. He rarely extended the sphere of his labours 
beyond his native place , and Brescia is therefore abundantly stored with 
his works. The churches here (such as S. Clemente, p. 189) display his 
fertility, both as a painter 'al fresco' and in oils, forming quite a museum 
of his pictures. S. Giovanni Evangelista (p. 187), SS. Nazzaro e Celso 
(p. 190), Madonna de' Miracoli (p. 190), and the Galleria Martinengo (p. 190) 
all contain admirable specimens of his powers. Among Moretto's pupils 
was Giov. Batt. Moroni (1510-78), one of the best portrait-painters of the 
Renaissance. Another eminent master of Brescia, a contemporary of 
Bonvicino, was Qirol. Romanino (1485-1566); his best works are to be 
seen in S. Francesco (p. 191), S. Giov. Evangelista (p. 187), and at Padua. 
— Brescia also contains several interesting antiquities (p. 188). 

From the station (PI. A, 4) the town is entered at its S.W. 
angle by the Porta Stazione, whence the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
leads N.E. to the Piazza Vecchia, in the centre of the town (p. 187). 

To the E. of the Piazza Vecchia is the *Duomo Nuovo (PI. 8; 
C,3), or episcopal cathedral, begun in 1604 by Lattanzio Gambara 
(but the dome not completed till 1825) , one of the best churches 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is in the form of a Greek cross, 
with a lengthened choir. 

Interior. By the first pillar on the right is the large 'Monument of 
Bishop Nava (d. 1831) , with groups in marble and a relief by Monti of 
Ravenna ; by the first pillar on the left the monument of Bishop Ferrari. 
The second altar on the right is adorned with modern statues in marble 
of Faith, by Selaroni, and Hope, by Emanueli. and a modern painting, 
Christ healing the sick , by Gregoletti. Then (3rd altar on right) a sar- 
cophagus with small "High-reliefs (date about 1500), containing 'Corpora 
D. D. Apollonii et PMlastri\ transferred hither in 1674 from the crypt of 
the old cathedral. — High-altar-piece, an Assumption by Zoboli, designed 
by Conca. In the dome the four Evangelists, alto-reliefs in marble. 

From a door between the 2nd and 3rd altars 25 steps descend 
to the Duomo Vecchio (PI. 9 ; C, 3) , generally called La Botonda 
(undergoing restoration), situated on the low ground to the S. of 
the Duomo Nuovo (shown by the sacristan of the Duomo Nuovo, 
who lives at the back of the choir). 

This massive dome-structure is circular, as its name imports, with an 
ambulatory, and rests on eight short pillars in the interior. The sub- 
structure is very ancient (9th cent.), while the drum and cupola (Ro- 
manesque) date from the 12th century. The transept and choir with 
lateral chapels at the back were added at a very early period. Altar- 
piece, an "Assumption by Moretlo (1526) ; on the right side, a Presentation 
in the Temple, and on the left SS. Mary and Elizabeth, by Romanino; on 
the left, Palma Vecchio (?)■, Holy Family (retouched). — Below the dome 
is the crypt, or Basilica di S. Filastro, supported by 42 columns. 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the *Biblioteca Quiriniana (Bibl. Comunale; PI. 5, C3; fee '^fr.), 
of 40,000 vols., bequeathed to the town in 1750 by Cardinal 
Quirini. Several curiosities are preserved in a separate cabinet. 

Municipio. BRESCIA. 31. Route. 187 

(Admission daily , 11-3, in winter 10-3, except Wed., Sun., and 
high festivals; vacation from 1st Oct. to 2nd Nov. J 

Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent, with gold letters on purple 
vellum; Koran in 12 vols., with miniatures and gilding; an old Book of 
the Gospels, and a Harmony of the Gospels by EuseMus (10th cent.), 
with miniatures; MS. of Dante on parchment, with miniatures; a Petrarch 
of 1470 with various illustrations CPetrarca flgurato') and written annota- 
tions; a Dante with numerous wood- cuts, printed at Brescia in 1487, etc. 

The Broletto(Pl. 29 ; C, 2), adjoining the cathedral on the N., 
is a massive building of the 12th cent., but afterwards disfigured. 
Anciently the town-hall, it now contains the courts of justice, and 
part of it is used as a prison. Handsome court, partly in the Re- 
naissance style. The Campanile on the S. side, la Torre delPopolo, 
belongs to the original edifice. — A well-preserved fragment of 
Gothic architecture in the street ascending hence, with circular 
windows and brick mouldings, is also interesting. 

TotheW.,neartheBroletto, lies the picturesque Piazza Vecchia, 
in which rises the *Municipio (PI. 30; B, C, 2), usually called la 
Loggia , begun by Fromentone of Vicenza in 1489 on the ruins of 
a temple of Vulcan , with a 'putto' frieze by Jacopo Sansovino and 
window-mouldings by Palladio. The interior was half destroyed by 
a fire in 1575. The exterior of this magnificent structure is almost 
overladen with ornamentation. On the groundfloor is a deep colon- 
nade ; in front are pillars with columns in the wall. The upper floor 
recedes considerably. — The handsome adjacent building on the 
right, the Archivio e Camera Notarile (PL 1), is probably also by 
Formentone. (The traveller should walk round the whole building.) 

On the opposite side of the Piazza , above an arcade, rises the 
Torre dell' Orologio , or clock-tower , with a large dial (twice 1 to 
12). The bell is struck by two iron figures as at Venice (p. 248). 
— To the left rises a Monument, erected by Victor Emmanuel II. in 
1864 to the Brescians who fell during the gallant defence of their 
town against the Austrians in 1849 (PI. 26.) — The third side of 
the piazza is occupied by the Monte di Pietti (formerly the Prigioni), 
a plain Renaissance building with a handsome loggia. 

In the Via della Palata, leading to the Corso Garibaldi, on the 
left, is the Torre delta Palata (PI. 35; B, 2), a mediaeval tower 
with modern pinnacles. — In a side-street to the N. is S. Gio- 
vanni Evangelista (PI. 19 ; B, 2), with admirable pictures. 

We begin on the right. 3rd Altar : Moretto , Massacre of the Inno- 
cents , a youthful work , of Raphaelite conception. In the choir, behind 
the high-altar: "Moretto, John the Baptist, Zacharias, SS. Augustine and 
Agnes; in the centre the Madonna; above, God the Father (unfortunately 
retouched). — In the next chapel : Civerchio, Entombment ; in the lunette 
above, Coronation of the Virgin by Romanino. 'Frescoes on the right by 
Moretto (youthful works of 1521 , showing the influence of Romanino) : 
Collecting the manna, Elijah, and Last Supper, on the pilasters St. Mark 
and St. Luke, and prophets above. Those on the left are by Romanino: 
Raising of Lazarus, Mary Magdalen before Christ, and the Sacrament, 
on the pilasters St. John and St. Matthew (the latter damaged). The 
prophets above are by Moretto. Over the next altar : Romanino , Nuptials 

188 Route 31. BRESCIA. Museum of Antiquities. 

of Mary (retouched). In the Battistero (in front, to the left) : 'Francesco 
Francia, The Trinity adored by saints. 

"We next visit S. Maria del Carmine (PL 22; C, 1), with a 
Renaissance portal and fine brick ornamentation on the facade. 
The lunette contains a fresco by Ferramola. In the third chapel 
on the right, Fathers of the Church, a ceiling-painting by Foppa. 
To the left of the church are two fine courts. 

To the W., near the Porta Milano, is the church of S. Maria 
delle Grazie (PI. 23 ; A, 2), with several paintings by Moretto. 

1st altar to the right, Martyrdom of St. Barbara, by Francesco da Prato 
(pupil of Titian) ; 4th altar on the right, St. Anthony of Padua and St. An- 
tonius the Hermit by Moretto ; chapel to the right of the choir, Madonna 
in clouds, below, SS. Sebastian, Ambrose, and Eochus by Moretto; over 
the high-altar a Nativity of Christ, by Moretto ; 1st altar to the left, Ma- 
donna in clouds, with four saints below, by Foppa. — The church is ad- 
joined on the left by a small early-Renaissance court. 

Beside the Porta Milano is a bronze equestrian statue of Garibaldi, 
designed by Maccagni (1889). — Tramway, see p. 185. 

To the B. of the Piazza Vecchia, passing the N. side of the 
Broletto (p. 187), we come to a small piazza, to the left in which 
is the entrance to the *Museum of Antiquities (Museo Civico 
Eth Romana; PI. 28, D 2; week-days 10-4, Nov. to Feb. 10-3, 
fee 1 fr., which admits also to the Mediaeval Museum; free on the 
first and third Sun. in each month and on each Sun. and Thurs. in 
August, 1-4; visitors knock). The museum occupies an ancient Cor- 
inthian temple, excavated in 1822, which, according to inscriptions, 
was erected by Vespasian in A.D. 72. The dilapidated, but exceed- 
ingly picturesque temple stands on a lofty substructure, with a pro- 
jecting colonnade of ten columns and four pillars to which the steps 
ascend, and has three cellae of moderate depth. 

The pavement of the Pkincipal Hall has been restored from the 
original remains. By the back-wall, as in the other chambers, is placed 
an ancient altar. Among the Roman inscriptions and sculptures is an 
archaic head ; also two tombs of the flint period. — The Side-Room on 
the right contains ancient glass, vases, coins, bronzes, etc. — In the Room 
on the left are fragments of a colossal temple-figure, architectural frag- 
ments, gilded busts, a relief of a naval battle, breastplate of a war-horse, 
and above all a statue of "Victory, excavated in 1826 , a bronze figure 
about 6'/a ft. in height, with a silver-plated diadem round her head, a 
(restored) shield, on which she is about to write, in her left hand, and 
a (restored) helmet under her left foot, one of the most precious existing 
specimens of ancient plastic art. 

The Via San Zeno leads hence E. to the Via dei Padri Riformati, 
at the end of which, on the right, is the old church of S. Oiulia, con- 
taining the Mediaeval Museum [Museo Civico Eth Cristiana; PI. 27, 
D2; adra. same price and times as the Museum of Antiquities, 
see above). 

In the Vestibule, bust of Paolo Sarpi (p. 271). In the New Part of the 
church , on the wall to the left , fine weapons , architectural remains 
with interesting ornaments of the Lombard period, early mediaeval sculp- 
tures , Majolicas; in front the 'Cross of St. Helen', of 8th cent, work- 
manship, decorated with gems of various periods and a miniature glass 
painting, three portraits of the 5th cent; in the centre, ivory reliefs, 
including consular diptychs of Boethins and Lampadius (5th cent.) and 

Pal. Tosh. BRESCIA. 31. Route. 189 

the Diptychon Quirinianum , medallions , Renaissance bronzes ; on the 
wall Venetian glass, small figures in marble from a tribuna in the Bro- 
letto, marble door (16th cent.) from a church at Chiari. The cabinet on 
the right contains Limoges and Venetian enamel , and the 'Lipsanoteca' 
or sides of a reliquary of the 4th cent., carved in ivory and arranged in 
the form of a cross. — In the Old Paet of the church the monument of 
the Venetian general Orsini (1510) , and the Mausoleum of Marcantonio 
Martinengo (16th cent.) , with reliefs in bronze , from the church of S. 
Cristo (the facade of which, with its interesting brick ornamentation, rises 
on a height to the right in front of the museum). The lectern opposite is 
adorned with intarsia by Rajfaello da Brescia (1518). — On the back-wall 
a fresco of the 16th cent., below which we look through a window into 
the old church of S. Salvalore, with capitals of the 6th cent, and a crypt. 

From the Mediaeval Museum a street descends to a small piazza, 
■where remains of an ancient edifice are built into the wall of 
No. 285. A little to the left is — 

S. Clemente (PI. 15 ; D, 3), a small church containing a modern 
monument of Moretto (p. 186 ; to the left) and five of his works, 
much injured by retouching. The church is badly lighted and is 
closed 9-12; sacristan in the lane to the W. 

On the right, 2nd altar, ! 'SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes, Agatha, and 
Lucia: a charming composition, in which the repellant attributes of 
martyrdom are handled with such marvellous naivete as almost to assume 
an attractive air (G. <t C). On the left, 1st altar, St. Ursula; 2nd altar, 
Madonna with SS. Catharine of Alexandria, Catharine of Siena, Paul, and 
Jerome; 3rd altar, Abraham and Melchisedech. *High-altar-piece, Madonna 
with St. Clement and other saints. 

A little to the S.E. is S. Maria Calchera (PI. 21 ; D, 3). First 
altar to the left: Simon the Pharisee and Christ by Moretto. Second 
altar to the right : St. Apollonius by Romanino. High-altar : Visit- 
ation, by Calisto da Lodi (1525). 

Besides the above museums , the town also possesses valuable 
collections of ancient and modern pictures , drawings , engravings, 
sculptures, etc., the modern portion of which, together with a few 
ancient pictures, is preserved in the *Palazzo Tosio (PL 24; D, 3), 
Via Tosio. Adm. as to the Museum of Antiquities (p. 188; fee 
1 fr., which also admits to the Pal. Martinengo (see p. 190). 

The palace and its collections were bequeathed to the town by Count 
Tosio. Room IV: 3, 21. Massimo d'Azeglio, Landscapes. — Room VI: -1, 
*2. Thorvaldsen, Night and Day. — Room IX : 1. Baruzzi, Silvia, a statue 
in marble, from Tasso. — Room X: "Hi. Thorvaldsen, Ganymede. — 
Octagon : 1. Barlolini, Boy treading grapes ; 2. Gandolfi (after Thorvaldsen), 
Genius of Music. — Cabinet op Eleonoea: 1. Eleonora d\Este, a bust by 
Canova. — Rooms XIII and XIV contain earlier works. Room XIII: 5. 
Fr. Album, Venus ;;nd Graces; 12. Raibolini, surnamed Francia, Madonna 
and Child; 13. Cesare da Sesto (? more probably Timoteo Viti), Young 
Christ; 14. Tintoretto, Portrait; 17. Luca d'Olanda (?), Nun and woman 
praying; 18. Portrait, of the school of P. Veronese; 29, 30. Giov. Bait. 
Moroni, Portraits; '34. Lor. Lotto, Adoration of the Child; 35. School of 
Raphael, Madonna; 36. Moretto, Annunciation (early work); *37. Raphael, 
Christ teaching, with crown of thorns and wounds (painted in Florence 
still under Umbrian influence; 1505); 38. Fra Barlolommeo , Holy Family 
(spoiled by retouching); 3J. Moretto, Tiillia of Aragon as daughter of He- 
rodias. — Room XIV (entrance-room) : 33. Caravaggio, Flute-player. Rooms 
XV and XVI, on the groundfloor, contain modern works. Room XVI: 
1. Laocoon, in marble, by Ferrari ; 4. Monti, Bust of Galileo ; 5, 6. Copies 
of Canova's colossal busts of himself and of Napoleon I. by Gandolfi. 

190 Route 31. BRESCIA. 

Most of the older works of art are contained in the *Palazzo 
Martinengo (first floor), Via S. Gaetano (PI. D, 4), the most val- 
uable being pictures by Moretto and other Brescian masters. Ad- 
mission, as to the Museum of Antiquities (p. 188) 

This palace with its treasures of art was bequeathed by Count Mart- 
inengo. Boom B : 8. Gambara (p. 186), Portrait of himself; 9. Moretto, Holy 
Family (fresco) ; 10,11. Romanino, Christ at Emmaus and Magdalen at Jesus' 
feet ; end-wall, to the left, 16. Giov. Donato Montorfano (?), St. George killing 
the dragon; 13. Moretto, Adoration of the Infant Christ; "17. Moretto, The 
disciples at Emmaus ; 14. Romanino, SS. Paul, John, and other saints; 
Romanino, 15. Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, 18. Portrait; 19. 
Moretto (?), Portrait. Opposite, 23, 24, 25. Romanino, Bearing of the Cross, 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Descent from the Cross ; 26. Moretto, Suffering 
Christ; "27. Moretto, Madonna in clouds, with angels, St. Francis, and 
donors below (1542) ; ~*28. Moretto , Madonna enthroned with saints, from 
the church of S. Eufemia; 29. Moretto, Descent of the Holy Ghost; no 
number, *St. Nicholas presenting school-children to the Madonna (1539). 
— EoomC: 1. Ferramola (?), Bearing of the Cross; 4. Qambara, Apollo; 
5. Moretto, Madonna with the Child and St. John (restored and spoiled); 
7. Venetian School, Madonna and Child; 8. Calisto da Lodi, Adoration of 
the Child (fresco ; 1524) ; 9. Civerchio, St. Nicholas ; 10. Savoldo, Adora- 
tion of the Child ; 13. Francia, Madonna ; 16. Unknown Artitt (not Gior- 
gione), Portrait. — Room D: at the exit, 15. Van Dyci (?), Madonna with 
the Child and St. John ; 16. Clouet, surnamed Janet, Portrait of Henri III. 
of France. — Room E. Drawing by Tiepolo, opposite the window. 

Near the Pal. Martinengo is S. Afra (PI. 12; D, 4), erected on 
the site of a temple of Saturn, and entirely rebuilt in 1580. 

High-altar-piece: Tintoretto, Ascension, in which the blue of the sky 
is the predominant colour. Over the N. door: "Titian (or Giul. Campit), 
Christ and the adulteress (generally covered). Over the N. altars : 2. P. 
Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra (in the foreground, among the beheaded, 
is the head of the painter); 1. Palma Giovane, Brescian martyrs. 

The church of S. Alessandro (PI. 13 ; 0, D, 4), a few yards to 
the W., contains (1st altar to the right) an Annunciation (covered), 
ascribed, to Fra Angelico, but really by a N. Italian master influenced 
by Gen. da Fabriano. — 2nd altar to the right: Civerchio, Pieta. 

SS. Nazzaro e Celso (PI. 11 ; A, 3), in the Corso Carlo Alberto, 
built in 1780, contains several good pictures. 

*High-altar-piece by Titian, in five sections, the Resurrection being 
the principal subject; on the right St. Sebastian, on the left St. George 
with the portrait of Averoldo, the donor (1522) ; above these the Annun- 
ciation ('long an object of study to the artists of the Brescian School' : 
C. <t C). — Second altar on the left, "Coronation of the Virgin, with SS. 
Michael, Joseph, Nicholas, and Francis below, by Moretto ('this altar-piece 
is the very best of its kind, cold perhaps in silver-grey surface, but full 
of bright harmony and colour 1 : C. <fc C). — Third altar on the right, 
Christ in glory (1541); fourth altar on the left, Nativity, with SS. Nazzaro 
and Celso, also by Moretto, sadly damaged. — In the sacristy, above the 
side-door, Tredella by Moretto, Adoration of the Child, Madonna and 
angel in medallions. Above the side-doors of the main portal of the 
church is a large painting of the Martyrdom of Nazarius and Celsus, 
ascribed to Foppa. On the organ-wing an Annunciation by Foppa. 

Madonna dei Miracoli (PI. 10 ; B, 3), near S. Nazzaro, a small 
church with four domes and rich facade, is an early-Renaissance 
building of the end of the 15th century. — A little to the N. is 
S. Francesco (PI. 18; B, 3), with Gothic facade ; 1st chapel on the 

ojy-S [ rami-iox 

LAGO DI GARDA. 32. Route. 191 

left, Fr. da Prato, Sposalizio (1547; covered); 3rd chapel on the 
right, *Moretto, SS. Margaret, Francis, and Jerome (signed 1530); 
over the high -altar, Romanino, Madonna and saints, a master- 
piece and a brilliant piece of colouring (about 1510; in an older 
frame, 1502). 

About V2 M. from the Porta Milano (PI. A, 2) lies the pretty Campo 
Santo, to which an avenue of cypresses leads from the high-road. Fine 
view from the tower. — A picturesque walk may be taken in the gar- 
dens beneath the Castello (PI. C, D, 2); best towards evening. 

32. The Lago di Garda. 

Steamboat. W. Bank (the more picturesque), between Desenzano and 
Riva, daily in 4 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c). Stations Sermione (not on 
all trips), Manerba, S. Felice di Scovolo, Said, Oardone-Riviera, Maderno, 
Qargnano, Tignale, Tremosine , Malcesine (E. bank, see below; on some 
trips only), Limone, Riva. — E. Bank, between Riva and Peschiera, daily in 
i l li hrs. (fares 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 50 c). Stations Torbole, Malcesine, Assenza, 
Magugnano, Gastelletto, Qargnano (W. bank, see above) , Torri , Garda, 
Bardolino, Lazise, Peschiera. — Enquiries should be made on the spot. 
Some of the steamboats are inferior to those on the western lakes. Sea- 
sickness is not unknown in rough weather. Restaurants indifferent. 
Tickets are obtained on board the steamers, and payments are made in 
Italian money (stamp 10 c). There is no charge for embarking or dis- 
embarking at the small-boat stations (comp. also p. 147). — Luggage under- 
goes a custom-house examination at Riva. 

The Lago di Qarda (210 ft.), the Lacus Benacus of the Romans, 
the largest of the N. Italian lakes , is 34 M. in length , and 3- 
11 M. broad; area 189 sq. M., depth in many places upwards of 
1000 ft. It belongs to Italy, except the N. extremity with Riva, 
which is Austrian. The lake is rarely perfectly calm, and in stormy 
weather is almost as rough as the sea, as recorded by Virgil (Georg. 
ii. 160). The water is of an azure blue. 

The banks , although inferior in attraction to those of the Lake of 
Como, present a great variety of beautiful landscapes, enhanced by the 
imposing expanse of the water. The shores of the S. half are flat and well 
cultivated, but they become bolder between Capo S. Vigilio and a point 
to the N. of Said, where the lake contracts. The vegetation is luxuriant, 
especially on the more sheltered W. bank. Even the sensitive lemon 
(limone) arrives at maturity here , but in winter the trees require to be 
carefully enclosed by wooden shelters (serre). This is done with the aid 
of numerous brick pillars 20 ft. in height, erected at regular intervals of 
8 ft., and united by cross-beams at the top. The fruit is more bitter and 
aromatic than that of Sicily, suffers less from carriage, and keeps longer. 
Price according to the season 3-10 fr. per hundred. — The carpione, or sal- 
mon-trout, which attains 25 lbs., the trola, or trout, the anguilla, or eel, 
and the luccio, or pike, are excellent fish. 

Desenzano (Hot. Royal Mayer, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. i 1 /^ 1 /^ 
dej. 3-4, D. 4-5, pens. 7-10, omn. Y2 f r. ; Due Colombe, R., L., 
& A. 2-3 fr., B. 80 c, pens. 6-8 fr., with small garden on the lake, 
well spoken of; Rail. Restaurant, not recommended), a busy town 
with 3100 inhab., at the S.W. angle of the lake, is a station on 
the railway from Milan to Verona (p. 184). Hotel-omnibus from 
the pier to the railway-station 50 c. ; one-horse cab, 1-2 pers. 1 fr., 
3 pers. IV2 fr. ; each large piece of luggage 25 c. The drivers usually 

1 92 Route 32. GARD ONE-RIVIERA. Logo di Garda. 

try to overcharge. One-horse carriage to Salo and Gardone-Riviera 
(see below), 8-9 fr. (bargain advisable). Fine view from the Break- 
water, constructed in 1893. — Excursion to the battlefield of Sol- 
ftrino , see p. 184 (one-horse carr. 8-12 fr.; bargaining necessary). 

West Bank from Desenzano to Riva. Some of the steamers call 
first at the harbour of Sermione (Promessi Sposi), a fishing-village 
near the N. end of the narrow promontory of the same name, project- 
ing 2^2 M. into the lake, which here attains its greatest breadth, 
about 3^2 M. to the E. of Desenzano, whence it may also be reached 
by boat (with one rower 5, with two 8 fr.) or by carriage (5 fr.). 

The village adjoins the handsome ruin of a castle of the Scaligers 
(p. 202). We cross the olive-clad height, past the little church of S. 
Pietro , to (1 M.) the extremity of the peninsula , where we obtain a 
charming 'View. On the hill are remains of baths , and on the pro- 
montory are relics of a building extending into the lake, said to have been 
the country-house of Catullus, who wrote his poems here ('peninaularum, 
Sirmio, insularumque ocelle'). Tennyson celebrates 'olive-silvery' Sirmio 
and its connection with Catullus in .one of the most musical of his short 

Farther on, the steamboat steers near the bank, but does not 
touch at the villages of Moniga and Manerba. Opposite the pro- 
montory of S. Vigilio (p. 194) we pass the small Isola di S. Biagio 
and the beautiful crescent-shaped Isola di Oarda, belonging to the 
Duca Deferrari, with fine terraces and pleasure-grounds. The steamer 
now steers to the W. and enters the bay of — 

Salo {Hotel Salb , in an open situation, with a garden on the 
lake, R. from l 1 /^ pens. 8 fr. ; Europa, at the tramway-station, R. 
l^ir-i both well spoken of), a town with 3200 inhab. and manu- 
factories of Acqua di CeJro (liqueur). It is surrounded with terraces 
of fragrant lemon-groves and lies at the foot of Monte S. Barto- 
lommeo (1865 ft.), which affords a charming view, especially by 
evening-light. The Parish Church contains several pictures of the 
Brescian and Veronese Schools : on the pillar to the right of the 
high-altar, *Adoration of the Child, by Torbido;jj4th altar on the right, 
Christ in Hades, by Zenon of "Verona (1537). In S. Bernardino, 
2nd altar on the left, *Altar-piece by Romanino (1529), S. Bona- 
ventura with a donor and angels. 

Carr. with one horje to (12 M.) Desenzano in 2 hrs., 7 fr. ; steam- 
tramway to Brescia five times daily, see p. 185; to Vestone, changing at 
Tormini, see p. 195. Diligence to Gargnano (p. 193). 

We here reach the Riviera, a warm coast-strip, noted for its 
luxuriant vegetation, with numerous villages and country-houses. 
In the evening it sparkles with electric lights all the way from Salo 
to Toscolano. — A little farther on is — 

Gardone-Riviera. — Hotels. 'Hot. Gakdone- Riviera, with 150 
rooms, gardens, covered promenade, electric lighting , etc., pens, from 
7'/2fr., closed from May 15th to Sept. 15th; 'Pens. Aurora, on the road to 
Salo, 6-10 fr. ; Pens. Hxbeblin, pens, from 672 fr. — "Alb. Gigola, in Fasano 
(p. 193), unpretending, pens, inch wine 6 fr. — Physicians. Dr. von 
Frantziut; Dr. Koniger ; Dr. Heinzelmann. — Apartments moderate, to be 
obtained also in Gardone di Sopra, Fasano, and Salo. 

Layo di Garda. MALCESINE. 32. Route. 193 

Oardone-Biviera, in a sheltered and sunny situation, has become 
within the last few years a favourite winter-resort for consumptive 
and nervous invalids. Its remarkably uniform climate is the warm- 
est in the N. of Italy. The mean winter temperature is about 
40° Fahr. (Arco 38°, Mentone 50°) , while the hygrometer shows a 
nearly uniform moisture of 78 per cent, similar to that of Montreux. 

Excursions. To the Barbarana Ravine, l fc hr. ; return by Morgnaga and 
the '■Little Rigi'. — To Gardone di Sopra, with a fine view beyond the 
church and the beautiful gardens of the Villa Cargnacco; from the latter 
we may proceed to the left to (1 hr.) Fasano. — To <S. Michele (1325ft.), a 
high-lying church, affording a fine view of the lake and of the Val di Sur, 
l!/4 hr. ; we may return along the slope of Monte Lavino, via, Sopiane and 
Gardone di Sopra (l'/z hr.). — The charming excursion (2 hrs.) to the ro- 
mantic and profound * Toscolano Ravine , with its paper-mills , may be 
made by carriage. We may return via, Gaino, the church of which (990 ft.) 
commands a fine view. — By carriage (IV4 hr.) or steamer to Oargnano, 
see below. — By boat 1IV2 hr.) to the promontory of Maneroa (715 ft ; 
view of the whole lake ; 7 fr.). — By boat to the Isola di Qarda (see p. 192), 
in 3/4 hr. (3 fr.). — By steam-tramway (p. 195) to Lake Idro. 

Ascents. "Monte S. Bartolommeo (1865 ft.), ascended in 2 hrs., see p. 1S2. 

— Other good points of view are Mte. Roccolo (16C0ft.; l'/zhr.); Monte Lavino 
(2975 ft.; 21/2-3 hrs.), and 'Monte Pizzocolo (5195 ft.; 5-6 hrs., with guide). 

— A fine excursion may be made from Tormini (p. 195) via the Madonna 
delta Neve (2900ft.) to the top of Monte Selva (3166 ft.; 2 hrs.). 

We next pass Fasano, 20 min. to the N. of Gardone-Riviera, 
and the beautifully situated villa of the late minister Zanardelli. 
At Maderno, on a promontory extending far into the lake, is the 
church of St. Andrea (by the harbour), a basilica of the 8th cent., 
altered in the interior, with fine facade and Roman inscription and 
relief on the external wall. Behind rises the Monte Pizzocolo (see 
above). Next come Toscolano , Cecina , and Bogliaco ; then Gar- 
guano (*Cervo), an important - looking village amidst lemon and 
olive-plantations, one of the finest points on the lake. Diligence in 
connection with the tramway from Salo to Brescia, see pp. 195, \ 85. 

The mountains become loftier. The hamlets of Muslone, Piovere, 
Tignale, and Oldese are almost contiguous. Tremosine, in a lofty 
situation, is scarcely visible from the lake. In a bay farther on are 
the white houses olLimone, another lemon and olive producing village. 
We cross the Austrian frontier a little beyond La Nova, and soon ob- 
tain a view of the Ponale Falls and the Ledro road (see p. 194). 

Riva, see p. 194. 

E. Bank from Riva to Peschieha. The first station is Torbole 
(Bertolini ; boats kept by P. Tamanini, to Riva 1, to the Ponale 
Falls IY2 fl.)> prettily situated not far from the mouth of the Sarca, 
21/2 M. to the E. of Riva on the road to Mori (p. 18). The vessel 
steers S. to — 

Malcesine (Beppo Toblini, opp. the chemist's), a good harbour, 
with a picturesque old castle now occupied by custom-house officers. 
Goethe was arrested here when sketching by the Venetian officials 
(see his 'Italienische Reise'). The parish-church contains a Descent 
from the Cross by Girol. dai Libri. a richly coloured masterpiece. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 13 

194 Route 32. IUVA. Lago di Garda 

Beyond the castle rises the rocky Isoletto delC Olivo ; then Cas- 
sone, and a little farther the islet of Trimelone. The next stations 
are Assenza, Magugnano, Castelletto, Pai, and Torri. The banks 
become flatter. The promontory of S. Vigilio, with the Villa Brenzoni, 
2 1 / i M. to the W. of Garda, sheltered from the N. by Monte Baldo 
(p. 195), extends far into the lake, and is the finest point of view 
on the E. bank. The hills are covered with vines, fig-trees, olives, 
and other fruit-trees. The picturesque old town of Garda (2Ve 
Corone, poor), with 1000 inhab., in a beautiful bay at the influx of 
the Tesino , which descends from Monte Baldo, gives the lake its 
name. The chateau, belonging to Count Albertini of Verona, stands 
in a beautiful park, which is often open to the public. About 2 1 / i M. 
to the S. E. is the Rocca (964 ft.), with a ruined castle. Upon the 
wooded heights opposite are the hermitages of S. Eremo (1014 ft.). 
— From Garda to the Monte Baldo and Verona, see pp. 195, 213. 

The next places are Bardolino and Lazise, with a picturesque 
old castle. 

Peschiera, see p. 185. The station is on the E. side of the town, 
^2 M. from the pier (omnibus 50 c, one-horse carr. 1 ft.). 

Riva. — The Railway Station (Restaurant) lies about V2 M. to the E. 
of the steamboat-pier. 

Hotels. Sole d'Oko (HQtel Imperial zur Sonne), with terrace on the 
lake, R. facing the lake from 1 fl. 20, L. & A. 40, B. 5X1 kr., D. I1/2, pens, 
from 2 fl. 80 kr. ; Hot. -Pens, dv Lac, with large garden and baths, 3/4 M. 
to the E., on the Torbole road, R., L.. & A. I1/2 fl., pens, from 2>/2-3 fl.; Hot.- 
Pens. Riva, R., L., & A. i-l!/2 A-, B. 45 kr. ; Bavieka, indifferent; Giaediho 
S. Marco, outside Porta S. Michele, Italian, pension 2>/2 fl. ; Mosch, well 
spoken of; Alb. del Popolo ; Gallo, these two unpretending Italian inns. 
— Board and medical attendance for invalids at Dr. von Hartungen's Pension, 
120-150 fl. monthly. — Private Apartments at moderate rates. 

Beer at MusclCs, in the Giardino S. Marco (see above), and in the 
Birreria Krautner, outside the Porta S. Marco. — Cafi Andreis, at the harbour. 

Baths in the lake at the Lido della Spalletta, to the E., beyond the 

Railway to Arco and Mori, see p. 18. — Carriage to Arco and back U/j fl.; 
to Mori 4, with two horses 71/2 fl. — Boats, without rower, 40 kr. per hour. 

Goods Agents. Cretti <£ Fava, next the Albergo Gallo. — Money-Changer. 
Vine. Andreis. 

English Church Service in a chapel at the Hotel du Lac. 

Riva (230 ft.), a busy harbour with 6500 inhab., is charmingly 
situated at the N.W. end of the lake, at the base of the precipitous 
Mte. Giumella. On the hillside, high above the town, rises the round 
tower of a ruined castle supposed to have been built by the Scaligers, 
and on the lake is the old castle of La Rocca, now a barrack. By the 
entrance to the town from Arco is the Church of the Minorites, in 
the overladen baroque style, erected in the second half of the 16th 
century. The Parish Church contains modern pictures and frescoes. 
Riva is a sheltered and healthy place , and the heat of summer is 
tempered by the lake. Private apartments moderate. 

Excursions. The "Fall of the Ponale, at the mouth of the deeply cleft 
Val di Ledro, is chiefly interesting from its surroundings. It is best reached 

Layo di Garda. YAL DI LEDKO. 32. Route. 195 

by boat (there and back in JU/a-2 hrs., 2-3 fl.)i or on foot (3-4 hrs. there and 
back). The new *Road, in shade in the afternoon, and affording fine views, 
leads high above the lake, through a succession of tunnels and cuttings, 
to the Val di Ledro. At the point where it turns to the right into the 
valley, a path descending to the left, then ascending, and again descend- 
ing, leads to the waterfall. Travellers arriving by boat ascend a few 
paces to the old bridge immediately helow the fall, the best point of view 
(10 kr. to the custodian). 

The Monte Brione (1237 ft.), 1 hr. to the E. of Eiva, affords a fine survey 
of the entire lake (best from the rifle-range). The easiest ascent is from 
the hamlet of La Grotta (Inn), IV2 M. to the N.E. of Eiva, whence we ascend 
to the left; for the upper path a pass is required, as the hill is fortified. 

A pleasant excursion (best early in the day) may be taken towards 
the N.W. to (2 M.) Varone (403 ft.), with a fine waterfall in a grand rocky 
•Gorge (adm. 20 kr.). Thence we may proceed either by road to (3 M.) 
Arco , or on foot, via, Cologna, to ( 8 /4 hr.) Tenno (1415 ft.), with an old 
castle and charming view , and through richly cultivated uplands by 
Varignano to (l'/2 hr.) Arco (see below). 

The ascent of Monte Baldo, a range 45 M. long, between the Lake of 
Garda and the valley of the Adige, is interesting, but somewhat fatiguing 
(not advisable in the hot season). This range consists of two groups, 
separated by the depression of the Bocca di Navene (4690 ft.) : N. the Altit- 
limo, and S. the Cima di Val Dritta (7275 ft.) and the Monte Maggiore. 
The Altissimo (6790 ft.) is best ascended from Mori (p. 18), on the E. 
side. The route ascends to (2 hrs.) Brentonico (2250 ft. ; Aquila Nera) ; 
thence, with guide, via (ii/2 hr.) S. Giacomo (3825 ft.; Inn) to the (3 hrs.) 
top (refuge-hut; "View). Another route (guide) ascends from Torbole (p. 193; 
5-6 hrs.). — The panorama is still grander from "Monte Maggiore (7218 ft.). 
A steep road, shady in the afternoon, leads from Peri (p. 19) to (H/g hr.) the 
pilgrimage-church of Madonna della Corona (2540 ft.), not far from the 
village of Spiazzi (2828 ft.; two inns; views), and thence to (1 hr.) Ferrara 
di Monte Baldo ( 5 Inn), which may also be reached from Garda (p. 194; 
10'/2 M.), by the road via. Coitermano, Pesina, and Caprino (all railway-sta- 
tions, comp. p. 201 ; diligence from Caprino to Ferrara in connection with 
the trains), and then (steeper) via, Pazzon and Spiazzi (see above). Ascent 
thence, with guide, 4 hours. 

Val di Ledro (carr. to Pieve and back 4, with two horses 8fl.; dili- 
gence every afternoon to Pieve in 31/2, to Condino in 6 hrs). At the 
angle, high above the Fall of the Ponale (see above), the road turns to the 
W. into the green valley, and leads by Biacesa and Molina to the pretty 
Lago di Ledro (2135 ft.), with Mezzolago on its N. bank, and (9 M. from 
Riva) Pieve di Ledro (Albergo Alpino). — At Bezzecca, 3 /4 M. beyond Pieve, 
opens the Val Concei, with the villages of (20 min.) Enguiso and (10 min.) 
Lenzumo (938 ft.), whence the Monte Tenera (7060 ft. ; "View) may be as- 
cended in 4V2 hrs., with guide. — From Bezzecca the road leads by Tiarno, 
and through the sequestered Val Ampola, to (9 M.) Storo (Cavallo Bianco) 
in the Val Buona, crosses the Chiese and then the Gaffaro near Lodrone 
(1245 ft. ; Austrian and Italian frontier), and reaches (3'/2 M. from Storo) 
the Lago d'Idro (1207 ft.). 6 M. long, V< M. broad, the W. bank of which 
it skirts. Opposite (3 3 /4 M.) Anfo, with the mountain-castle Rocca d'Anfo, 
lies the hamlet of Idro. At (3 M.) Lavenone , at the S. end of the lake, 
begins the picturesque Val Sabbia, of which the capital is (3 M.) Vestone 
(where the tramway begins, comp. pp. 185, 192). At (3 M.) Barghe the 
road divides : that to the B. leads by Sabbio, Vobarno, and Tormini (junction 
for Brescia, p. 185; carriages changed for Salo) to (12 M.) Salb (p. 192); that 
to the W. to Preseglie and through the Val Garza to (15 M.) Brescia (p. 185). 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Riva, up the beautiful valley of the 
Sarca (railway, see p. 18; carriage, see p. 196), lies — 

Arco. • — Hotels. "Kduhaus, with garden, baths, whey-cure, and 
covered promenade, pens. 3>/2-5 fl.; "Kurkasino & Hot. Baueb, opposite, 
pens. 4-5 fl. ; "Hotel Olivo, R. from 1 fl., L. & A 40, D. 1 fl. 30 kr. ; 


196 Route 3l>. ARCO. Layo di Qarda. 

"Hot. -Pens. Steasseb, with cafe; these four are in the Kurplatz , with 
its well-kept grounds. 'Hot. -Pens. Akoo, V2M. to the W. of the Kurplatz, 
"Aeciduca Albeeto, at Chiarano (seebelow), these two warm and sheltered, 
pens, from 2-3 fl. -, Coeona, in the town. — "Pens. Bellaria, near the Hot. 
Areo, sheltered ; Aurora , "Eainalier, OHvenheim (high up, on the edge of 
the olive-wood, with view-terrace), Monrepos; charges 3-5 fl., exclusive 
of candles and fires. — Private Apaetments numerous; R. according to 
aspect, 20-50 fl. per month. — Kttranstcilt, behind the Kurkasino , well 
fitted up, with inhaling rooms, hydropathic appliances, etc. — The drink- 
ing-water is hrought from the Monte Stivo, by an aqueduct l>/4 M. long. 
Donkey per hr. 50 kr., each hr. addit. 30 kr., '/« * a y 1 "■ 60 kr., whole 
day 2 fl. ; driver about 20 kr. per hr., 1 fl. per day. — Carriage, 1 /s day 5, 
with 2 horses 9 fl., whole day 8 or 15 fl. ; to Eiva and back IV2 or3fl. ; 
to Trent (without returning) 7>/2 or 12 fl. 

Arco (300 ft.), an ancient town of 3800 inhab., situated in a 
beautiful valley, almost entirely shut in on the N., E., and W. by 
lofty mountains, is frequented as a winter-resort by consumptive 
and nervous patients. The vegetation resembles that of the Italian 
lakes: vines, olives, cedars, mulberries, magnolias, cypresses, ole- 
anders, and at places orange and lemon trees. The Archduke has 
a new chateau here, with a fine winter-garden (custodian 50 kr.). 
Adjoining the handsome Renaissance church is the old town-palace 
of the counts of Arco, with allegorical frescoes. To the N., on a 
precipitous rock (730 ft.), rises the Castle of Arco, destroyed in the 
Spanish War of Succession, with beautiful garden (key at the Kur- 
haus or the Kurkasino ; fee). 

Pleasant walk to the W. by the road ascending to the right of 
the archducal chateau through groves of fine old olive-trees to the 
hamlets of ( 3 /4 M.) Chiarano (-Hot. Arciduca Alberto, see above), with an 
orangery belonging to M. Angerer (view), Vigne, and (3/ 4 M.) Varignano. 
Thence we either proceed direct to (IV2 M.) Varone across the plain (to 
the left), or ascend to the right by a rough path, affording beautiful views, 
to the (l'/4 hr.) village and chateau of Tenno, whence we descend by 
Cologna to (40 min.) Varone, and return across the plain to (3 M.) Arco. 
Another walk crosses the Sarca to Oltresarca (p. 19), with the villages of 
(1 M.) Massone, ( 3 A M.) Bolognano, and O/2 M.) Tignole, affording beautiful 
views. — To the N. we may proceed past the small Lake Laghel and over 
hilly and stony paths to (l'/j hr.) Ceniga (Inn), whence we return by the 
romantic Via di Prabi, on tlie right bank of the Sarca, traversing the im- 
posing remains of a huge landslip (in all 2'/2-3 hrs.). 

33. From Brescia to Edolo. Lago d'Iseo. 

About 62 M. Railway to Iseo, 15 M., in IV4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 
1 fr. 26 c.) ; another to Paratico on the Lago d'Iseo , 24V2 M., in l'/j hr. 
(fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 5 c). — Steamee on Lago d'Iseo between Sar- 
nieo and Lovere twice daily in 2i/ 2 hrs. (fares 2 fr. or 1 fr. 40 c). — Post- 
Omnibus from Pisogne to Edolo, 34 31., daily in 7hrs. (one-horse carr. 20fr.). 

Feom Bkescia (p. 185) to Iseo. — 2 M. Borgo S. Giovanni; 
3% M. Mandolossa; 5'^ M. Castegnato ; 8 M. Paderno Francia- 
corta; 9^2 M. Passirano ; lO'/g M. Monterotondo Bresciano; 13 M. 
Provaglio d'Iseo; 15 M. Iseo (see p. 197). 

Fkom Bkbscia to Paratico. — From Brescia to (18 M.) 
Palazzolo, see p. 183. Our line here diverges to the N.E. 22l/ 2 M. 
Capriolo; then (24y 4 M.) Paratico, on the left bank of the Oglio, 

Lago d'Iseo. LOVERE. 33. Route. 197 

which here issues from Lago d'Iseo. On the opposite hank lies 
Sarnico (Cappello), a prettily situated place, connected with Paiatico 
hy a bridge. Near it is the Villa Montecchio, with a superb view. 

The *lago d'Iseo (Laws Sebinus, 605 ft. above the sea; 15 M. 
long; 1V4"3 M. broad; and about 1000 ft. deep in the centre) 
somewhat resembles an S in form. Its banks are green with luxur- 
iant vegetation, while to the N. is visible the snow-clad Adamello 
Group, with the Pian di Neve, the Salarno, and the Adame glaciers. 
In the middle of the lake lies an island 2 M. long, containing the 
villages of Siviano and Peschiera Maraglio, and culminating in the 
Mont' Isola (1965 ft.). — On the E. bank, from Iseo to Pisogne 
(see below), runs the high-road from Brescia, boldly engineered. It 
is carried through a number of galleries and supported by masonry, 
and commands magnificent views of the lake and its environs. 

The Stbamek from Sarnico usually steers first to Predore, the 
ancient Praetorium, which yields excellent wine ; then to the S.E. 
back to Iseo (Leone, well spoken of), a busy little town of 2000 in- 
hab., with walls and an old castle. Its industries are oil-pressing, 
dyeing, and silk-spinning. A statue of Garibaldi was erected here 
in 1883. Railway to Brescia, see p. 196. — The next station (called 
at by the morning steamer only) is Tavernola, on the W. bank. Next 
comes the above-mentioned fishing-village of Peschiera Maraglio, 
to the S. of which lies the islet of S. Paolo. The morning steamer 
then proceeds via Sulzano (Inn ; E.) to Sale-Marasino, a long vil- 
lage on the E. bank, beyond which it passes an islet with the ruined 
monastery of S. Loretto on the left, and reaches Marone, at the W. 
base of Monte Guglielmo (6401 ft.), and Riva di Solto (W.). The after- 
noon steamer plies direct from Peschiera to Riva, and then calls at 
the pleasant-looking Pisogne (Alb. Glisoni, well spoken of), on the 
E. hank. Finally we pass the mouth of the Oglio and reach Lovere. 

Lovere (*Alb. Lovere; S. Antonio; Italia), a busy little place 
with 2500inhab., prettily situated at the N.W. end of the lake, with 
a large iron -work and cannon-foundry (Stabilimento Metallurgico Gre- 
gorini), employing 1600 workmen. The handsome church of S. Ma- 
ria in Valvendra, built in 1473, restored in 1547 and 1751, contains 
frescoes by Floriano Ferramola, Moretto and Andrea da Manerbio, an 
early Milanese altar-piece in the Cappella dello Sposalizio, and on 
the high-altar an Ascension by Fr. Morone. The parish-church of 
S. Giorgio, erected in 1655, was enlarged in 1878. The handsome 
Palazzo Tadini contains a collection of old pictures. 

18. Dom. Tintoretto, Portrait of aman, 1627;78. Titian, Portrait, damaged ; 
110, 127. Brusasorci, SS. Guglielmo and Francesco-, 125. P. Veronese, Ma- 
donna; 255. Jac. Bellini, Madonna, damaged; 282. Giiercino (?), St. Se- 
bastian ; 307. P. Boi-done, Madonna and saints ; 386. Giorgione (?), Dead Christ. 
Here also are sculptures by Benzoni and Canova (tombstone) and a geolo- 
gical collection. 

Good roads lead from Lovere through the Val Cavallina to (27 M.) Ber- 
gamo (p. 179), and through the ravine (orrido) of Borlezza to (J'/a M.) Clu- 
sone (p. 183). 

13, 14 

198 Route 33. BRENO. Lago d'heo. 

The Road fkom Loyebb to Edolo leads through the Val Ca- 
monica, which yields rich crops of maize, grapes, and mulberries. 
It is enclosed by lofty, wooded mountains, and enlivened with many 
iron-works. The silk-culture is also an important industry here. 
The dark rocks (verrucano) contrast curiously with the light triassic 
formations. The valley is watered by the Oglio (p. 184), which the 
road crosses several times. 

At the (7*/ 2 M.) Casino di Boario (Hotel, with baths) our road 
joins the road from Brescia and Pisogne (diligence, see p. 196). 
Near Cividate is a very picturesque deserted monastery on the hill. 
Farther on we pass through a ravine and cross the Oglio to — 

141/2 M. (from Lovere) Breno (1080 ft; Italia, high charges; 
*Osteria al Fumo, unpretending), capital of the lower Val Camonica, 
situated on the left bank, with a ruined castle and several churches. 
To the E. rises Monte Frerone (8770 ft.). 

The valley again contracts. To the right, a little way back from 
the road, lie the villages of Niardo and Ceto, the latter at the foot 
of the Pizzo Badile (7990 ft.). Beyond (20'/2 M.) Capo di Ponte 
(1375 ft. ; Alb. S. Antonio ; Osteria Apollonio) the scenery changes ; 
maize and mulberries become rare The road crosses the Oglio twice 
and then the Poglia. — 241/2 M. Cedegolo (1335 ft. ; Alb. all' Ada- 
mello; Caffe della Posta, with rooms); 28y 2 M. Malonno (1770 ft.). 

331/2 M. Edolo (2290 ft.; *Leone a" Oro, dear; Oallo, well 
spoken of), a small and picturesquely situated town, commanded on 
the E. by Monte Aviolo. 

At Edolo the road divides. That to the N. crosses the Tonale Pass 
(6180 ft.) to Male and leads thence on to S. Michele, a station on the Botzen 
and Verona railway (p. 17), or over the Mendel Pass direct to Botzen. The 
road to the W. crosses the Passo d'Aprica (3880 ft.) to Tirano in the Val 
Tellina (p. 153; 25 M. ; one-horse carr. in 6 hrs., 25 fr.). See Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. 

V. Venetia. 

34. Verona 201 

From Verona to Cologna 213 

From Verona to Caprino 213 

35. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 213 

From Mantua to Monselice 218 

From Suzzara to Parma 218 

36. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 219 

From Vicenza to the Baths of Recoaro, Schlo, Arsiero, 

and Torre 223 

37. Padua 224 

From Padua to Venice via Fusina 231 

38. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 232 

Excursion to the Villa Giacomelli or Maser and Asolo 232 

From Bassano to Possagno 233 

39. Venice 234 

a. Piazza of St. Mark and Environs. Riva degli Schiavoni 243 

b. The Academy 255 

c. Canal Grande 262 

d. From the Piazza of St. Mark to the Rialto Bridge 

and the Northern Quarters 269 

e. From thePiazza of St. Mark to SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and 

thence to the Riva degli Schiavoni. Eastern Quarters 272 

f. Quarters to the W. of the Canal Grande 278 

g. From the Piazza of St. Mark on foot to the Academy 

and S. Maria della Salute. S. Giorgio Maggiore. 

Giudecca 285 

Excursions : The Lido. Murano. Torcello. Chioggia . 288 

40. From Venice to Trieste 291 

From Treviso to Belluno 292 

From Conegliano to Vittorio 293 

From Udine to Cividale 295 

Aquileia 296 

The N.E. part of Italy, named II Veneto after the ancient Veneti, 
is divided into the eight provinces of Verona, Vicenza, Padova, Rovigo, 
Venezia, Treviso, Belluno, and Udine. Its area, 9059 sq. M. , is nearly 
equal to that of Lombardy, while its population of 2,842,173 souls is con- 
siderably smaller. The western and larger portion of the country, between 
the Mincio and Piave, is indeed as thickly peopled as the eastern and 
less prosperous part of Lombardy between the Adda and the Mincio; 
but the Friuli, or ancient county of Forum Julii, the border-land to the 
E. of the Piave, consists of very inferior soil, owing to the de'bris brought 
down by the Alpine streams. The ' Furlanians'' , the poor inhabitants of 
the Friuli, speak a patois of their own. 

The Venetian Dialect no longer contains traces of the Gallic ele- 
ment like that of the districts from Piedmont to the Romagna, which 
were once conquered by the Celts. It boasts of having been frequently 
used by men of letters, as for example by Goldoni in his comedies, and 
is the softest of all the Italian dialects, the flattening and elision of the 
consonants being very common. Thus nevode for nipote, suar for sudare, 
fogo for fuoco, sior for signore ; and another characteristic is the conversion 
of g into z, as zente for genie, zorno for giorno, mazore for maggiore. 

The history of the country has always been influenced by the proximity 
of the sea and the peculiar formation of the coast. In the lower part of 


its course the Po differs widely in character from all the other rivers in 
Europe. Its fall is very gradual , being for a considerable distance 22/3 
inches only, and latterly little more than l /\ inch per English mile. To- 
wards the end of its course , moreover, it receives numerous tributaries. 
The result is that the adjacent districts are much exposed to inundations, 
a danger which has to be averted by the construction of huge dykes ; and 
these works frequently require to be raised, as the bed of the river is 
constantly rising. The Po, together with the Adige, Bacchiglione, Brenta, 
and other coast rivers, terminates in a vast delta which extends along the 
whole coast of Venetia. The quantity of alluvial deposit is so great, that the 
beds of these streams are continually undergoing change and subdivision. 
Thus the ancient seaport of Hatria now lies 15'/2 M. from the coast, and 
while the Po formerly flowed towards the S., it has formed its present 
embouchure since 1150. The extensive lagoons (lagune), separated from 
the sea by narrow strips of land (lidi), and connected with it by outlets, 
would render the whole coast uninhabitable, were it not for the slight 
ebb and flow of the tide (mean difference l'/2 ft-), which is perceptible 
in the Adriatic, and prevents malarious exhalations. This extensive allu- 
vial territory, which reminds one of Holland, called into activity the in- 
genuity and enterprise of its inhabitants at an early period, and a temper- 
ate and conservative character has thus been imparted to their history. 

The Veneti, a branch of the Illyrian stock, kept entirely aloof 
from the immigrating Celtic tribes. The seaports of Hatria and Spina, 
at the mouths of the Po, carried on a considerable trade at an early 
period , and several canals on a large scale were constructed as early 
as B. C. 380. In the 3rd cent, the Veneti together with the Cenomani, 
a Celtic tribe which occupied Brescia and Verona, entered into an 
alliance with Rome. While the Romanisation of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont was attended with violent struggles, it was rapidly effected here 
without opposition. The Roman colony of Aquileia was founded as early 
as 181 B.C., and the boundary of Italy was thus laid down at the point 
to which it still extends. Owing to its industries, cattle-breeding, and 
agriculture , Venetia prospered greatly under the emperors. Padua was 
the wealthiest town in Italy next to Rome, and was rivalled in W. Eu- 
rope by Cadiz alone, as it numbered during the reign of Augustus no 
fewer than 500 citizens of knightly fortune (i. e. upwards of about 45O0!)- 
The city was afterwards destroyed by Attila, and then razed to the ground 
by the Lombards, and a similar fate befel Altinum , an important com- 
mercial town in the Lagoons, and Aquileia, which in ancient times was 
of a similar importance to the modern Trieste. The Romans sought re- 
fuge from their Lombard conquerors in the islands of the Lagoons. Re- 
moved from Teutonic influences, and under the protection of the Byzan- 
tine Empire, the most famous of mediseval states took its rise here from 
apparently insignificant beginnings. Its earliest history is involved in 
obscurity. The first Dux or Doge is said to have been Paulucius Anafeslus 
(d. 716). In 809 the islands repulsed an attack of King Pepin, the son 
of Charlemagne, and virtually threw off the yoke of the Eastern emper- 
ors. At this period the inhabitants were crowded together in the is- 
lands of Rivoalto, Malamocco, and Torcello, which were the most secure. 
Rivoalto was selected as the seat of government, and here accordingly the 
city of Venice was founded. Angelus Participotius (819) is said to have 
been the first doge whose residence occupied the site of the present Pa- 
lace of the Doges. Situated between the Byzantine and Franconian em- 
pires, Venice became a connecting link between the trade of each, and 
the great depot of the traffic between the East and the West. In 828 a 
Venetian fleet brought the body of St. Mark to Venice, and thenceforth 
the Venetians revered him as their tutelary saint, using his emblem, the 
lion (Rev. iv. 7) as their cognizance , and his name as synonymous with 
the republic, while their supreme official functionaries were styled 'Procu- 
rators of St. Mark'. In the interests of her commerce Venice was at length 
induced to make foreign conquests. These were at first confined to the 
Istrian and Dalmatian coasts for the purpose of procuring timber and 
suppressing piracy. The rivalry that sprang up with Genoa during the 



VERONA. 34. Route. 201 

Crusades led the Venetians to effect a footing in the Levant, and to 
establish extensive colonies. At the same time the constitution of the 
state developed into a rigorous oligarchy, which with terrible impartial- 
ity contrived to keep both the nobility and people in check, and effectu- 
ally to curb the national desire for liberty. In the neighbouring towns 
the supreme power rested on a foundation altogether different. The re- 
publics had been overthrown by the despots, who, supported by merce- 
nary troops and the favour of the lower classes, had founded principali- 
ties in the modern sense of the word. Such were the Visconti in Milan, 
the Scala in Verona, the Carrara in Padua, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and 
the Este in Ferrara. The danger of collision with warlike princes, and 
the support they afforded to every attempt to overthrow the Venetian 
constitution, led to their own downfall. Venice, having made conquests 
on the mainland (terra ferma) for the sake of her own safety , soon be- 
came one of the chief Italian powers, and was thus involved in all the 
interminable wars caused by the rivalry of the different states. She ob- 
tained permanent possession of Treviso in 1339 , Vicenza in 1404 , Padua 
and Verona in 1405, Udine in 1420, Brescia in 1426, Bergamo in 1428, 
Crema in 1454, and Rovigo in 1484. In the market-places of these towns 
the lion of St. Mark was erected as a token of their subjugation, and Ve- 
netian nobles were appointed their governors. The district thus conquer- 
ed extended to about 13,200 sq. M., besides the Dalmatian possessions 
(4250 sq. M.) and the settlements in the Levant. Napoleon at length over- 
threw the Republic, which had long been in a tottering condition. On 
15th and 16th May, 1797, Venice was occupied by French troops under 
Baraguay d^Hilliers, this being the first occasion on which it had ever 
been captured by an enemy. In the Peace of Campoformio (1797) it was 
adjudged to Austria, but by the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, the Austrians 
were compelled to cede it to the Kingdom of Italy. On the fall of Napo- 
leon it was again awarded to Austria, to which it belonged down to 1866, 
when in consequence of the events of that year it was finally incorporated 
with the Kingdom of Italy. 

34. Verona. 

Arrival. Verona has three stations : (1) Stazione Porta Vescovo (PI. I, 6 ; 
rail, restaurant, D. incl. wine 3 J /2 fr.), the principal station, about li/j M. 
to the E. of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (luggage is booked to and from 
this station only); (2) Stazione Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6), 3 /t M. to the S. of the 
Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, where the hotel-omnibuses await the trains from 
Tyrol, Milan, and Bologna; (3) Stazione Porta S. Giorgio (PI. E, 1) for the 
line to Domegliara (p. 19) and Caprino (p. 195). 

Hotels. Grand Hotel de Londres (PI. b ; F, 3), in the centre of the town, 
R. from 3 fr., L. 1, A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, omn. 1 fr., variously judged; 
Colomba d'Oeo (PI. e; D, 3), in the street of that name, near Piazza 
Vitt. Eman., well spoken of, R. 2»/2 fr., L. 60, A. 75 c, B. I1/2, dej. 3, 

D. 4, pens. 10-12 , omn. 1 fr. — Second-class (with trattorie) : Alb. S. Lo- 
renzo (PI. d; D, 3), prettily situated on the Adige, Riva di S. Lorenzo, 
R., L., & A. 2V2-3»/2, B. l'/4, omn. 1 fr., mediocre; Aqdila Neba (PI. f ; 

E, 3), R., L., & A. 2>/2-3, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 8-10, omn. »/ 4 fr., 
commercial ; Regina d'Ungheria, near the Piazza delle Erbe, well spoken 
of; -Alb. all' Accademia, Via Nuova (PI. E, 3), R. 2, omn. 3/ 4 f r-) nn . 

Restaurants at the hotels. Also : Lbwenbrau (Munich beer), Via Nuova 
Lastricata 14, dej. only; Birreria Regina Margherita, Corso Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (PI. C, 4), with garden, evening concerts ; Concordia , Via Nuova ; 
Oambrinus, Via S. Sebastiano 14, with a small garden. — Cafes. Vittorio 
Emanuele, expensive, and °Europa, in the Piazza Vitt. Eman. (these two 
are restaurants also); Gaffe Dante, Piazza de' Signori, well spoken of. — 
Music-Band in the evening in the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. 

Booksellers. Libreria alia Minerva, Via S. Cosimo (PI. E, 4) ; Libreria 
Dante, Via Nuova Lastricata 20. — Photographs : M. Lotze, Via Disciplina 11. 

202 Route 34. VERONA. History. 

Money Changer. Orti, Via Nuova 27. 

Post Office in the Piazza dell' Indipendenza (PI. F, 3). 

Fiacres ('Broughams'). Per drive 75 c, per hour \>/t fr. , each addi- 
tional hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening 30 c. per hr. more. From station 
to town 1 fr. — For each pers. above two, one-third more. 

Tramways traverse the town from the Stazione Porta Vescovo to the 
Stazione Porta Nuova (10 c.) : see Plan. 

English Church Service at the Hotel de Londres (p. 201). 

The Sights of Verona may be seen in one day : begin with the Arena 
and Piazza Villorio Emanuele, then cross the Adige to the Palazzo Pompei 
(on the way to which is 8. Pernio Maggiore, p. 209), return by the Via 
Leoni (Arco de' Leoni) to the Piazza de' Signori, with the tombs of the 
Scaligers ; see S. Anastasia, and the Cathedral, and cross the Ponle Garibaldi 
to 8. Giorgio; drive along the Corso past the Porta Borsari to the Porta 
Palio and 8. Zeno; lastly return to the Giardino Giusti. — Excursion to 
8. Michele, see p. 213. 

Verona (155 ft.), the capital of a province, with 60,800 inhab. 
and a garrison of 6000 men , situated on both banks of the rapid 
Adige, which is crossed by six bridges, is next to Venice the most 
important and interesting town of ancient Venetia. After it came 
into the possession of the Austrians in 1814 Verona was strongly 
fortified , and along with Peschiera, Mantua, and Legnago formed 
the famous 'Quadrilateral', the chief support of Austrian rule in 
Italy. Restored to Italy in 1866, it is still a fortress of the first class, 
and seat of the commandant of the III. Army Corps. 

Founded by the Ehfetians and Euganeans, and afterwards occupied by 
the Celtic Cenomani, Verona was made a Roman colony in B.C. 89, and 
became one of the most prosperous towns of Upper Italy. Its castle of S. 
Pietro was a residence of the Ostrogoth Theodorie the Great, the 'Dietrich 
of Bern' (i.e. Verona) of German lore (d. 526). In 568 the town was taken 
by the Lombard king Alboin , who fell a victim to the vengeance of his 
wife Rosamunde, daughter of the conquered ruler of Verona, whom he 
had forced to drink wine out of her father's skull. The Frankish monarchs 
Pepin, and, after the Carlovingian epoch, Berengarius I., ruled here. Verona 
afterwards headed the league of Venetian cities against Frederick Barba- 
rossa. During the fierce contests between Guelphs and Ghibellines the 
terrible Ezzelino da Romano endeavoured to establish a lordship at Ve- 
rona. After his death in 1259 Mastino delta Scala was elected Podesta ; and 
the great princes of his house inaugurated a glorious period for the city. 
Mastino was assassinated in 1277, but his brother and successor Albert 
secured the supremacy of his line. Romeo and Juliet are said to have 
loved and died in the reign of Albert's son Bartolommeo (1301-1304). The 
greatest member of this illustrious family was Can Francesco , or '■Can 
Grande'' (1312-1329), who captured Vicenza and subdued Padua after a long 
struggle. His brilliant court numbered Dante among its guests. Mastino II. 
at first conquered Brescia, Parma, and Lucca, but his rule was afterwards 
restricted to Verona and Vicenza by a league formed by Florence, Venice, 
and Milan. Can Grande II., his successor, was murdered by his brother 
Can Signorio in 1359; and in 1387, the latter's son Antonio, who had also 
endeavoured to secure his possession by fratricide, was expelled by Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. Through the widow of Visconti the town 
passed in 1405 to the Venetians, to whom, with short interruptions, it 
remained subject down to the end of the Republic. 

In the history of Architectuke Verona is important, both on account 
of its mediaeval buildings , and as the birthplace of Fra Giocondo (1435- 
1514), one of the most famous architects of the early Renaissance, whose 
works are to be found at Venice, Paris, and Rome , and as the home of 
Michele Sammicheli (1484-1559), the greatest military architect of Upper 
Italy, who imparted to the palaces of Verona some of the features of forti- 
fied castles. In judging of the Verona palaces, we must bear in mind that it 

Piazza dei Signori. VERONA. 3d. Route. 203 

was customary here, as at Genoa and other towns, to adorn the facades 
with paintings. The painted facades of houses near S. Fermo, hy the Porta 
Borsari, in Piazza Erbe, and others partly recall the Paduan style of the 15th 
century. — The earlier Veronese Painters of the second half of the 14th cent, 
were superior in colouring to the Florentine school of Giotto and held 
themselves clear of its influence. The chief of these masters was AlticMeri, 
to whom is ascribed the fresco in S. Anastasia (p. 204), the only monument 
of the period in Verona (other frescoes in Padua, see p. 225). A new period 
of importance began in the 15th century. Among the chief masters were 
Vittore Pisano (d. ca. 1455), the celebrated medallist; Liberate da Verona; 
Domenico and his son Franc. Morone; Francesco Caroto (1470-1546); Oiro- 
lamo dai Libri (1474-1556); and Paolo Jforanda, surnamed Cavazzola (1486- 
1522). The artistic family of the Bonifazios, though originating in Verona, 
flourished mainly in Venice. On the other hand Paolo Caliari. surnamed 
Veronese (1528-88), also resident in Venice, owed his artistic development 
mainly to the influence of his native place. — In the history of Sculpture 
Verona also holds a place of some importance, as is evidenced by the 
Romanesque reliefs on the facade of S. Zeno (p. 208), the font of S. Gio- 
vanni in Fonte (p. 205), and the Gothic monument of the Scaligers (p. 204). 

The *Piazza Erbe (PL E, 3), the ancient forum , now the fruit 
and vegetable market , is one of the most picturesque squares in 
Italy. The Marble Column at the N. end bears the lion of St. Mark, 
a modern copy of the ancient cognisance of the Republic of Venice. 
Opposite is the Pal. Trezza (formerly Maffei), built in the baroque 
style in 1668, with a curious spiral staircase in the interior. The 
Casa Mazzanti, at the corner to the right, originally the residence 
of Albertino della Scala (d. 1301), is adorned with frescoes by 
Cavalli, an imitator of Giulio Romano ; the back of the building re- 
tains its mediseval character. The Fountain, dating from the time 
of Berengarius, is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', partly antique. 
On the houses opposite are frescoes by Liberale (Coronation of the 
Virgin, Adam and Eve) and Girolamo dai Libri (Madonna and 
saints). In the centre of the Piazza is the Tribuna, with its canopy 
borne by four columns, anciently the seat of judgment. The Casa 
dei Mercanti (1301), at the corner of Via Pelliciai, recently restored, 
now contains the commercial court. Opposite rises the Tower of the 
Municipio, 273 ft. in height, affording a fine view (ascent from the 
court of the Palazzo della Ragione, see below; adm. 50 c). A short 
street to the left of the latter leads to the handsomely paved — 

*Piazza dei Signori (PL E, F, 3). Immediately to the right of 
the tower is the Palazzo della Ragione (seat of the jury court), 
founded in 1183 ; the court (Mercato vecchio) contains a grand flight 
of steps of the 14th century. Adjoining the pinnacled tower is the 
Tribunale , and on the other side of the piazza is the Prefettura, 
formerly residences of the Scaligers. The original architecture is 
seen to best advantage in the courts , which have been restored. 
The portal of the Prefettura is by Sammicheli. — In the centre of 
the piazza rises a Statue of Dante (by Zannoni, 1865), who found 
his first asylum here with Bartolommeo della Scala after his banish- 
ment from Florence in 1303. — At the N.E. corner of the piazza 
stands the — 

204 Route 34. VERONA. S. Anastasia. 

""Palazzo del Cousiglio, or Old Town Hall, usually called La 
Loggia, erected before 1500 from designs by Fra Oiocondo, whose 
portrait in a monk's habit is on the left corner-pillar, originally with 
statues surmounting the facade (restored in 1873). This is one of 
the finest buildings in N. Italy in the early-Renaissance style, which 
was characterised by richness and beauty of detail rather than by 
strict harmony of composition. By the door are two bronze statues by 
Oirol. Campana, representing the Annunciation. Over the door is the 
inscription, placed here by the Venetians : 'Pro summa fide summus 
amor 1592'. Above are statues of celebrated ancient Veronese: 
Corn. Nepos, Catullus, Vitruvius, the younger Pliny, and jEmil. 
Macer, the poet and friend of Virgil. On the wall are busts of 
famous modern Veronese. On the upper floor are several tastefully 
restored rooms (custodian in the court). 

The entrances to the Piazza dei Signori are spanned by arch- 
ways. Above the arch next the Loggia is a portrait of Oirol. Fra- 
castoro (d. 1553) by Danese Cattaneo (1559) ; in the N.W. corner 
is a Statue of Scipione Maffei, the historian (d. 1755). Behind, in 
the street leading to the Corso, are a picturesque Fountain of 1478 
and the Volto Barbaro, under which Mastino della Scala is said 
to have been assassinated in 1277. Near it, on the W. side of the 
square, is the old Palazzo de' Oiureconsulti, founded in 1263, but 
rebuilt in the 16th century. 

The passage adjoining the Tribunal leads to the Lombardic church 
of S. Maria Antica, with Romanesque campanile, and the imposing 
*Tombs of the Scaligers (Arche degli Scaligeri; PI. F, 3), the stern 
Gothic forms of which immortalise the masculine genius of the dyn- 
asty. The ladder, their crest, often recurs on the elaborate railings. 

Over the church-door are the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can 
Grande della Scala (d. 1329); adjoining it, the wall-monument of Giovanni 
della Scala (d. 1350) and the sarcophagus of Mastino I. (d. 1277). Next to 
the Piazza Signori is the monument of Mastino II. (d. 1351), another sarco- 
phagus with canopy and equestrian statue, designed by Perino da Milano. 
The similar monument at the opposite corner of the street, executed by 
Bonino da Gampiglione for Can Signorio (d. 1375) during his life-time, is em- 
bellished with statues of Christian heroes and virtues. The sarcophagi 
between these, bearing the same crest, have no names. (The custodian 
lives in a house to the right of the church; fee 20c. for one, and 10c. 
more for each additional person.) 

To the S.E. lies the Piazza dell' Indipendenza (p. 209). 

We now proceed to the N. to the Corso Cavouk (p. 207), at 
the E. end of which rises *S. Anastasia (PL F, 2), a fine Gothic 
Dominican church begun about 1261, with unfinished brick facade, 
a late-Gothic portal in marble, with reliefs of the life of Peter Mar- 
tyr, and a fresco of the 14th cent, in the lunette. 

The Interior, borne by 12 columns, is remarkable for boldness and 
symmetry of proportion, and for the late-Gothic decoration of the vaulting 
(1437). On the first column to the left is an ancient capital, used as a 
Holy Water Basin, supported by a hump-backed dwarf (Gobbo) by 
Gabriele Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese. By the first altar to the right 
is the monument of Fregoso, by Danese Cattaneo (1565). Above the 3rd 

Cathedral. VERONA. 34. Route. 205 

altar frescoes by Liberate. The frame-work of the 4th altar is an imi- 
tation of the ancient Arco de' Gavi in the Castel Vecchio, removed in 
1805 i altar-piece, St. Martin by Caroto. The next small chapel contains 
excellent early-Renaissance ornamentation; a painted group of the Entomb- 
ment, of the 14th cent.; a wooden crucifix of the 15th cent.; and a fine iron 
lamp. — In the right transept, St. Paul by Cavazzola, and Madonna with 
saints by Girolamo dai Libri, in an elegant frame. — In the second chapel 
of the choir, on the right, are ancient Veronese *Frescoes of the 14th cent, 
(probably by AUichieri ; erroneously ascribed to Giotto), Knights of the 
Cavalli family kneeling before the Virgin. The adjoining Capp. Pellegrini 
(on the left) contains terracotta reliefs of the 15th cent., probably by a 
Florentine master; on'the outside, above the arch, a fresco of St. George, 
by Vittore Pisano, in which the chief figure has been defaced by damp 
(restoration proposed). In the choir, to the left, is the painted monument 
of General Sarego (1432), with an equestrian statue of the deceased in the 
middle and squires withdrawing a curtain at the side. Behind the high 
altar are some fine stalls with intarsia work. — The left transept contains 
frescoes of the 14th cent., and a picture by Liberate, Mary Magdalen in 
clouds. — Above the 4th altar in the left aisle, Descent of the Holy Ghost 
by (1418); above is the same subject al fresco by Michele da Verona. 
At each side are four statues of saints. Over the 2nd altar on the left, 
Christ with SS. Erasmus and George by Giolfino. Over the 1st altar, 
painted sculptures by Michele da Verona (about 1500). 

In front of the church is a marble Statue of Paolo Veronese, by 
Delia Tone and R. Cristiani, erected in 1888. 

To the left of the church , over a gateway , is the marble 
sarcophagus of Count Gugl. da Castelbarco, the Scaligers' friend, 
at whose expense the churches of S. Anastasia and S. Fermo were 
in great part built ; and in the gateway three others. — Route hence 
by the Corso Cavour to the Arena, see p. 207. — The small church 
of S. Pietro Martire , entered through the adjoining Collegio Con- 
vito, contains an allegorical fresco by Falconetto with portraits of 
Teutonic knights (about 1515). "We now proceed to the right to the — 

Cathedral (Duomo ; PI. F, 1 , 2), a Gothic structure of the 14th cent. , 
with choir and Romanesque facade of the 12th cent, and pointed 
windows in the facade inserted later. On the outside of the apse 
are pilasters with an architrave, in the antique style. Behind the 
columns and griffins of the handsome portal are Roland and Oliver, 
the paladins of Charlemagne, in rough half-relief, executed accord- 
ing to the inscription by Nicolaus (1135). By the side-wall rises 
an unfinished campanile, designed by Sammicheli, resting upon 
an ancient basis. 

The Interior, consisting of nave and aisles, with eight red marble 
pillars, contains an elegant rood-loft of marble, designed by Sammicheli, 
above which is a bronze crucifix by Giambattista da Verona. The walls 
adjoining and above the three first altars on the right and left are adorned 
with fine frescoes by Falconetto (about 1503). The Adoration of the Magi, 
over the 2nd altar to the right, is by Liberate da Verona, with wings by 
Giolfino. At the end of the right aisle is the Tomb of St. Agatha, a 
Gothic monument of 1353 enclosed in beautiful Renaissance frame-work 
(1508). In the choir are scenes from the life of the Virgin, executed by 
Torbido from drawings by Giulio Romano. — Over the 1st altar on the left, 
•Assumption by Titian, about 1543 (frame by Sansovino): 'striking for its 
masterly combination of light and shade and harmonious colours with 
realistic form and action' (O. <& C). 

To the left of the choir a corridor leads to 8. Giovanni in Fonte, 

206 Route 34. VERONA. Sto. Stefano. 

the ancient Baptistery, of the 12th cent. ; the Romanesque reliefs 
on the font (about 1200) show a distinct advance on those on the 
facade of St. Zeno (p. 208). To the left of the facade (2nd door on 
left) are Romanesque Cloisters, the arches resting on double columns 
of red marble. They contain an antique column and ancient 
mosaics recently excavated. — To the N.B. of the cathedral is the 
Vescovado, or bishop's residence, with a chapel containing three 
paintings by Liberate da Verona. The Palazzo dei Canonici to the 
N.W. (No. 19) contains the Biblioteca Capitolare with its precious 
MSS. (palimpsests), among which Niebuhr discovered the Institutes 
of Gaius. Librarian, Monsignor Giuliari. (Adm. in the forenoon.) 

In Veronetta, on the left bank of the Adige, to which the chain- 
bridge Ponte Garibaldi leads (toll 2 c), is situated S. Giorgio in 
Braida (PI. F, 1; if the front-gate is closed, entrance by side-door on 
the N.), reconstructed in the 16th cent, with the aid of Sammicheli. 
The interior contains an admirable collection of well-preserved 
paintings by Veronese and Brescian masters. 

W. wall, over the door : Tintoretto, Baptism of Christ ; 1st altar on the 
left, Caroto, St. Ursula (1546) ; 3rd altar on the left , Caroto, SS. Eochus 
and Sebastian, with predelle (centre figure of St. Joseph modern) ; above, 
The Apostles healing a possessed man, by D. Brusasorci; in the lunette, 
Transfiguration, by Caroto; 4th altar on the left, Oirolamo dai Libri, "Ma- 
donna enthroned, between SS. Zeno and Lorenzo Giustiniani, with three 
"Angels with musical instruments at the foot (1529); 5th altar on the left, 
Moretto, "Madonna with holy women (1540), one of this master's best works, 
with delicate colouring in a silvery tone. At the sides of the organ and 
opposite, Romanino of Brescia, Martyrdom of St. George (1540), originally 
the panel of an organ. To the right in the choir, Farinato, Miracle of the 
Five Thousand (1603) ; to the left, F. Brusasorci, the Shower of manna. 
High-altar-piece (generally covered), °F. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. George, 
a masterpiece of the highest rank, in which the horrors of the scene are 
mitigated by nobility of outline and richness of colour. 4th altar on the 
right: F. Brusasorci, Madonna with archangels. The beautiful holy water 
basin is enriched with bronze figures of John the Baptist and St. George 
by Joseph de Levis and A. de Rubeis. 

The Via S. Stefano leads hence S.E. to the venerable church of 
Sto. Stefano (PI. G, 1), rebuilt by Theodoric. Facade probably of 
the 11th century. The interior has a flat roof and a raised choir, 
with the episcopal throne at the back ; in front, to the left, statue 
of St. Peter (14th cent.). Pictures by Caroto and D. Brusasorci. 

Opposite the Ponte della Pietra, built by Fra Giocondo, of which 
the two arches next the left bank are Roman, begins the ascent to 
the Castel S. Pietro (PI. G, 2; permission at No. 57, Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele), a modern barrack on the site of the castle of Theodoric 
the Great (p. 202) and the Visconti, ruins of which are still trace- 
able. Splendid view, which, however, is almost equally good from 
a little before the entrance. — At its base, immediately below the 
bridge, are Temains of an antique Theatre (PI. G, 2), excavated in 
the midst of private houses (boy will fetch custodian). — On rising 
ground a little farther down the river is the little church of SS. Siro 
e Libera, dating from the time of Berengarius. 

Amphitheatre. VERONA. 34. Route. 207 

From this point to S. Giovanni in Valle, S. Maria in Organo, 
and the Oiardino Oiusti, see p. 212. 

By S. Anastasia begins the Corso Cavoub. (PI. F-C, 2, 3), the 
chief street of Verona , in -which several handsome palaces are sit- 
uated. About midway rises the Porta de' Borsari (PI. D, 3) , a 
triumphal arch or town-gate, erected undeT Emp. Gallienus, A. D. 
265 , in the poor later Roman style. — A little to the N. is the 
Gothic church of S. Eufemia (PI. E, 2, 3), of the 13th cent., with 
Madonnas by Moretto (1st altar on left; injured) and Dom. Brusa- 
sorci (3rd altar on right). Frescoes by Caroto, in the Cappella Spol- 
verini, to the right of the choir (injured). 

A little farther on in the Corso Cavour, to the left, is 88. Apo- 
stoli, with very ancient tower and Romanesque apse. In front of it 
stands a marble statue by Zannoni of Aleardo Aleardi, the poet and 
patriot, born in Verona in 1812 (d. 1878). — Also on the left (No. 19) 
is the handsome *Pal. Bevilacqua, by Sammicheli, with large wind- 
ows intended for a museum. Opposite is the small church of 8. Lo- 
renzo (11th cent.), with altar-piece by D. Brusasorci. Then on the 
right, No. 38, Pal. Portalupi, and No. 44, Pal. Canossa, also by Sam- 
micheli, with a fine portico and court, but with an attica added in 
1770 (frescoes by Tiepolo in the portal). — On the right we then 
reach the Castel Vecchio (PI. C, 3), the castle of Can Grande II., 
now a barrack, connected with the Arsenal on the left bank of the 
Adige by a bridge (not accessible) of the 14th century. 

From the Castello to S. Zeno, see p. 208. The Via S. Bernardino 
leads W. to S. Bernardino (p. 208), while the Corso is prolonged 
S.W. to the Porta del Palio (p. 208). 

To the S. of the Corso, and connected with it by several streets, 
lies the PrAzzA Vittokio Emanuele (PI. D, 4 ; formerly Piazza Brd,, 
from 'pratum\ meadow), with an equestrian Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II., by Borghi, erected in 1883. 

On the E. side of this piazza rises the famous '"Amphitheatre 
(Arena; PI. D, 4), erected under Diocletian about A. D. 290, and 
known in German lore as the abode of Dietrich (Theodoric) of 
Bern, 106 ft. in height, 168 yds. long, and 134 yds. wide. Of the 
outer wall with its four stories a fragment only now exists. 

Around the Intebiob (entr. from the W. side by arcade No. V; 1 fr., Sun. 
free ; guide superfluous) rise 43 tiers of steps of grey limestone or reddish- 
yellow conglomerate (often restored since the end of the 16th cent. , and partly 
modern), on which 20,000 spectators could sit. An inscription on the 2nd story 
commemorates the visit of Napoleon I. in 1805, and the restoration carried 
out by his order. Fine view from the highest steps. Two doors at the 
ends of the longer diameter afforded access to the arena itself (82 by 48 yds.). 

The Via Nuova , terminating near the Arena, one of the main 
thoroughfares of the town, leads N.E. to the Piazza Erbe (see p. 203). 
In one of its side-streets, to the right, is S. Maria della Seala 
(PI. E, 3), with early-Renaissance portal and frescoes of the school 
of Vittore Pisano (in the bell-chamber, right of the high-altar). 

208 Route 34. VERONA. S. Zeno Maggiore. 

On the S.W. side of the Arena stands the Municipio (PL D, 4 ; 
formerly guard-house), begun in 1836, -which bears several memo- 
rial tablets relating to political events and to the inundation of 
1882 (p. 210). Farther W. is the Gran Guardia Antica (PI. D, 4 ; 
now the corn-market and used for exhibitions), or old guard-house, 
begun in 1609 by Dom. Curtoni, a nephew of Sammicheli. Adja- 
cent is the Portone, an old gateway with a tower. — Opposite the 
Municipio is the spacious Pal. Malfatti, formerly Guastaverza (by 
Sammicheli), with the Cafe"Vittorio Emanuele, mentioned at p. 201. 

In the street to the right of the gateway is the Teatro Filarmonico 
(PI. C, 4). In the arcades erected in 1745 is the valuable Museo 
Lapidario, formed by Scipione Maffei, containing Roman, Greek, 
and Oriental inscriptions, and ancient sculptures. Two of the best 
reliefs are built into the back-walls of the small houses adjoining 
the entrance (on the left, ^Esculapius and Hygieia, an Attic votive 
relief, 4th cent. B.C.). Visitors ring at the iron gate opposite the 
Gran Guardia. 

Passing through the gateway we reach the Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele (PI. C, B, 4, 5), in which, at the corner of the Strada di S. 
Antonio, is a Statue of Michele Sammicheli, 'grande nella architet- 
tura civile e religiosa, massimo nella militare', by Trojani. At the 
end of the Corso rises the handsome Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6), by 
Sammicheli. Outside this gate is the Stazione Porta Nuova (p. 201). 

From the Porta Nuova an avenue leads N.W. to the *Porta del 
Palio (formerly PortaStuppa; PI. A, 4), by Sammicheli, once admired 
by Goethe. Outside the gate is the moat of the fortress, the bridge 
over which affords a fine view. — We now follow the Corso di Porta 
Palio and the second cross-street on the left to — 

S. Bernardino (PI. A, 3 ; if closed, ring in the corner to the left), 
of the 15th cent., formerly a monastery- church. Above the door in 
the cloisters to the left of the church is a fresco, *St. Bernardinus, 
by Cavazzola. 

Interior. 1st chapel on the right: as altar-piece, a copy of a master- 
work of Cavazzola in the Gallery (No. 335, p. 211). Frescoes of legendary 
subjects by Oiolfino. — 2nd altar on the right, Madonna and saints by 
Bonsignori (1485). — 4th chapel on the right: Domen. Morone, ceiling- 
frescoes and life of St. Anthony (restored). — 5th Chap : on the altar-wall 
copies from Cavazzola (in the Museum) ; above, Christ on the Cross and 
SS. John and Mary, by Fr. Morone (1498) ; on the left, Christ parting from 
his mother by Caroto, and three paintings from the Passion by Oiolfino. — At 
the end to the right is the entrance to the "Cappella Pellegrini, by Sam- 
micheli (1557, restored 1793), with beautiful Renaissance decoration. Altar- 
pieces by India (1679). — In the choir, to the left, Madonna with saints 
by Benaglio. — Organ of 1481. On the organ-doors are SS. Bernardino and 
Francis, and (over the portal) SS. Bonaventura and Ludovico, by Fr. Mo- 
rone. — The Cloisters and one of the chapels contain frescoes by Oiolfino 
(early works). — In the Refectory of the monastery frescoes by Dom. Mo- 
rone(1), accessible only from the street. 

To the N. of this point lies *S. Zeno Maggiore (PL A, 2 ; reached 
also by following the new embankment on the Adige, with its fine 
views, to the N.W. of the Castel Vecchio, p. 207), one of the finest 

8. Fermo Maggiore. VERONA. 34. Route. 209 

Romanesque churches in N. Italy, of most noble proportions, lately 
restored. The nave in its present form -was begun in 1139; the 
choir dates from the 13th century. 

The Poktal, the columns of which rest on lions of red marble, is 
embellished with reliefs of Scriptural subjects by Nicolaus and Wiligelmus 
(1139). Below, to the right, Theodoric, as a wild huntsman , is speeding 
headlong to the devil. At the top of the door-posts are the twelve months. 
The doors are covered with rude bronze reliefs from the Bible and the 
life of St. Zeno. 

Interior. In the corner to the right an ancient octagonal font ; behind 
it a fresco of S. Zeno (14th cent.). The holy-water basin, by the 1st column 
on the right, rests on an inverted antique capital. Opposite is an ancient 
porphyry vase, 28 ft. in circumference; beyond it a fine Gothic crucifix. 
— On the Choir Screen are marble statues of Christ and the Apostles (13th 
cent.). — To the left of the choir, frescoes of the 14th cent., under which are 
traces of others of the 12th ; to the right frescoes of the 11th and 13th 
centuries. To the right of the steps to the choir is an altar, flanked on 
each side with four columns of brown marble, resting on lions and bulls. 
To the right, above, is a painted marble figure of St. Zeno , a fisherman 
and afterwards Bishop of Verona (about 9th cent.). Gothic choir-stalls. 
Behind the high-altar is an admirable "Picture (covered) by Mantegna 
(1459), hung too high : Madonna enthroned, with angels and saints ; on 
the left SS. Peter, Paul, John, and Augustine; on the right SS. John the 
Baptist, Gregory, Lawrence, and Benedict, in solemn attitude and full of 
individuality, with remarkably rich accessories. (The predella pictures are 
copies.) — The spacious Cktpt contains the tasteful bronze tomb of St. Zeno, 
from the designs by the brothers Spazzi (1889), With seated figures of 
Religion, Love, Faith, and Hope. 

To the left of the church is the entrance to the adjoining "Cloisters, 
with elegant double columns, where a small museum of Christian anti- 
quities has been arranged. — The well-informed sacristan also conducts 
the visitor to a lofty tower adjoining the cloisters, the last relic of a con- 
vent repeatedly inhabited by the mediaeval German emperors on their jour- 
neys to Rome. On the upper floor are some old Romanesque wall-paint- 
ings. — Fee 1 /2-l fr. 

To the W. of S. Zeno is the Porta 8. Zeno (PI. A, 1), erected in 
1540 from Sammicheli's designs. 

We next visit the S. E. Quab/tees of the town. 

In the Piazza dell' Indipendenza, adorned with gardens, to 
the N. of the Post Office (PI. F, 3) , rises an equestrian Statue of 
Garibaldi, in bronze, by Bordoni, erected in 1887. 

In the Via Cappello, through which the tramway runs S. from 
the Piazza Erbe (PI. E, 3), the gateway of an old house (Nos. 19-25) 
on the left bears a marble tablet which is said to indicate the house 
of Juliet's parents (Capuletti; p. 212). The street then takes the 
name of Via S. Sebastiano (PI. E, 3, 4), in which, adjoining S. 
Sebastiano (PI. F, 4), is the Biblioteca Comunale (open in winter 
9-3 and 6-9, in summer 9-4), founded in 1860, and containing 
numerous records. In the Via Lboni, the prolongation of the same 
street, on the left, No. 1, is the Arco de' Leoni, part of a Roman 
double gateway, coeval with the Porta de' Borsari (p. 207), but of 
superior execution, bearing an inscription partially preserved. Be- 
hind it are remains of a still older arch. 

Near this is the Gothic church of S. Fermo Maggiore (PI. E, F, 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 14 

210 Route 34. VERONA. Museo Civieo. 

4), of the beginning of the 14th cent. ; interesting facade, enriched 
with brick and marble. On the left side of the facade is the sar- 
cophagus of Fracastoro, physician of Can Grande, -with ancient Ver- 
onese frescoes. 

The Interior, usually entered by the left side-door, has no aisles. 
Part of it is modernised. Fine old roof in larch-wood. Above the main 
entrance is a fresco of the early Veronese school, the Crucifixion, in poly- 
chrome frame. To the left is the monument of Brenzoni, with sculptures 
by the Florentine Rosso, an assistant of Donatello (1420) ; above are much 
damaged frescoes by Vittore Pisano, Annunciation. — 1st altar on left, three 
saints by Torbido. — Over the side-entrance, fresco of the Crucifixion ; in 
the chapel to the left, Altar-piece by Caroto (1525), Madonna, St. Anna, 
and the Child in clouds, with four saints below. — In an adjoining space, 
behind a curtain and railing, is the monument of the physician Gir. della 
Torre, by Riccio (the bronze reliefs, now in the Louvre, are here replaced 
by copies). — Chapel on left of high-altar, St. Anthony with four other 
saints, by Liberate. — 3rd altar on right in the nave, Trinity, Madonna in 
clouds, Tobias and the angel, and a saint, by Franc. Torbido. 

The neighbouring iron Fonte delle Navi (PI. E, 4) affords a 
good survey of the choir and transept of S. Fermo. It was erected in 
1893 on the site of a bridge destroyed by an inundation of the 
Adige in 1757. The water reached a still higher level on 17th 
Sept., 1882, as indicated by a mark on the first house in the Stra- 
done S. Tommaso on the island. — The spacious church of S. Tom- 
maso (PI. F, G, 3, 4), without aisles, and with open roof, contains a 
fine altar-piece by Qirol. dai Libri, formerly attributed to Caroto : 
SS. Sebastian, Rochus, and Job (last altar on right). 

On the left bank of the Adige, beyond the Ponte delle Navi, 
on the right, in the promenade, is the noble *Palazzo Fompei (PI. 
F, 5), erected by Sammicheli about 1530, presented by the family 
to the town in 1857, and now containing the Museo Civico (adrn. 
in summer 9-4, in winter 9-3, on holidays from 10 a.m. ; 1 fr., gratis 
on the 1st Sun. of each month). 

The Ground Floor contains natural history collections (fine fossils from 
Monte Bolca) and antiquities: Roman and Etruscan bronzes, marble sculp- 
tures and vases, coins, Roman silver-plate, prehistoric antiquities from the 
lake-dwellings of theLago diGarda, mediaeval sculptures (some painted), and 
casts of modern works. 

The Tinacoteca or picture-gallery, on the first floor, contains works 
chiefly of the Veronese school. Catalogues for the use of visitors. 

I. Room: (right) 70. Tiepolo, Monastic saints; 68. Bonifazio, Noah and 
his sons ; 52. Titian, Madonna and Child with John the Baptist (injured) ; 
49. Franc. Torbido (ascribed to Moretto), Tobias and the angel. On the op- 
posite wall: 34. School of Perugino, Madonna, Christ, and John the Baptist, 
with two angels; 31. School of Paolo Veronese, Baptism of Christ (injured). 

II. Room (right). Over the door: 138. Girolamo dai Libri, Madonna; 
148. Bonsignori, Madonna ; 155. Giac. Francia, Madonna ; 153. Parmigianino, 
Holy Family; 152. Girol. Benaglio, Madonna. — On the exit-wall: 122. Cima 
da Conegliano, Madonna; 115. M. Basaiti, St. Sebastian; 114. Caroto, Holy 
Family (under Giulio Romano's influence) ; 119. Caroto, Madonna. — Next 
wall: 99. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna (1510) ; 104. Style of Altdorfer Por- 
trait of the Vicar Kolb ; 97. Sir A. More (Ant. Mor), Portrait ; 96. School of 
Raphael (? ascribed by Morelli to Calisto Piazza), Madonna, St. Elizabeth, 
and John the Baptist; *87. Mantegna, Madonna and two saints ; 102. P. Ve- 
ronese (V ascribed by Morelli to Zelolli), Allegory on music; 95. School of 
Perugino, Adoration of the Magi; 86. School ofGiov. Bellini (signature forged) 

Cemetery. VERONA. 34. Route. 211 

Presentation in the Temple; 94. Unknown Artist (wrongly attributed to Fra 
Bartolommeo), Portrait; 85. Cavazzola, Madonna with the young Baptist; 
77. Giov. Bellini (not Florentine School), Madonna, an early work (injured) ; 
92. Caroto, Madonna, an early work ; 76. Bart. Montagna, Two canonized 

III. Room: 200. Rondinelli (not Giov. Bellini), Madonna; 199. Palma Vec- 
chio (not Moretto), Madonna (injured). — Next wall: above, 180. Romanino, 
St. Jerome; 182. Francesco Morone, Madonna and Child; 187, 188, 190, 
191. Legendary scenes, ascribed to Falconelto. 

IV. Room (on the other side of Room I) : entrance-wall, 240. Giolfino, 
Madonna; 243. Paolo Veronese, Madonna enthroned, with saints and angels 
(injured); 244. Ant. Badile (teacher of P. Veronese), Madonna and saints. 
— Opposite the window, 252. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna enthroned with 
SS. Rochus and Sebastian; 251. Caroto, St. Catharine; 253. Girol. dai Libri, 
Baptism of Christ; 260. Caroto, Adoration of the Child; 259. Morone, 
St. Catharine and the donor. — Exit-wall : "267. Paolo Veronese, Portrait 
of Guarienti (1556); over the door, 271. Bonsignori, Madonna enthroned. 

V. Room. Above the entrance, "290. Gir. dai Libri, Madonna and SS. 
Joseph, Jerome, and John the Baptist worshipping the Child, with richly 
detailed landscape. — On the entrance-wall are frames containing a choice 
and rich collection of miniatures from choir -books. Note those by 
Liberate and especially those by "Girol. dai Libri. Above, 294. Cavazzola 
St. Bonaventura; "298. Cavazzola, Christ and St. Thomas, Descent of the 
Holy Spirit and Ascension (in the background) ; 300. Caroto, Christ 
washing the disciples 1 feet, Madonna and David in the clouds ; Cavazzola, 
"303. Scourging of Christ, 308. Christ crowned with thorns. — Exit-wall : 
330. Fr. Morone, Trinity with John and Mary; 333. Girol. dai Libri, Ma- 
donna and Child in clouds, worshipped by SS. Andrew and Peter; 3°5. 
Cavazzola (large altar-piece), Madonna with angels, saints, and donor (1522), 
the master's last work, recalling the school of Ferrara in its colouring; 
339. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna with Joseph, Tobias and the angel (fine 
landscape; 1530). Above the door, "343. Caroto, Tobias with the three 

VI. Room. Entrance-wall, ! 351. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child (show- 
ing the influence of the Paduan school); below, 352. Lucas van Leyden 
(copy), Crucifixion ; 359. Stefano da Zevio, Madonna and St. Catharine in a 
rose-garden; 365. Jacopo Bellini, Crucifixion (retouched); 369. Girol. Be- 
naglio , Madonna and saints. Opposite: 377. Liberate, Descent from the 
Cross; "390, *392, 394. Cavazzola, Gethsemane, Descent from the Cross, 
and Bearing of the Cross (1517); to the left of the Cross in the middle 
picture is the artist's portrait and in the background are the Adige and 
the Castello S. Pietro. 

VII. Room , entered from Room IV, unimportant. — VIII. Room : 
old engravings. — IX. Room : Caroto, Madonna between two saints. — In 
an adjoining room on the right (usually closed), medallions by Yitt. Pi- 
sano. Back-wall : fresco by Cavazzola, Baptism of Christ, and medallions 
of the Evangelists. — X. Room, unimportant. — XI. Room: Crucifixion, 
attributed to AlticMeri. — XII. Room: Frescoes (sawn out). Entrance-wall: 
560. Morone, Madonna and Child, with saints (1515). Opposite the windows : 
539-544. Paolo Veronese, Deeds of Alexander the Great, etc., early works, 
from the Palazzo Contarini (ca. 1550). Exit-wall: 545. Martino da Verona, 
Madonna enthroned and SS. Zeno, James, and Apollonia; below, 546-550. 
Giolfino, Allegorical subjects, half-length figures. — The last four rooms 

Outside the Porta Vittoria is the Cimitero (PI. F, 6), laid out 
on a grand scale , with its cypress avenue and handsome gateway 
adorned with groups in marble by Spazzi. In the interior are Doric 
colonnades, a lofty dome-church, and a number of large monuments 
in marble. Adm. April to Sept. 9-5, Oct. to March 10-3. 

Opposite the cemetery is the iron Ponte Aleardi (toll 2 c. ), 


212 Route 34. VERONA. 

leading to the broad Via Pallone , by which we may regain the 
Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 207). The avenue on the Adige leads 
to the Railway Bridge, which affords a fine survey of the town and 
environs, and from which we may return to the Porta Nuova. 

On the right bank of the Adige, within a garden (visitors ring at the 
red door in front, 15-20 c.) in the Vicolo S. Francesco al Corso , a side- 
street of Via Cappuccini (PI. D, 6), is a suppressed Franciscan Monastery, 
where a chapel contains a mediseval sarcophagus called the Tomba di Giu- 
lietta, or '■Tomb of Juliet'. The whole scene is prosaic and unattractive. 
Shakespeare's play of 'Romeo and Juliet' is founded on events which actu- 
ally occurred at Verona. 'Escalus, Prince of Verona' was Bartolommeo della 
Scala (d. 1303). The house of Juliet's parents, see p. 209. 

To the E. of the Ponte delle Navi rises S. Paolo di Campo Marzo 
(PI. F, 5), which contains Madonnas with saints by Oirolamo dai 
Libri (3rd altar to the right), P. Veronese (right transept), and 
Bonsignori (to the left). Over the high-altar, Madonna between 
SS. Peter and Paul by 6. Caroto. 

Farther to the E. is SS. Nazzaro e Celso (PI. H, 4), a Renais- 
sance building of the 15th cent., with traces of Gothic. 

In the right transept, two 'Paintings on panel, John the Baptist, and 
SS. Benedict, Nazarus , and Celsus, by Bart. Montagna. A Pieta and 
St. Blaise with St. Juliana, in the sacristy, are by the same artist. In 
the choir are frescoes by Farinato. In the Cappella di S. Biagio (left 
transept) damaged frescoes by Falconetlo (procession of Nereids in the 
dome), and an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, by Bonsignori (1519) ; at 
the side, frescoes by Bart. Montagna (history of St. Blaise ; much damaged). 

To the N. of this church is the *Giardino Giusti (PI. G, H, 3 ; 
ring at a gate on the right in the court; fee 50 c), containing a 
few Roman antiquities and numerous cypresses , some of them 
400-500 years old and 120,ft. in height. The loftily situated view- 
terrace (ascent through the turret at the back of the garden) com- 
mands a beautiful view of Verona, the distant Apennines, Monte 
Pizzocolo on the Lago di Garda (p. 193) and the Brescian Alps 
(evening light favourable). 

Near this is *S. Maria in Organo (PL G, 3), a very ancient 
church, rebuilt by Sammicheli in 1481 , with unfinished facade of 1592. 

Third altar on left, Madonna and Child, with SS. Martin, Augustine, 
and two angels, by Morone (1503) ; 4th altar on left, Madonna with saints, 
by Savoldo (1533). The seats in front of the high-altar are embellished 
with landscapes by Cavazzola and Brusasorci. Behind it is a carved wal- 
nut Candelabrum by Fra Giovanni da Verona, who belonged to the mon- 
astery of this church. "Choie-Stalls with intarsia (views of the town 
above, ornamentation below), of 1499, by the same master. Chapel on 
right of choir: Ascension, a fresco by Giolfino. In the right transept are 
an altar-piece, St. Francesca Romana, by Guercino, and, on the left wall 
in front, frescoes by Cavazzola (St. Michael, and St. Raphael with Tobias). 
— The Sacrist? contains, on the right, intarsias by Fra Giovanni, injured 
by water; the ceiling and friezes, with half-length "Portraits of monks 
and popes, are by Francesco Morone ; 'Madonna del Limone, by Girol. dai Libri. 

The ancient little church of 8. Giovanni in Valle (PI. G, H, 2), 
a fiat-roofed basilica, borne by columns with very early capitals, 
has a fresco over the entrance by Stefano da Zevio, and two early- 
Christian sarcophagi in the crypt. 

YALPOLICELLA. 34. Route. 213 

From Verona to Cologna, steam-tramway in 2'/4-3hrs., starting out- 
side the Porto Vefcovo. — 2 M. S. Michele, the birthplace of the archi- 
tect Michele Sammicheli (p. 202), with the round church of Madonna di 
Campagna, planned by him (splendid Alpine view from the dome). Near 
the church rises the pinnacled castle of Montario, formerly the property of 
the Scaligers. The tramway then passes S. Martina (p. 211), Caldiero 
(p. 219), S. Bonifacio (p. 219), Lonigo (p. 2 19), and reaches the little town 
of Gologna Veneta, with 2200 inhab., who are busily engaged in the culture 
of silk, hemp, and vines. 

From Verona to Caprino, 2I1/2 51., railway in about 2 hrs. (fares 2 fr. 
70, 1 fr. 70 c). The train starts from the Stazione Porta S. Giorgio (PI. E, 1) 
and a°cends the Adige near its left bank to (1 M.) Quinzano and (3 M.) 
Parona alV Adige (p. 19), and then beyond (41/2 M.) Arbizzano and (5 31.) 
Ntgrar enters the Valpolicella, a pleasant upland region, between the S. 
spurs of the Monti Lessini (p. 219) and the Adige, noted for its wine. — 
51/2 M. Pedemonte; 71. 8. Floriano; 811. ,S'. Pietro Incariano ; 9'/2 M. Gar- 
gagnago; IOV2 M. S. Ambrogio. — We now descend the valley of the Adige 
to (12 M.) Domegliara (p. 19), where our line crosses the Brenner railway 
(stations about '/i JI. apart), and cross the river just before reaching (I31/2 M.) 
Sega. Hence the line runs in a N.W. direction across the fertile upland 
district that separates the Lago di Garda from the valley of the Adige. — 
16 M. Affi; I71/2 M. Albare; 19 M. Gostermano, the station for Qarda, 2V2 M. 
to the W. (p. 194). We skirt the S. slope of the Monte Baldo, still in a 
N.W. direction, and beyond (20 M.) Pesina, reach (21'/s M.) Caprino. — From 
Caprino to Ferrara di Monte Baldo and ascent of the Monte Maggiore, 
see p. 195. 

35. From Verona to Mantua and Modena. 

63 M. Railway in 2-31/2 hrs. (fares 11 fr. 55, 8 fr. 10, 5 fr. 20 c. ; exprefs 
12 fr. 70, 8 fr. 95 c.) ; to Mantua (251/2 M.) in V4-I1/4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 10 c. ; express 5 fr. 10, 3 fr. 60 c). — This will continue to be the ex- 
press route to Florence and Home until the new direct line between Dosso- 
buono (see below) and Bologna is completed. 

Verona, see p. 201. The line traverses a rich plain, dotted with 
trees. Near Mantua are fields of rice. — 7 M. Dossobuono. 

Dossobuono is the junction of a new direct line to Bologna, still un- 
finished, and of the Verona and Rovigo Railway (621/2 M., in 3'fe hrs.). 
Stations unimportant. — 3372 M. Legnago, a town of 3500 inhab., fort- 
ified by the Austrians after 1815 to defend the passage of the Adige, is 
also a station on the Mantua and Monselice line (p. 218). — 621/2 M. Rovigo, 
see p. 315. 

11 M. Villafranca di Verona, with, a mediaeval castle, where the 
preliminaries of a peace between France and Austria were concluded 
on 11 tli July, 1859 , after the battle of Solferino. About 5 M. to 
the N.W. lies Custozza, where the Italians were defeated by the 
Austrians in 1848 and 1866. A monument to the fallen -was erected 
here in 1879, after a design by Franco. 

14!/ 2 M. Mozzecane; 18 M. Roverbella; 23 M. £. Antonio Man- 

The train now passes the Citadel of Mantua, where Andreas 
Hofer, the Tyrolese patriot, was shot by the French on 20th Feb., 
1810. The citadel and the town are connected by the Argine Mu- 
lino (a bridge constructed in 1257), which divides the lakes formed 
here by the Mincio into the Lago Superiore (W.) and the Lago di 
Mezzo (E.). 

25y 2 M. Mantua. Station to the W. of the town (PI. A, 3, 4). 

214 Route 35. MANTUA. History. 

Mantua. — Hotels. Crock Verde or Fenice, Via Sogliari (PI. B, 3), 
R. 2-3, A. 1, L. 3 /4, omn. l'/2 fr. ; Senoner, near the post-office, with 
restaurant, R. 2, omn. 3 /i fr., well spoken of; Aquila d'O-RO, R., L., & A. 
2i/a, omn. 1/2 fr., Agnello d'Oro, both in the Via Sogliari. — Travellers 
should avoid spending a night at Mantua in summer, as the mosquitoes 
are troublesome. — A stay of 4-5 hrs. is enough to give an idea of this 
interesting town. The traveller should engage a cab at the station for 
1 hr., drive to the (12 min.) Palazzo del Te, which may be seen in 
V2 hr., and then to S. Andrea or the Cathedral. 

Cafe: Caffi Veneziano, near the church of S. Andrea. 

Post Office, Via Sogliari (PJ. B, 3). 

Cab per drive 75c, first hr. 1 fr. 50c, each following 1/2 hr. 50c 

Mantua , Ital. Maniova , a very ancient town founded by the 
Etruscans, -with. 28,000 inhab. (3000 Jews), is a provincial capital 
and a strongly fortified place, bounded on the N.W. by the Lago 
Superiore, on the N.E. by the Lago di Mezzo, on the E. by the Lago 
Inferiore, and on the S. and S.W. by marshy land, which in case 
of a siege can be laid under water. 

Mantua is mentioned in ancient times as the home of Virgil, who was 
born at the ancient Andes (supposed to have occupied the site of the present 
village of Pielole, 3 M. to the S.E., where a monument was erected to 
Mm in 1884), but it was not a place of importance till the middle ages. 
In the conflicts of the Hohenstaufen period the town embraced the cause 
of the Guelphs. In 1328 the citizens elected Luigi, Lord of Gonzaga, as 
'Capitano del Popolo', and to his dynasty the town owed its prosperity. 
The Gonzagas fought successfully against Milan and Venice, and extended 
their territory, while they were liberal patrons of art and science. Gio- 
vanni Francesco II. (1407-44), the first marquis, invited the learned Vit- 
torino da Feltre to Mantua, and through him made his court a renowned 
centre of culture and education. The beautiful and accomplished Isabella 
d'Este (1474-1539), sister of Alphonso , Duke of Ferrara , and mother of 
Eleonora of Urbino, was the wife of Giovanni Francesco III. (1484-1519). 
She carried on a lively correspondence with the most eminent men of her 
time, and with judicious taste collected valuable books, pictures, and 
antiquities. In 1530 Federigo II. (d. 1540) was raised to the rank of duke 
by Charles V., and in 1536 he was invested with the marqnisate ofMonte- 
ferrato; a monument of his reign is the Palazzo del Te (p. 217). In 1627, 
when Charles de Nevers, a member of a French collateral line, ascended 
the throne, the Mantuan war of succession broke out, and Emperor Fer- 
dinand III. declared the fief forfeited. On 18th July, 1630, Mantua was 
stormed and sacked by the Austrians. Although the emperor, hard pressed 
by the Swedes , was obliged to conclude peace in 1631 , the town never 
recovered from this blow. Carlo IV., the last duke, taking the French 
side in the Spanish war of succession , was declared an outlaw in 1703 ; 
Monteferrato was awarded to Piedmont, and Mantua to Austria, of whose 
supremacy in Italy it became the chief support. After a long and obstinate 
defence by General Wurmser, the fortress capitulated to the French on 2nd 
February, 1797. By the Peace of Villafranca the Austrians retained Mantua 
although deprived of the rest of Lombardy, but they were compelled to 
cede it to Italy in 1866. 

In the history of Architecture Mantua is of importance on account 
of the buildings of Leon Ballista Alberti, one of the greatest architects of 
the Renaissance (churches of S. Andrea and S. Sebastiano). — Mantua 
also witnessed the labours of two great Renaissance Painters. An- 
ilrea Manlegna, born at Padua in 1431, entered the service of Lodovico 
Gonzaga in 1463. In vigour of conception and in the fidelity of his char- 
acters he rivals his best contemporaries, while he surpasses them in ac- 
curacy of perspective and in his refined taste for beauty of landscape. He 
died at Mantua in 1506, and was succeeded as court-painter in the follow- 
ing year by Lorenzo Costa (comp. pp. 318, 325). When Raphael's pupils 

S. Andrea. MANTUA. 35. Route. 215 

were dispersed after his death, Oiulio Romano (1492-1546), the greatest of 
them, settled at Mantua, where he attained so high a reputation as an ar- 
chitect and painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town of Giulio Ro- 
mano'. After the example of Raphael's work in the Farnesina, he com- 
posed mythological decorative paintings , which , though far inferior to 
their prototype, attract by the richness of the motives and sensuous mag- 
nificence of composition, and are important owing to the influence they 
exercised on later art. Primaliccio and Niccolb delV Abbate , pupils of 
Giulio Romano who were educated here, were afterwards summoned to 
Fontaineblean, and thus formed a link between the French and the Italian 
Renaissance. Giulio Romano's works must also have influenced the style 
of Rubens, who spent several years at Mantua. 

The traffic of the town is chiefly confined to the arcades of the 
Via Sogliaki (PI. B, 3), continued westwards by the Corso di Porta 
Pradella, now Vitt. Emanuele, and to the Piazza dellb Erbe (PI. 
C, 3), to the E. of the former street. In this piazza, where a Statue 
of Dante was erected in 1871, are situated the principal churches. 

*S. Andrea (PI. C, 3), a church of imposing proportions, was 
begun in 1472 from designs by the Florentine Leon Battista Alberti, 
but afterwards much altered, while the present dome was not added 
till 1782. The white marble facade, with its spacious portico, is 
classic in style ; adjoining it is a square tower of red brick, with an 
elegant octagonal superstructure and a Gothic spire. 

The Interior, 110 yds. in length, is covered with massive barrel 
vaulting, the sunk panels partly painted. The 1st chapel on the left contains 
frescoes by Franc. Mantegna (1516) ; the tomb of the painter Andrea Man- 
tegna (d. 1506), with his bust in bronze by Bart, di Virgilio Meglioli (not 
■Sperandio) ; also three paintings of the School of Mantegna, Holy Family, 
Baptism of Christ, and Pieta (restored in 1890). — 2nd Chap, on left: Altar- 
piece, Madonna enthroned and saints, by Lorenzo Costa (1525; much 
damaged). — 1st Chap, on right : Arrivabene, St. Anthony admonishing 
the tyrant Ezzelino (painted in 1846). At the sides, Hell, Purgatory, and 
Paradise, from Dante, by B. Pagni (1570). — 3. Cappella S. Longino, on 
the left: Sarcophagus with the inscription: 'Longini ejus, qui latus 
Christi percussit, ossa'. On the right is the sarcoihagus of Gregorius of 
Nazianzus. The frescoes, designed by Oiulio Romano, represent the Cru- 
cifixion; below is Longinus; on the opposite side the finding of the 
sacred blood , of which the saint is said to have brought some drops 
hither. — The Right Transept contains the monument of Bishop An- 
dreasi (d. 1549), executed in 1551 by Clementi, a pupil of Michael Angelo. 
The swan is the heraldic emblem of Mantua. — Left Transept. Chapel 
on the left: (right) Monument of Pietro Strozzi (1529), with caryatides, 
designed by Giulio Romano (best seen from the middle of the nave). The 
other monument, with recumbent figure of Count Andreasi, was also de- 
signed by 6. Romano. — Choir : Martyrdom of St. Andrew, a fresco by 
Anselmi, an imitator of Correggio, in the apse. In the corner to the left 
by the high-altar is the kneeling figure of Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder 
of the church. The Crypt, beneath the high-altar, where the drops of the 
sacred blood were preserved, contains a marble crucifix and a statue of 
the Madonna and Child carved in wood. 

A little farther on is the Piazza Sokdello (PI. C, 2), in the 
centre of which rises a monument to the political martyrs of the 
year 1851. Here are situated the Cathedral, the Palazzo Vescovile, 
and, on the right, the former palace of the Gonzagas. 

The Cathedral of S. Pietro (Pi. 0, D, 2), with double aisles, 
domed transept, and two rows of domed chapels, has a baroque facade 

216 Route 35. MANTUA. Corte Reale. 

(1756) and an unfinished Romanesque tower. The interior, skil- 
fully remodelled from designs by Giulio Romano, has a fine fret- 
ted ceiling. On the left of the entrance is an ancient Christian 
sarcophagus, and on the right of the passage leading to the Cappella 
dell' Incoronata is a bust of Ant. Capriano, 1587. In the Chapel of 
the Sacrament fat the end of the left aisle) is an altar-piece on 
the right by Paolo Farinato of Verona, St. Martin of Tours. 

The N.E. angle of the piazza is occupied by the old ducal palace 
of the Gonzagas, now called the *Corte Reale (PI. D,2), and partly 
used as barracks. Begun in 1302 by Guido Buonacolsi, it was after- 
wards altered and embellished with frescoes by Giulio Romano by 
order of Federigo II. 

The custodian is to be found under the second large arched gateway 
to the left (fee 1 fr.). On the Upper Floor is a large saloon containing 
portraits of the Gonzagas by Bibbiena. Then the Stanze dell' Impera- 
trice, once hung with Raphael's tapestry (now at Vienna ; copies of the 
hangings in the Vatican). The Dining-Room is adorned with allegorical 
figures of the rivers and lakes around Mantua; the windows look into a 
garden on the same level. The Sala dello Zodiaco has allegorical and 
mythological representations of the signs of the zodiac by Giulio Romano. 
Napoleon I. once slept in the next room. Then three Stanze dell' Im- 
peratore, containing copies of the tapestry formerly here, painted by 
Canepi. The Picture Gallery contains nothing worthy of note ; to the 
left, by the door, a good bust of a Gonzaga by Bernini. The Ball Room 
(Sala degli Specchi) is embellished with frescoes by the pupils of Giulio 
Romano. — In another part of the palace is the charming Camerino 
CParaduo") of Isabella oVEsle (p. 214); in an adjoining room her motto, 
'nee spe nee melu'. We observe here particularly the intarsia, the beauti- 
ful reliefs on the marble-door, and the delicate ceiling-decoration. We 
next pass through richly decorated rooms, some in sad disrepair: the 
Sala dei Gidramekto del Primo Capitano ; two rooms with wooden 
ceilings; a small apartment with stucco-work by Primaticcio ; the Sala di 
Troja , with frescoes by Giulio Romano (much restored) ; the Sala dei 
Marsh, so called from the busts it once contained ; lastly a Loggia, with 
a view of the lake. The dwarfs' apartments, adapted to the size of their 
inmates, are also worthy of a visit. 

On theN.E. side of the palace is the R. Teatro di Corte (PI. D, 2). 
The vaulted passage between the two leads to the Piazza della Fiera, 
in which rises the Castello di Corte (PI. D, 2), the old castle of 
the Gonzagas. 

Part of the castle in now used as Archives (open during office-hours 
only; gratuity '/a fr.). Most of the frescoes by Andrea Mantegna (1474) 
which once adorned the rooms are obliterated, but those on two walls 
of the Camera degli Sposi (first floor), which are among his finest creations, 
were badly restored in 1877. Three scenes on the entrance-wall represent 
"Ludovico Gonzaga meeting his son Cardinal Francesco near Rome. Above 
the door is a tablet with an inscription, borne by beautiful *Putti with 
butterflies' wings. On the other wall is the Family of the Gonzagas with 
their court: on the left, Lodovico Gonzaga with his wife Barbara. On 
the ceiling are portraits of Roman emperors in grisaille; on the pendentives 
are small mythological scenes; and in the centre is an illusive painting 
of an apparent opening, at which Cupids and girls are listening. 

To the S. of the Corte Reale, and belonging to the same im- 
posing pile of buildings, is the church of S. Barbara (PI. D, 2). Over 
the high-altar the Beheading of S. Barbara, by Dom. Brusasorci. 
By the same master are the angel musicians on the wall to the left 

Museum. MANTUA. 35. Route. 217 

and angels with torches on the right. The organ-wings and two 
pictures over side-altars were painted hy Lor. Costa the Younger. 

In the vicinity to the N.W. is a vast space, planted with trees 
and hounded by the Lago di Mezzo on the N. (drill-ground), called 
the Piazza Vibgiliana (PI. 0, 2), with a handsome arena, the 
Teatro Virgiliano, beyond which, from the parapet towards the Lago 
di Mezzo, a view of the Alps is obtained. 

The Accademia Virgiliana di Scienze e Belle Arti (PI. D, 3) con- 
tains frescoes, sculptures, and casts of little value. Behind it is the 
Liceo, with a Library (a room in the upper story of which contains, 
above the doors, an early work by Rubens, cut into two parts, re 
presenting the Gonzaga family, revering the Trinity ; painted in 
1604) and the Museum [Museo Civico; PI. C, 3). 

The museum contains some very valuable antiques from Rome. By 
the entrance, 336. Bust of Euripides; 2. Replica of Praxiteles's bust of 
Eubuleus, the Eleusinian infernal deity, erroneously called Virgil; 3. Julia 
Domna; D. Torso of Minerva; 12. Marcus Aurelius ; 13. Leda; 16. Sarcoph- 
agus with Medea in relief; 25. Faustina (given by Mantegna to Isabella 
d'Este) ; *26. Torso of Eros (Greek) ; 27. Antoninus Pius ; 31. Greek tomb- 
relief, funeral supper and sacrifice; 36. Female torso; 38. Domitian; 
37. Hadrian; 43. Satyr and Nymph (Greek); 46. Matidia; 58. Fragment 
of a Greek altar; 56. Sarcophagus relief, destruction of Troy; 60, 62. 
Tiberius; 64. Livia(?); "69. Sarcophagus reliefs (marriage, sacrifices, 
and barbarians before an emperor). In the middle: 198. Torso of Venus, 
on an altar with Bacchic figures ; 176. Sleeping Cupid (modern). — In 
the adjoining room, on the right, the so-called 'seat of Virgil' and in- 
scriptions. We now return to the hall. Window-wall, 148. Greek tomb- 
relief. Side-wall, 161. Attic tomb-relief; 158, 164. Bacchic reliefs; 174. 
Relief with attributes of Jupiter; 172. Lid of sarcophagus; 171. Sarcoph- 
agus relief, Endymion ; 180. Torso of a warrior (Greek) ; 182. Alcibiades ; 

187. Sarcophagus relief, vintage; 186. Fight between Romans and Gauls; 

188, 190. Roman portrait-busts; 192. Marcus Aurelius as a boy wearing 
the cap of the Salii ; "201. Torso of Venus ; 219. Flute-playing Satyr ; 269, 
276. Greek tomb-reliefs. — In the centre, *210. Apollo, a marble copy of a 
Greek bronze of the 5th cent. B. C. ; below, reliefs of Cupids ; 225. Attic 
sepulchral urn; 237. Youthful Hermes (portrait- statue). — By the wall: 
281. Head of Aphrodite; 287. Homer; 309. Greek tomb-relief; 318. Sarcoph- 
agus relief, Venus and Adonis ; 328. Muse as Caryatide ; 333. Lucius Verus. 
— The lower rooms of the Accademia contain sculptures , including 
interesting busts in terracotta, and a relief with two portraits from a 

The neighbouring Museo Patrio contains prehistoric and mediae- 
val objects, with a few antiques. 

Near the Porta Pusterla is 8. Sebastiano (PI. B, 4; no ad- 
mission), the earliest Renaissance church built in the shape of a 
Greek cross, erected in 1459 from the designs of Leon. Batt. Alberti. 

Outside the gate is the *Palazzo del Te (PI. A, B, 5 ; contracted 
from Tajetto), erected by Oiulio Romano , and containing his 
frescoes and grotesques, specially interesting for the skill with 
which they are adapted to the size, shape, and purposes of the 
rooms (fee 1 ft.). 

Antechamber , to the right of the entrance, Sun and Moon. 1st Room 
to the left, the favourite Horses of Duke Frederick Gonzaga. 2nd Room : 
•Myth of Psyche and Bacchanalians (the latter restored, the upper paint- 
ings are in better preservation). Opposite the entrance, Polyphemus. 

218 Route 35. CARPI. 

3rd Room : in the lower ovals, Fishing, Market-place, Gladiatorial combats, 
etc. On the ceiling, mythological and symbolical subjects, and represent- 
ation of the zodiac. 4th Room : Fall of Phaeton and many smaller pictures ; 
also imitations of ancient busts. Then a fine open "Loggia, and several 
rooms with beautiful friezes in stucco (Triumphal procession of Bmp, 
Sigismund, and Children) by Primaticcio; next the Sala de' Oiganti, ex- 
tolled by Vasari, with walls fantastically adapted to the painting, which 
was executed chiefly by Binaldo Mantovano, but has been much restored 
(representing the Fall of the Giants, figures 14 ft. in height). Lastly several 
Cabinets, with charming Raphaelite decoration, and an oblong bath-room 
with shell-ornamentation. 

On the other side of the garden is the Casino della Orolta , with its 
exquisite little rooms and its grotto encircling a small garden. 

Oiulio Romano's House, and the Pal. della Oiusthia built by 
him, with its colossal Hermse, are No. 14, Via Carlo Poma (PL A,B,4). 

From Mantua to Cremona, see p. 178. Tramways to Brescia (p. 185), 
Asola, Viadana (p. 184), and Oitiglia. 

From Mantoa to Monselice, 52'/2 M., railway in 2'/2-3V4 hrs. (fares 
9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 30 c). At (24 M.) Cerea we join the Verona and 
Rovigo line (p. 213), which we follow to Legnago (p. 213). 

37 J /2M. Montagnana (vtrena; Trentino), a town of 3200inhab., the well- 
preserved mediseval fortifications of which with its pinnacled walls and 
towers amply repay a visit. In the picturesque Piazza stands the Gothic 
Cathedral, with Renaissance door and choir, two altar-pieces by Buon- 
consiglio (1511 and 1513 ; retouched), etc. The neighbouring Pal. del Mu- 
nicipio is ascribed to Sammicheli and contains a painting by Buonconsiglio 
in the large hall (spoiled by restoration). Near the Porta S. Zeno is the Pal. 
Pisani, containing a chapel with the tomb of the Venetian admiral Pisani. 

41 M. Saletta; 45 M. Ospedaletto Euganeo. 

47'/2 M. Este (Albergo Cenlrale), the ancient Ateste, at the S. foot of 
the Euganean hills, contains the extensive, but now ruinous ancestral 
residence of the House of Este (p. 317), a spacious piazza surrounded 
with arcades; the Porta Vecchia with a clock-tower; the Museo Civico 
in the church of S. Francesco (containing several interesting Roman 
inscriptions); the Museo Euganeo Preistorico (with a valuable collection of 
antiquities) ; the Cathedral, of elliptical plan with a lofty choir (with a 
painting by Tiepolo); and the church of S. Martina, with a leaning tower. 
The Casa Benvenuli (visitors ring) commands a view of the Alps, and in 
clear weather of the Apennines. — From Este to Arqua Petrarca, see p. 315. 

52>/2 M. Monselice, station on the Padua and Bologna line (p. 316). 

The train crosses the Po beyond (32 M.) Borgoforte, the fortifi- 
cations of which were blown up by the Austrians in 1866. — 33^2 M. 
Ponte di Borgoforte. — 34 M. Motteggiana. — 37 M. Suzzara. 

From Sozzara to Parma, 27'/2 M., railway in l l /2-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr., 
3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 50 c). The chief station is (8 M.) Guastalla (Posta), a small 
town near the Po, with 2600 inhab., which in the 16th cent, gave its name 
to a principality of the Gonzagas, Dukes of Mantua, who became extinct 
in 1746. In the market-place is the bronze Statue of Ferdinand I. Gon- 
zaga (d. 1557 at Brussels), by Leone Leoni. Prom Guastalla to Reggio, see 
p. 304. — 27'/ 2 M. Parma, see p. 304. 

From Suzzara£to Ferrara, 51 M., railway in 2V2-3 1 /, hrs. The chief 
station is (30 M.) Sermide. — 5i M. Ferrara, see p. 317. 

42 M. Oonzaga-Reggiolo ; 46i/ 2 M. Rolo-Novi-di-Modena. — 
54 M. Carpi (Leone d' Oro, in the market-place), a town of 6000 
inhab., with an old Palace, which from the 14th cent, was the re- 
sidence of the Pio family. Alberto Pio (1475-1531), a pupil of 
Aldus Manutius and a patron of Ariosto, built the handsome Palace 

''Ograph.AnstaK von 

VIOENZA. 36. Route. 219 

Court (in the chapel frescoes by Bernardino Losco) , and began 
the New Cathedral in the Piazza after plans by Baldassare Peruzzi 
(ca. 1514). In the interior, to the left, a Christ by Begarelli, two 
statues by Prospero Clementi, and a pulpit of the 11th century. 
The Loggia on the other side of the Piazza, the Colonnades, and the 
fortifications also testify to the taste and energy of this prince, -who 
was expelled by Charles V. in 1525. A street leads from the Loggia 
to the Franciscan church of S. Niccolb, founded in 1493. Behind the 
palace is the early-Romanesque Old Cathedral (Chiesa sagra), of 
which the choir and tower alone remain. The ancient portal has 
been inserted in the facade designed by Peruzzi. 

58 M. Soliera; 61 M. Villanova. — 63 M. Modena (p. 311). 

36. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza. 

71'/2 M. Railway in 13/4-4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 15, 9 fr. 20, 5 fr. 90c. ; express 
14 fr. 45, 10 fr. 10 c). Finest views generally to the left. 

Verona (Porta Vescovo) , see p. 201. The line, which runs 
parallel with the Cologna-Veneta steam-tramway (p. 213) as far as 
S. Bonifacio (see below), leaving S. Michele (p. 213) on the left, 
traverses an extremely fertile district, planted with vines, mul- 
berries, and maize, and intersected with irrigation-trenches. — 4M. 
S. Martino, with the handsome Villa Musella, amidst cypresses ; 
5'/ 2 M. Vago-Zevio. 

The mineral springs of (7!/ 2 M.) Caldiero, which attract visitors, 
were known to the Romans. A branch of the tramway mentioned 
above runs hence to Tregnago, whence we may visit the Tredici 
Comuni, once a German 'enclave' on Italian soil on the S. slope of 
the Monti Lessini , between the valley of the Adige and the Val 
d'Astico (p. 223). The chief village is Oiazza. Numerous fossils ; 
a rocky defile (Ponte di Veja) ; basaltic cliffs near Vestena. 

We next pass Soave, once belonging to the Scaligers, on the slope 
to the left, presenting a good picture of a mediaeval fortified town. 

12'/2 M. 8. Bonifacio. On a hill to the N. is Monteforte. Arcole, 
2_M. to the S., was the scene of the battles of 15 -17th Nov., 
, between the Austrians under Alvinczy and the French under 
Bonaparte, Massena, Augereau, and Lannes. — 16 M. Lonlgo ; a 
steam-tramway plies from the station to the village, 4Y2 M. to the 
S.E., at the "W. base of the volcanic and wooded Monti Berici. — 
20 M. Montebello Vicentino. Beautiful view towards the mountains. 
The handsome chateau belongs to Count Arrighi. To the left, on 
the hill, the ruined castle of Montecchio (p. 223); then (25 M.) 
Tavemelle (steam- tramway to Valdagno and to Arzignano, see p. 223). 

30 M. Vicenza. — Hotels. *Roma, Corso Principe Umberto, near the 
Porta Castello, with trattoria and small garden, R. , L. , & A. from 2'/2, omn. »/« fr. 
— The GarofXni, well spoken of; Gran Pakigi, R. & A. Vfc, omn. tfcfe., 
both in the Via delle Due Ruote, a side-street of the Corso ; Cavalletto, 
Piazza delle Biade; Qdattro Pellegrini, Corso Principe Umberto. 


220 Route 36. VICENZA. Duomo 

Cafes. Nazionale, in the Corso; Garibaldi, Piazza de' Signori; Brug- 
ger's Birreria, with garden, Via Piancoli, by the Ponte S. Michele. 

Cab from station to town 75 c; first hr. I1/2, each additional hr. l'^fr. 

The cars hare recently ceased running on the Tkamway lines shown 
on our plan. 

Vicenza, the ancient Vicetia, capital of a province, with 24,300 
inhab., lies at the N. base of the Monti Berici (p. 219), on both 
sides of the Bacchiglione, at its confluence with the Retrone. 
Although closely built, the town possesses many interesting palaces, 
to which, with the picturesque environs, a short visit may pro- 
fitably be devoted. 

Vicenza, like most of the larger towns of N. Italy, boasted in the 15th 
cent, of a School of Painting, which, though it was strongly influenced 
by Mantegna (born here in 1431, but active in Padua and Mantua alone), 
and never produced masters of the highest rank, yielded results of consider- 
able importance. The earliest master of note was Giovanni Speranza, who, 
however, was soon surpassed by Bartolommeo Montagna (1450-1523). The 
gallery and the churches (Cathedral, S. Corona, S. Lorenzo) of Vicenza 
contain works by the latter, and he is represented at Padua and VeroDa 
also. His compositions are strongly realistic, and he shows a predilection 
for muscular figures, and for colouring of a rich brownish tint. His dra- 
pery is ungraceful, but, like that of Diirer, boldly defined. His son, Bene- 
detto Montagna, was unimportant, but his contemporary Giovanni Buoncon- 
siglio (d. 1530) , resembling the Venetians both in conception and colour- 
ing, has produced some pleasing works (e.g. the Pieta in the Museum, 
p. 221, and the Madonna at S. Rocco, p. 222). In the 16th cent. Vicenza 
lost its importance as a school of painting, but attained a high reputation 
in the province of Architecture, having given birth to Andrea Palladia 
(1518-80), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the chief sphere of 
whose operations was his native town. By his study of the antique in Rome 
he was enabled to effect a revival of what may be termed the ancient lan- 
guage of forms, and he made it his endeavour to exhibit in his buildings the 
organic connection between the different members. The chief characteristic 
of his school consists in a studious adherence to impressive simplicity of 
form, and a very sparing indulgence in the lavish enrichments in which 
the early-Renaissance was too apt to revel. His finest churches are at 
Venice, but his most numerous palaces are at Vicenza, to which they 
impart a uniform and handsome appearance. 

We enter the town by theW. gate, Porta del Castello (PI. B, 3), 
near which rises a monument to Garibaldi by Ferrari, erected 
in 1887. On the left is the Palazzo Muzzan; to the right, in the 
S.W. angle of the Piazza Castello, is the Casa del Diavolo (Pal. 
Oiulio - Porto) , a large unfinished palace by Palladio , with two 
stories united by a row of Corinthian columns with a rich cornice. 
"We follow the long Corso Principe Umberto. On the left is the 
new church of S. Filippo Neri(JP\. B, 3), opposite which is the Palazzo 
Loschi, with a Bearing of the Cross described as an early work of 
Giorgione (fee ifaii.'). — The next cross-street on the right leads 
to the Duomo (PI. B, 3), consisting of a broad and low nave with wide 
vaulted arches, side-chapels in place of aisles, a choir much raised 
and covered with a dome, and a crypt below it. To the right in the 
piazza is the Vescovado, or episcopal palace, a handsome Renaissance 
building (1543), the court of which to the right contains an elegant 
little early-Renaissance arcade (1494). The piazza is embellished 
with a, Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., by Benvenuti, erected in 1880. 

Museo Civico. VICENZA. 36. Route. 221 

We may proceed hence direct by the Via Garibaldi, or we may 
continue to follow the Corso (where No. 2140 on the right, Pal. 
Trissino, now Porto, by Scamozzi, 1588, deserves notice), and go 
through the Via del Monte, to the right (opposite which is the Via 
Porti with numerous palaces), to the handsome Piazza db' Signoki, 
with two columns of the Venetian period. Here rises the **Basilica 
Palladiana (PI. C, 2, 3), with its grand colonnades in two stories, 
the lower Doric, the upper Ionic, surrounding the Palazzo della 
Bagione (town-hall), Hn earlier building in the pointed style. These 
colonnades, begun in 1549, are one of Palladio's earliest works. 
On the first floor is a large hall with a finely vaulted wooden roof (not 
always open). The slender red tower is 265 ft. in height. Adjacent 
is the Tribunale. — Opposite the Basilica is the Palazzo Municipio, 
formerly del Capitanio, also by Palladio (1571), adjoining which is 
the Monte di Pieta (1553 and 1620). — By the Basilica rises a 
Statue of Palladio in marble, by Oajassi (1859). 

"We return to the Corso, in which, to the left, is the Pal. Schio, 
Gothic, with Renaissance portal. — On the left, at the E. end of 
the Corso, is the Casa di Palladio, with facade once painted. We 
next reach, on the right, in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, the — 

*Museo Civico (PI. C, 2), established in the Pal. Chiericati, one 
of Palladio's finest edifices, seriously injured in 1848, but restored 
in 1855 (open daily 11-2, free; 9-11 and 2-4, fee y 2 -l &•)• 

Ground Floor : Roman antiquities from an ancient theatre. — The 
Upper Floor contains the -Pinacoteca. Ante -chamber : 1. Tiepolo, Madonna ; 
2. Jac. Bassano, Senators before the Madonna; opposite, no number, Strozzi, 
Christ with Simon the Pharisee. The cabinets contain ancient terracottas 
and bronzes, mediseval coins, etc. — Boom I : (right) 17. Cignaroli, Madonna 
and Child worshipped by saints ; *6. Van Dyck, The four ages. — Room II. 
Entrance-wall, 38. Titian, Resurrection of Christ; opposite, 10. Qirol. 
Mocetto, Madonna; 12. Paolo Veronese, Madonna and two saints (injured). 

— Room III. Entrance-wall, Antonello da Messina, 16. Portrait (copy), 17. 
Ecce Homo; 22. School of Perugino, Marriage of the Virgin; 20. Marco Pal- 
mezzano, Pieta; 18. Cimada Conegliano, Madonna in an arbour, the earliest 
signed work of this master (1489, tempera) ; beside the window, 10. Byzan- 
tine (attributed to St. Luke by an inscription), Madonna and Child; 31. 
Amberger (or Memlingf), Portrait; 3. Memling(1), Crucifixion, with saints 
and monks; opposite the window, 28. Paolo da Venezia, Altar-piece (1333). 

— Room IV. contains the chief works of the Vicenza School. Montagna, 
"2. Madonna and four saints, with predella, 3. Adoration of the Child, 
both early works, in tempera ; 5, 6. Montagna, Madonnas ; 8. Montagna, 
Presentation in the Temple ; 17. Montagna, Madonna between SS. Onuphrius 
and John the Baptist; Buonconsiglio, 21. St. Catharine, "22. Pieta, an 
early work in tempera, very impressive; 23. Speranza, SS. Jerome and 
Thomas worshipping the Virgin; 24. Fogolino, Adoration of the Magi (much 
damaged). — V. Room. Portraits. — The following rooms contain engrav- 
ings; in the last but one, fine glass from Murano; in the last, drawings 
and manuscripts of Palladio. — On the other side of the ante-room are 
rooms with inferior pictures; one of them (usually closed) contains water- 
colours by Tito Perlotto (d. 1858), of Vicenza. — The Natural History 
Collection contains valuable fossils: a fish, a palm, a crocodile, etc., 
most of them found near Vicenza. 

In the vicinity is the *Teatro Olimpico (PI. C, 2 ; custodian to 
the left, behind the theatre, Leva degli Angeli, No. 987 ; fee i/ 8 fr.) 

222 Route 36. VICENZA. Madonna del Monte. 

designed by Palladio , completed in 1584, after Ms death, and 
inaugurated by the performance of the 'CEdipus Tyrannus' of 
Sophocles. Palladio adhered generally to the precepts of Vitruvius 
as to the construction of ancient theatres , but the building is far 
from being a mere imitation. The perspective of the stage is 
curiously deceptive. The orchestra in front of it is 5 ft. below the 
seats of the audience. 

Returning to the Corso , we follow the first cross-street on the 
right to Santa Corona (PI. C, 2), a Gothic church in brick with a 
plain Lombardic facade. 

Entrance-wall : fresco by Speromza, Madonna and donor ; 2nd altar on 
left, Five saints by Bart. Montagna, beside it Angels by Speranza, frescoes; 
3rd altar on left, S. Antonio giving alms, by L. Bassano; 4th altar, Madonna 
of the 14th cent. , with angels by Fogolino (ca. 1530) ; 5th altar, "Baptism 
of Christ by 0. Bellini, in a fine frame, a late work (about 1510). 

A street opposite, a little to the right, leads to Santo Stefano 
(PI. C, 2); in the left transept, *Palma Vecchio, Madonna with 
SS. Lucia and George, an admirable example of his middle period. 

Opposite , at the corner to the left , stands the Pal. Thiene, 
the front designed by Palladio, the back part (Banca Popolare), 
facing the Via Porti, being an early-Renaissance structure. Oppo- 
site to it rises the imposing Palazzo Porto-Bab.barano (PI. C, 2), 
by Palladio (1570), and farther on, to the left, is the Gothic Pal. 
Porto- Colleoni (PI. 0, 2), with a handsome portico. Retracing our 
steps to the Corso, we turn to the right into the Via S. Lorenzo, 
in which stands the Palazzo Valmarano (PI. B, 2), by Palladio. 
At the end of this street is the flue Gothic church of S. Lorenzo 
(PI. B, 2), containing the tomb of Bart. Montagna (p. 220), who 
painted the altar-piece on the 3rd altar to the right: SS. Lorenzo 
and Vincenzo. 

In the W. part of the town is S. Rocco (PI. A, 2), with a high-altar- 
piece by "Buonconsiglio, Madonna enthroned with SS. Sebastian, Bernard, 
Peter, and Paul, prominent by its colouring (1502). 

The route to the pilgrimage-church of Madonna del Monte on 
Monte Berico is either through the Porta S. Giuseppe (before 
passing through which we observe the Ponte S. Michele, PI. C, 3, 
crossing the Retrone, by Palladio); or to the right from the railway- 
station, past Villa Arrigoni (PI. C, 4) and across the railway, to the 
arcade leading to the church. This passage, which rests on 180 
pillars, and is 715 yds. long, was sharply contested in 1848 by 
Italian irregular troops, who had fortified the hill with its villas, 
and the Austrians. At the cross-roads (PL E, 6) a fine *View is 
obtained of the town and the Venetian Alps. The church of Madonna 
del Monte (PI. C, 6), a little farther up, is in the form of a Greek 
cross with a dome. The present left transept was the original church 
(1428) ; over the altar to the right of the high-altar : *Byrt. Montagna, 
Mourning over the body of Christ (1500). The old refectory of the 
monastery (shown by the sacristan) contains the Banquet of Gregory 
the Great by P. Veronese (1572), torn to pieces in 1848, but 

Botonda. VICENZA. 36. Route. 223 

restored with the aid of the copy in the Pinacoteca. Behind the 
church is a monument to those who fell here in 1848 ; to the right 
of it is II Oenio dell' Inmrrezione, a statue dedicated to them by 
the municipio of Vicenza (tolerable tavern). 

From the above-mentioned cross-roads a road leads to the E. 
along the hill (comp. PI. C, D, 5), from which a (2 min.) foot- 
path diverges to the right, passing the Villa Fogazzaro and the Villa 
Valmarana (with frescoes by Tiepolo), to the famous, but now 
dilapidated *Eotonda; or Villa RotondaPalladiana (PI. D, 5), which 
lies 10 min. farther on at the E. base of Monte Berico. It is a 
square building with Ionic colonnades surmounted with pediments. 
In the centre is a circular domed hall. Admission by the door of 

the farm, to the right of the main entrance (knock ; fee y 2 fr.). 

The return may be made by the high-road or (preferably) by the 
same way as the arrival. 

The Cimitero, to the N.E. of the town (viaBorgo Scroffa, PI D 1) 
contains the tomb of Palladio (d. 1580). ' 

Fkom Vicenza to Recoaeo, 27 M. Steam-tramway to Valdagno, 20 M 
in 2hrs. (fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 20 c), starting near the railway- station' 
Principal stations: 5 M. Tavernelle (p. 219); 7 M. MonteccMo Maggiore (Alb 
Rosa d Oro), with 3800 inhah. and the imposing Villa Cordellina (frescoes 
byliepolo ; to the right), commanded by two rained castles :8I.S Vitale 
W ^^ rauch ; lin , e goes t0 A rzignano (HVi M., in iy t hr.). 20 M. Val- 
dagno (870 ft. ; Alb. Alpi), a small town with 2400 inhabitants. — Hilly road 
thence (7 M; carr. in 2y« hrs.) to the chalybeate Baths of Recoaro (Gior- 
getli, Reale SlaMimento, at the springs; Europa, Trettenero, Tre Corone 
?b. ln ^ e V x r " age ?.' vi8ited . annu ally by 7-8000 persons. Beautiful excur- 
l °S£m TfJ^T S6Ct ' 0n »' the Italian A1 P ine C ™ has published 
a Gmda Alpinadi Recoaro' and has established a station for guides here 
f,n m V AII,WA ! ( ?? M -3 ln 1 o hr -5 fares 3fr. 35, 2fr. 40, 1 fr 50 c ) runs 

T,?™i "ST* \~}* N - b T ( 8 - M ° DuevilU and (14 M -) ™«"« CAlb. della 
i^una) with a chateau containing frescoes by P. Veronese, to Schio (665 ft • 
a-oced'Oroj Stella d'Ovo), a town wih 7400 inhab. and extensive wool- 
factories. The largest of these belongs to Sign. A. Rossi, who has fouTded 
a workmen's colony, rebuilt the church of S. Antonio Abate, and erected 
of e th * 8fh° f a t Weave r r &? Monteverde). The cathedral of ' I. Pietrl is 
^UhJ • I t 7 - Th ? cemeter y " wort iy of a visit. Schio is a good 
starhng-point for excursions. - From Schio a steam-tramway runs N. to 
l;3 *,.) /rsiero th » C ^ ief place in the Val d ' Astic » ( r oad from Arsiero 
mWMwlo Pergine and Levico, see p. 18); another to the W. to 
pj,.n l7Si wh / n , ce a g° od road ascends the valley of the Leogra to the 
fcu'odel Pmn delta Fugazza, the boundary between Italy and Tyrol and 
then descends the valley of the leno to Eoverelo (25 M. from Torre p 18) 
From Vicenza to Treviso, see p. 232. ' v ' '' 

Between Vicenza and Padua are (34y 2 M.) Lerino and (40 M.) 
Foiana di Granfion. To the S. the Monti Euganei (p. 315) 

M. r adua, see p. 224. From Padua to Venice via, Fusina, 
see p. 231. 

To the left, as the train proceeds, are seen the distant Tyrolese 
Alps. At (521/2 M.) Ponte diBrenta we cross the Brenta. — 58'/, M. 
Dolo (p. 231). — Near (61 M.) Marano an arm of the Brenta is 

66 M. Mestre (Railway Restaurant), a town with 4500 inhab,, 

224 Route 37. PADUA. History. 

is the junction for the lines via Treviso and Udine to Trieste (R. 40) 
and via Portogruaro to CasaTsa and to Udine (p. 291), and of the 
steam-tramway to (372 M.) Malcontenta (p. 231). — Venice, ris- 
ing from the sea , now comes into view. The train passes Fort 
Malghera on the left, and reaches the Bsidge (222 arches of 30 ft. 
span; length 2Y3 M.), by which the train crosses the Lagune in 
8 minutes. 

71 V2 M. Venice, see p. 234. 

37. Padua. 

Arrival. Padua has two stations: the Principal Station, outside the 
Porta Codalunga (PI. D, 1), and the Stazione S. Sofia (PI. E, 3), for the 
lines to Fusina and Venice (p. 231) and to Piove (p. 231). 

Hotels. "Ceoce d'Obo (PI. b; D, 4), Piazza Cavour, B., L., & A. 27j-3 
omn. 3 /itr.; "Fanti Stella d'Oko (PI. a; D,3), Piazza Garibaldi, R., L., & 
A. 3-4, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 3 /iir.; both with good trattoria. — Also 
several modest inns, some of them without cuisine ('hotel garni', 'locanda') : 
Aquila Neea (PI. c; D, 4), Piazza Cavour; Pabadiso, adjoining the Hotel 
Fanti; Doe Cboci Blanche, beside S. Antonio; Albebgo del Sole d'Obo, 
Via S. Matteo 1150 (PI. C, D, 3); Speeanza, near the station. 

Cafes. "Pedrocchi (PI. C.P; D, 4), opposite the University, an im- 
posing edifice with marble halls and columns ; Posta, opposite Pedrocchi's; 
Vittoria, Piazza Unita d'ltalia. — Restaurants at the hotels (see above); 
Gasparotlo, in the Via S. Canziano, near the Piazza delle Erbe (PI. C, D,4); 
Stati Uniti, Via Maggiore 702. — Wine at Guerranofs, at the corner of the 
Piazza Garibaldi (PI. D, 3). 

Cabs. ' Broughams' with one horse : to or from the station 1 fr., lug- 
gage 40 c, 1 hr. l>/2 fr., each additional hour 1 fr.; drive in the town 
50 c, at night 25 c. more. 

Tramway from the station through the principal streets to S. Croce 
(10 c). — Omnibus from the station to the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 4). 

Bookseller. Libreria alV University, in the University (p. 230). — Post 
Office near the Piazza Cavour (PI. D. 4). 

Sights. Walk from the station (PI. D, 1), which lies 7 min. to the N. of 
the town, straight through the Porta Codalunga (PI. C, 2); then to the left 
past the church of / Carmini (p. 229; "Scuola adjacent) to the Ponte Mo- 
lino and the Strada Maggiore ; through the latter to the Piazza dell' 
Unita d'ltalia (p. 230), and to the left to the Piazza dei Frutti; through 
the Sala delta Ragione (p. 230) to the Piazza delle Erbe (p. 230), with the 
Cafi Pedrocchi on the left; turn to the right to the Strada di S. Lorenzo, 
and (where there is a direction 'a! Santo') again to the right into the 
Selciato di S. Antonio (PI. D, 4, 5) leading to the "Santo (p. 226; Scuola, 
S. Giorgio, Museo Civico) and to S. Giustina; then back to the Caf£ Pe- 
drocchi, pass it, and cross the Piazza Cavour and Piazza Garibaldi to the 
right to the "Eremitani (p. 228) and the "Madonna delPArena (p. 228). 

Padua, Ital. Padova, Lat. Patavium, the capital of a province, 
with 47,300 inhab., lies on the Bacehiglione, which flows through it 
in several branches. Its tortuous streets are generally flanked with 
low and narrow l Portici' or arcades, but the chief thoroughfares 
have recently been widened by the removal of the portici on one 
side. Some of the numerous bridges over the different arms of the 
river date from the Roman period. 

Padua traces its origin to Antenor, the mythical King of Troy, brother 
of Priam, and under Augustus was the wealthiest town in Upper Italy. 
All the ancient monuments were afterwards destroyed during the immi- 
gration of the barbarian hordes. In the middle ages the town sided with 

S. Antonio. PADUA. 37. Route. Tib 

the Guelphs, and in 1318 appointed Jacopo da Carrara to the Signoria. 
The princes of this family were much harrassed by the Scalas of Verona 
and the republic of Venice, and at length succumbed in 1405, when Padua 
was annexed to Venetia. The University, founded by Bishop Giordano in 
1222, and extended by Emp. Frederick II. in 1238, rendered Padua a very 
famous seat of learning throughout the middle ages. 

In the History of Art Padua is also an important place, its reputa- 
tion as the chief seat of Italian learning having attracted many artists. 
The Florentine masters Giotto, Donatello, F. Lippi, and Uccello found abun- 
dant occupation here. The native artists were introduced to the antique 
by the classical scholars ; and the school of art founded here by Squarcione 
in the first half of the loth cent, exhibits a peculiar doctrinaire character. 
Squarcione, though not a professional artist, made a valuable collection of 
works of art during his travels, and employed young artists to make draw- 
ings from these models. The greatest Paduan master was Andrea Man- 
tegna (p. 214), and the school materially influenced that of Venice. The 
austere style peculiar to the Paduan pictures is perhaps due to the doc- 
trinaire training of the artists and to the severe, Albrecht-Durer-like char- 
acter of Mantegna. A distinguishing characteristic of the school is its 
predilection for richness of decoration, for which Squarcione's collection 
doubtless supplied abundant models. 

*S. Antonio (PI. D, E, 5), the sepulchral church of St. Anthony 
of Padua (d. 1231 ; an associate of St. Francis of Assisi) , com- 
monly called l Il Santo', was begun in 1231 ; the principal part was 
completed in 1307, and the remainder in 1475 (when the domes 
were raised). The church was restored in 1749 after a fire. This 
huge structure with its six domes is 126 yds. long, 60 yds. across 
the transepts, 336 yds. in circumference, and 123 ft. high in the 
centre. The combination of the elaborate Byzantine dome (after the 
style of St. Mark's at Venice) with the Gothic basilica produces an 
effect that can hardly be styled happy. 

In the lunette over the Portal: SS. Bernardino and Antonio holding 
the monogram of Christ, a fresco by Mantegna (1452). 

The Interior has been whitewashed. The nave and aisles are borne 
by twelve pillars; the semicircular choir has eight clustered columns, an 
ambulatory, and a series of eight chapels. — On the entrance-wall, to the 
right, is the tomb of Ant. Trombetta, with a bronze bust of the deceased 
by Riccio (1522). On the right and left near the beginning of the nave 
are two benitiers , with statuettes of John the Baptist and Christ, by Tin. 
Aspelti (16th cent.). 

Eight Aisle. By the 1st pillar a *Madonna enthroned with SS. Peter, 
Paul, Bernard, and Anthony, an altar-piece by Antonio Boselli of Bergamo. 
— 1st Chapel : Altar with bronze reliefs below by Donatello, representing 
the miracles of St. Anthony; on the left the sarcophagus of General Gatta- 
melata (p. 227), and on the right, that of his son. 

Right Transept. Cappella S. Felice, formerly S. Jacopo, erected in 
13T2, restored in 1773, with a fine altar of 1503, and 'Frescoes by Altichieri 
and Jac. Avanzi (1376), chief representatives of the earlier Verona School. 
Behind the altar a Crucifixion, in three parts. In the lunettes above and 
on the side-walls, scenes from the legend of St. James. 

Left Transept. 'Cappella del Santo, a florid Eenaissanc edifice be- 
gun by Giov. Minello after Riccio's design (1500) and continued by Jac. 
Sansovino and Falconetto, with four columns in front, and two elegant, 
corner-pillars with reliefs by Matteo and Tommaso Gauro; between the 
arches are the Evangelists. Walls embellished with nine reliefs of the 
16th cent., Scenes from the life of St. Anthony: (beginning to the left of 
the altar) 1. Ordination of St. Anthony, by Antonio Minello (1512); 2. 
Murder of a woman, afterwards resuscitated by the saint, by Giovanni 
Dentone; 3. Resuscitation of a youth, by Girolamo Campagna; 4. Kesusci- 

Baedeker. Italy I. 10th Edit. 15 

226 Route 37. 1'ADUA. Scuola del Santo. 

tation of a suicide surrounded by women, by Jac. Sansovino; 5. Resus- 
citation of a child, begun by Minello, completed by Sansovino (1528); 6, 
7. Tullio Lombardo (1525), Discovery of a stone in the corpse of a miser 
instead of a heart, and Cure of a broken leg; 8. Miracle with a glass, 
begun by Gian Maria da Padova, finished by Paolo Stella (1529); "9. St. An- 
thony causes a child to bear witness in favour of its mother, by Antonio 
Lombardo (1505; beautiful, but somewhat cold, and inspired by a study of 
Greek sculpture). The bones of the saint repose beneath the altar, which 
is adorned with many votive tablets. Two magnificent silver candelabra, 
borne by angels in marble. Beautiful white and golden "Ornamentation on 
the vaulting. To the right, in the ambulatory, is the early-Renaissance tomb 
of the jurist Raffaelo Fulgoso (d. 1427). Behind is the Cappella del B. Luca 
Belludi, with frescoes by Oiusto Padovano (1382; retouched). 

Left Aisle. Adjoining the Cap. del Santo is the monument of the Ve- 
netian Admiral Caterino Cornaro (d. 1674), with two figures as s